How do I get My Gas from the Pipeline by fxs21421

VIEWS: 30 PAGES: 53

									How do I get My Gas from the
Pipeline to My Analyzer???

                     Presented By
                    Josh H. Welker
The “cash register” for a natural gas
transaction is equally the meter and the
analyzer!

     Meter and analyzer
     are accurate,
     but…
Why do we care about this topic?



            Pipeline to Analyzer
Things to Know

 What a representative sample is

 The equipment required to get a
 representative sample to your analyzer

 Proper set up of the equipment used in a
 sampling application
What is a Representative Gas Sample?
 In ASTM D5287-08
    A representative sample is a volume of gas that has been obtained
    in such a way that the composition of this volume is the same as the
    total composition of the gas stream from which it was taken.
 In API 14.1 Sixth Edition, 2006
    A representative gas sample is a compositionally identical, or as
    near to identical, as possible to the sample source stream.
 In GPA 2166-05
    A representative gas sample is a gas sample that is compositionally
    identical, or a near to identical, as possible to the sample source
    stream.
 In ISO 10715, 1997
    A representative sample is a sample having the same
    composition as the natural gas sampled when the latter is
    considered as a homogeneous whole.
Get the Most from Your Analyzer

 The result from an analyzer can only be as
 accurate as the product stream supplied to it

 Designing an application appropriate sample
 system is essential in avoiding erroneous
 results
Objectives

 Extract a representative sample from the
 pipeline for your analyzer

 Safeguard your analyzer from damage

 Improve sample system design
         Potential LOST revenue per year due to inaccurate quality
                            determinations!

Inputs                                                                    Calculated values

Base Btu value                             1000   Btu                     Daily gas value for base case           $58,995
Btu variation                                10   Btu                     Daily gas value for adjusted case       $59,585
Current price of natural gas              $3.93   MMBtu                   Daily loss or gain                         $590
Daily gas flow rate                          15   MMscfd                  Yearly loss or gain                    $215,332




                                                                Data Table
 Btu Variation                                                         Daily Gas Flow Rate (MMscfd)
                 $215,332     1          2            3          4            5            15         25           30           40           50
      1                       $1,436     $2,871       $4,307     $5,742       $7,178      $21,533    $35,889      $43,066      $57,422      $71,777
      2                       $2,871     $5,742       $8,613    $11,484      $14,355      $43,066    $71,777      $86,133     $114,844     $143,554
      3                       $4,307     $8,613      $12,920    $17,227      $21,533      $64,600   $107,666     $129,199     $172,265     $215,332
      4                       $5,742    $11,484      $17,227    $22,969      $28,711      $86,133   $143,555     $172,265     $229,687     $287,109
      5                       $7,178    $14,355      $21,533    $28,711      $35,889    $107,666    $179,443     $215,332     $287,109     $358,886
     10                      $14,355    $28,711      $43,066    $57,422      $71,777    $215,332    $358,886     $430,663     $574,218     $717,773
     15                      $21,533    $43,066      $64,600    $86,133     $107,666    $322,998    $538,329     $645,995     $861,327   $1,076,659
     20                      $28,711    $57,422      $86,133   $114,844     $143,555    $430,663    $717,773     $861,327   $1,148,436   $1,435,545
     25                      $35,889    $71,777     $107,666   $143,555     $179,443    $538,329    $897,216   $1,076,659   $1,435,545   $1,794,431
     50                      $71,777   $143,555     $215,332   $287,109     $358,886 $1,076,659 $1,794,431     $2,153,318   $2,871,090   $3,588,863
     75                     $107,666   $215,332     $322,998   $430,663     $538,329 $1,614,988 $2,691,647     $3,229,976   $4,306,635   $5,383,294
     100                    $143,555   $287,109     $430,664   $574,218     $717,773 $2,153,318 $3,588,863     $4,306,635   $5,742,180   $7,177,725
What do these Numbers Represent?

 YOUR Company’s
 PROFIT!!!
Equipment
Sample System Equipment

 Essential         Optional or As Needed
   Probes            Filters
   Regulators        Heating apparatuses
   Relief valves     Protection
   Tubing
   Valves
Probes

Sample probes are
  needed to divert a
  portion of the
  HOMOGENEOUS
  flowing stream to the
  analyzer
Regulation

                  Analyzers have not
                  been designed to
                  withstand high pipeline
                  pressures

                  Regulators do the trick!


