How to Make Crystals for Christmas

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How to Make Crystals for Christmas Powered By Docstoc
					  How to Make
Crystal Ornaments


    By: Merishel
    Collins
Target Audience

 Teachers of students in a middle school
  science classroom
 Parents interested in unique family
  activities for home
Grading Rubric                                       
                                                     
                                                         13-15 pts.
                                                         10-12 pts.
                                                                      A
                                                                      B
Place a check in each category for the point
amount the learner should receive. 5 is the             7 - 9 pts.   C
best effort possible and 0 is the least effort
possible. The grading scale and rubric should           4 - 6 pts.   D
be shared with the learners before they begin.          0 - 3 pts.   F
      Topics                5        4           3       2       1        0
Followed
Directions
Creativity
Demonstrated
Proper Safety
Total
                              Click here to view
Crystals                      samples of crystals



Crystals are special rocks with different shapes and designs.
Certain types of crystals, like Amethyst, are not only beautiful but are
believed by some to have healing powers.
There are hundreds of types of crystals in the world and all have a
radiant beauty specific to the type.
The information button in the upper right hand corner of this slide will
lead you to a web page with some examples of crystals.
          Supplies Needed
 Pipe  Cleaners of various colors.
 Borax Laundry Additive
 Heating element or stove
 Large coffee cans or pots to boil water
 Small can or beaker to suspend ornaments in
 Straws or pencils to suspend the ornaments
 Water
 Stirring rods
 String to tie the ornaments to the straws
SAFETY FIRST ALWAYS!
   Do not allow children to handle the boiling water.
   Do not allow children to accidentally consume
    the detergent additive.
   The adult or facilitator should handle the transfer
    of the boiling water and oversee the use of the
    Borax.
   If small children are involved the adult should
    handle all of the above.
Step One: Twist one to three pipe
cleaners into a shape to make your
ornament.
    Many shapes can be made. A popular one is to take a
     red and a white pipe cleaner and twist them into a candy
     cane. ( This is usually a good one to start with.)
    However, any shape can be made as long as it will fit into
     the small can you are using without touching the sides or
     the bottom. This will be explained in more detail in a later
     step.
Step 2: Take a piece of string and
attach it to the ornament at the top
and to the straw or pencil in the
middle.
   A small 8oz. can with the
    top only cut off or a
    beaker is what the
    ornament will be
    suspended in.
   After testing to see if the
    ornament will hang in the
    can or beaker without
    touching the bottom or
    the sides we can boil our
    water and add our Borax.
Step 3: Boil water in a pot or large
coffee can on a stove or a portable
heating element. This will depend
on your surroundings.


                        Borax
Step 4: After the water is ready
carefully fill the can with boiling
water leaving about ½ inch
remaining at the top.
Add Borax by using a spoonful at a time and stir until the Borax just begins to
settle on the bottom without dissolving and the water is cloudy. This is when
there is enough Borax in the can to form crystals.




                                               Borax
Step 5: Now, hang your ornament
in the beaker or can and let it settle
so that it is not touching the bottom
or the sides of the container. Make
sure the top of the ornament is
under the water/Borax solution.
  The finished Product
Allow your ornament to cool. As it cools the extra detergent additive will cling
to the pipe cleaner forming beautiful crystals. Depending upon how fast it cools
will determine what size crystals. You see if you can figure out how to make
them smaller or larger. Try not to move the crystal ornament until it is cool.
Usually a few hours or if you want to be sure just let it cool overnight.
This activity can be done at home as a family when decorating the Christmas tree
and a bunch of ornaments can be made. Color coordinating them can be fun for
parents and kids.
This activity fits in with chemical bonding in basic chemistry and teaches safety
in science experiments as well as allowing families to do something fun and
creative together.
Using a microscope to look at the structure of the crystals and comparing the
different ones formed in the group is a great idea. All of them will be unique yet in
some ways similar.
Suggestions
   Don’t use too much Borax. It will just form a solid mass at
    the bottom of the container.
   Add food coloring if you want a different look. Blue is nice
    for snowflakes.
   Try one first to get the idea before doing a group of
    ornaments or expecting a class of students to have no
    problems with it.
   Don’t use Borax detergent it must be the additive and can
    be found at most local grocery stores.
   Make sure it does not touch the sides or bottom. If it does
    you will have a very hard time getting the ornament out of
    the container. Even if you get it out, you will probably ruin
    the ornament.