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Motivating and Rewarding Employees

VIEWS: 5,065 PAGES: 31

									Motivating and Rewarding Employees

Fundamentals of Management: 10-1

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Where We Are
Part 1 Introduction Part 2 Planning
Part 3 Organizing Part 4 Leading Part 5 Controlling
Chapter 8 Foundations of Individual and Group Behavior Chapter 9 Chapter 9 Understanding Team work Understanding Team work Chapter 10 Motivating and rewarding Employees Chapter 11 Leadership and Trust Chapter 12 Communication and Interpersonal Skills

Fundamentals of Management: 10-2

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Chapter Guide
• Motivation overview • Theories of motivation
– Early theories : Maslow’s; McGregor’s; Hertzberg’s – Contemporary theories: McClelland’s; Adam’s; Job Characteristics Model; Vroom’s

• Attitude and work performance • Further Discussion Issues
Diverse workforce; Pay for performance or pay for time; Minimum-wage workers; Professional employees; Technical workers; Flexible work options
Fundamentals of Management: 10-3 Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Overview

Motivation and Need
Motivation is the willingness to exert a persistent and high level of effort toward organizational goals. Need is some internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive.
Fundamentals of Management: 10-4 Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Overview

The Motivation Process
Unsatisfied Unsatisfied Need Need
Search Behavior

Tension

Reduction of Tension
Satisfied Need

Drives

Fundamentals of Management: 10-5

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Motivation theory: Abraham Maslow

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Self Esteem Social Safety Physiological

Fundamentals of Management: 10-6

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Motivation theory: Douglas McGregor

Little Ambition

Theory X Workers

Dislike Work Avoid Responsibility

Self-Directed

Theory Y Workers

Enjoy Work Accept Responsibility

Fundamentals of Management: 10-7

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Motivation theory: Frederick Herzberg

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Hygiene Factors
• Quality of supervision • Salary and benefits • Company policies • Working conditions • Relations with others • Security and status
High Job Dissatisfaction

Motivators
• Career advancement • Recognition • Work itself • Responsibility • Advancement •Growth 0
Job Satisfaction High

Fundamentals of Management: 10-8

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Motivation theory: Frederick Herzberg

Contrasting Views of Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction
Traditional View

Satisfaction

Dissatisfaction

Herzberg‘s View
Motivators
Satisfaction No Satisfaction

Hygiene Factors
No Dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction

Fundamentals of Management: 10-9

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Motivation theory: David McClelland

Need for Achievement
(nAch)

The Theory of Needs

Need for Power
(nPow)

Need for Affiliation
(nAff)
Fundamentals of Management: 10-10

David McClelland
Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Motivation theory: J Stacey Adams

Equity Theory
Ratio Comparison*
Outcomes A
Inputs A Outcomes A = <

Employee’s Perception
Inequity (Under-Rewarded)

Outcomes B
Inputs B Outcomes B

Equity

Inputs A
Outcomes A Inputs A
*Where

Inputs B
> Outcomes B Inputs B Inequity (Over-Rewarded)

A is the employee, and B is a relevant other or referent.

Fundamentals of Management: 10-11

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Motivation theory: J Stacey Adams

Equity Theory Propositions
• Given payment by time, over-rewarded employees will produce more than equitably paid employees. • Given payment by quantity of production, over-rewarded employees will produce fewer but higher-quality units than equitably paid employees. • Given payment by time, under-rewarded employees will produce less or poorer-quality output. • Given payment by quantity of production, under-rewarded employees will produce a large number of low-quality units in comparison with equitably paid employees.

Fundamentals of Management: 10-12

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Motivation theory: J Richard Hackman

Skill Variety Task Identity

The Job Characteristics Model

Task Significance

Autonomy
Feedback
Fundamentals of Management: 10-13 Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Motivation theory: Job Characteristic Model

Examples of High and Low Job Characteristics
Characteristics
• High variety

Examples
Skill Variety The owner-operator of a garage who does electrical repair, rebuilds engines, does body work, and interacts with customers A bodyshop worker who sprays paint eight hours a day

• Low variety

Task Identity • High identity A cabinetmaker who designs a piece of furniture, selects the wood, builds the object, and finishes it to perfection • Low identity A worker in a furniture factory who operates a lathe to make table legs Task Significance • High significance Nursing the sick in a hospital intensive-care unit • Low significance Sweeping hospital floors Autonomy • High autonomy A telephone installer who schedules his or her own work for the day, and decides on the best techniques for a particular installation • Low autonomy A telephone operator who must handle calls as they come according to a routine, highly specified procedure Feedback • High feedback An electronics factory worker who assembles a radio and then tests it to determine if it operates properly • Low feedback An electronics factory worker who assembles a radio and then routes it to a quality control inspector who tests and adjusts it Fundamentals of Management: 10-14 Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Motivation theory: Job Characteristic Model