      Regulator
 Filters




  Filters protect your analyzer from damage that
can be caused by liquids and other contaminants.
Sample Conditioners

 The pipeline fluid should not be filtered prior
 to the analyzer because the filter could
 change the composition of the fluid

 Exercise caution when choosing filters
Liquid “Conditioner”
                                        TO ANALYZER




 For longer element life, a
 liquid conditioner should be
 mounted such that any
 accumulated liquids do not
 rest on the filter element
 prior to draining



              FROM PIPELINE




                                DRAIN
Disclaimer

All components of a sampling system must be
  manufactured with materials of construction
  that are compatible with the fluid flowing in
  the pipeline and properly cleaned prior
  to their first use!
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

 Cannot determine all of    Chembar Coating
 the H2S using raw
 stainless steel            Sulfinert Coating


 Special coatings can
 minimize or even prevent
 corrosion
Be prepared for the UNKNOWN!
                                   TO ANALYZER


Liquid Shutoff Device

 A liquid shutoff device
 should stop flow to an
 analyzer when even the
 slightest amount of
 liquid enters it
 Some devices are
 offered with a sight
 window for instant
 visual confirmation of
 flow status       FROM PIPELINE
Why Protect?

 A fraction of the total system cost
 An investment that will give you a peace of mind
 An investment that will save you time in the future
 An investment that will save you money in the future




                                     Mr. Thought
                                      Process
Bottom Line: It pays to protect!



                        I don’t have time to
                           mess with this
                            breakdown!
Integration
Less Leak Points

                            LIQUID SHUTOFF




                               LIQUID CONDITIONER




    FROM PIPELINE




                    DRAIN
Probe Regulators

 Two pieces of equipment in one

 Lessen the likelihood of condensation of free liquids into the sample
 stream by countering the Joule-Thomson Effect

 Point of regulation should occur near the inlet (tip) of the probe
Fixed Style
Automatic Insertion Style
Probe Regulator Inlet Options




                                        Sintered Filter




                       Severe Service

  Liquid Conditioner
Liquid Conditioner “on a stick”




                        Shutoff Valves
Knock Out
Product Integration varies by Application
                         With Regulator




 With insulated jacket
    and heat trace


                                          Automatic Insertion
Prior to Sample System Set Up
Probes

 Frequency and bending
 calculations for probes
Tubing

 Properly clean tubing prior to using it in a
 sample system
 The tubing should be a short as possible
 when connecting components of a system
 The tubing should be free of any sags or low
 spots which could accumulate liquids
Valves

 Large ported valves
   Full opening ball valves
   Large port needle valves
Setting Up The Sample System
Traditional Sample System
Probe Placement
 The MOST important aspect of getting an accurate and
 representative sample from a pipeline is proper sample probe
 placement

 Insert from the top of a horizontal pipeline

 In an area of positive fluid flow with minimum turbulence

 Away from obstructions that might cause aerosols to be formed

 As much straight upstream piping as possible
Meter Run




            (AGA 3-1985 ED)
(Welker Engineering Company)
(Welker Engineering Company)
(Welker Engineering Company)
(Welker Engineering Company)
Setup cont.

  A properly designed sample conditioning
  system must be installed and placed in
  service so as not to be negatively affected
  by ambient conditions

  If applicable, set up the proper heating
  apparatus for the sampling system (API
  14.1)
Heating Apparatuses

 It is important to heat
 the sampling system
 when it is at or near the
 hydrocarbon dew point
 of the fluid flowing in
 the pipeline
Heated Regulator




 Heated regulators assist in keeping the sample
 in the gaseous phase
Heated Packages

                  Insulated enclosure

                  Heated regulator

                  Thermostatically controlled
                  heater

                  Calibration gas inlet port

                  Heat traced tubing

                  Insulated or heated probe
All in One Simple Package
Pressure it up!

 The complete system should be purged and
 pressured up

 CHECK FOR LEAKS!!!!!
   Every leak needs to be eliminated
   Almost any leak in the system will cause the
   sample to be unrepresentative
Extra Notes

 Gas streams above 1025 BTU should be sampled
 very carefully to ensure that a representative
 sample is collected

 The Joule–Thomson effect will alter the
 composition of a sample if it is not taken properly

 Eliminate leaks!!!
Recommendations

 Use the sampling techniques described in
 your company’s standard operating
 procedures

 Begin company-wide sampling techniques
Conclusion

There are many different sampling systems
  available. The user should look at the
  equipment they require and how the system
  is to be set up. However, no matter what the
  user is sampling for, they need to find a
  system that will give them the most accurate
  and representative result possible.
Industry Standards

 For additional
 information refer to
 these industry
 recommendations or
 the manufacturer


                         GPA-2166
                          API-14.1
                         ISO-10715
                        ASTM-D-5287

								
To top