The Job Characteristics Model
Core Job Dimensions
Skill variety

Critical Psychological States
  Experienced meaningfulness   of the work   Experienced   responsibility  for outcomes  of the work  Knowledge of the   actual results of   the work activities
Employee Growth Need Strength

Personal and Work Outcomes
High internal work motivation High-quality work performance High satisfaction with the work Low absenteeism and turnover

Task identify
Task significance Autonomy

Feedback

Fundamentals of Management: 10-15

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Motivation theory: Job Characteristic Model

The Motivating Potential Score
Motivating = Potential Score (MPS) Skill + Task + Task X Autonomy X Feedback Variety Identity Significance 3

High MPS Increases

Motivation Performance Satisfaction

and Decreases

Absence Turnover

Fundamentals of Management: 10-16

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Motivation theory: Victor Vroom

Expectancy Theory
Individual Effort 1 Individual Performance 2 Organizational Rewards

3
1. Effort-performance relationship 2. Performance-rewards relationship 3. Rewards-personal goals relationship Individual Goals

Fundamentals of Management: 10-17

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Motivation theory: An integration

An Integrative Model of Motivation
High nAch Ability Opportunity Performance Appraisal Criteria Equity Comparison O O IA IB

Individual Effort

Individual Performance

Organization Rewards

Personal Goals

Performance Appraisal System

Reinforcement Goals Direct Behavior

Dominant Needs

Fundamentals of Management: 10-18

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Other issues: Attitude and work (see Chap 8 p257)

Three Components of an Attitude

Cognitive Behavioral

Affective

Fundamentals of Management: 10-19

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Other issues: Attitude and work (see Chap 8 p258)

Job-Related Attitudes

Job Satisfaction

Job Involvement

Organizational Commitment
Fundamentals of Management: 10-20 Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Other issues: Attitude and work (see Chap 8 p259)

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Dissonance Elements

Degree of Influence

Rewards Involved

Fundamentals of Management: 10-21

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Other issues: Attitude and work (see Chap 8 p261)

Managing Attitudes on the Job
Dissonance
Low

Employees
More Satisfied

Productivity
High

High

Less Satisfied

Low
Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Fundamentals of Management: 10-22

Other issues

Contemporary Motivation Issues
• How to motivate a diverse workforce • How to Pay -- for performance or time • How to motivate minimum-wage workers • How to motivate professional employees • How to motivate technical workers

• How to use flexible work options
Fundamentals of Management: 10-23 Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Other issues: Diversity of workforce

Motivate Diverse Workforce

Recognize people have different needs

Be aware of cultural differences
Fundamentals of Management: 10-24 Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Other issues: payment

Use Pay to Motivate

Pay for Performance

Pay for Time

Pay for Competency

Fundamentals of Management: 10-25

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Other issues: Minimum wage workers

Motivate Minimum-wage Workers
• Money is important, but not the only reward that people seek • Other rewards can help motivating
– Recognition program – Praise – Empowering

Fundamentals of Management: 10-26

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Other issues: Professional and technical

Strong and long-term commitment to their field

Loyal to their profession rather than their employers

Professional and Technical Employees
May not be interested in becoming managers
Fundamentals of Management: 10-27

Tend to like Challenges from jobs
Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Other issues: Flexibility

Flexible Work Options
Compressed Workweek Job Sharing

Flextime

Telecommuting

Fundamentals of Management: 10-28

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Management skills: Maximizing employee effort

Maximizing Employee Effort
• • • •
• • • •

Recognize individual differences Match people to jobs Use goals Ensure that goals are perceived as attainable Individualize rewards Link rewards to performance Check the system for equity Don‘t ignore money

Fundamentals of Management: 10-29

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Chapter Summary
• Motivation process • Meaning of needs • Hierarchy of needs theory • Theory X vs. Theory Y • Motivation-hygiene theory
Fundamentals of Management: 10-30 Gao Junshan, UST Beijing

Chapter Summary
• Equity theory • Expectancy theory • Jobs designs to maximize performance • Workforce diversity and motivation

Fundamentals of Management: 10-31

Gao Junshan, UST Beijing


								
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