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					           Leading Change – The Toolkit

                              Neville Browne

             (Manager, Organisational Development)
                         Version 2 January 30th 2007

This detailed implementation toolkit includes all the major elements necessary to
achieve effective change.

The toolkit is the practical complement to “RGU Leading Change – Guidelines for
Managers”, which is a more general overview of the topic. Both the guide and
this toolkit can be found on the RGU staff development website under “Leadership
at RGU”.

The toolkit is designed to be used in a wide variety of change situations –
everything from facilitating a team event to major corporate re-alignment. The
reason the toolkit works so well over such a wide spectrum is that such a large
part of “change” is actually about people, behaviours, culture and, above all,
positive leadership.

Appendix A shows a roadmap that outlines the main elements and stages. This
can prove useful to gain overview of the process and a reminder of the main
                                            Page number

A)   Starting out - framing the challenge           3

B)   Assessing complexity and resource need         4

C)   The 5 stages of successful implementation      5

D)   Stage 1                                        5

E)   Stage 2                                        6

F)   Stage 3                                        7

G)   Stage 4                                        8

H)   Stage 5                                        8

I)   Stage 6                                        9

J)   The Leaders Toolkit                            9

K)   The facilitation toolkit                      10

Appendix A – A change management roadmap

A) Starting out – framing the challenge

The starting point for all change projects, no matter how big, is to “frame the
challenge” – in effect to decide on scope, scale and success criteria.

Many change projects (even simple team development programmes) can “fall at
the first hurdle” by failing to identify the full scope. It is all too easy to establish a
need and then start implementation without really considering the full scope and
impact. There are good reasons for this – it is often uncomfortable to open up the
challenging areas for discussion. However a bigger issue emerges where leaders
are not aware of the challenges and hence do not set out to assess the situation
fully enough. The tools outlined below should help this process.

Establishing the “organisational capability” that any organisation needs to be
effective is a multi-faceted and multi-owned process, based on:

          A clear and understood organisational vision

          Recognition and agreement of organisational imperatives that
           underpin the vision

          An organisational structure fully aligned to the organisational

          Clarity of roles and responsibilities of key people in the
           organisational structure

          Leadership behaviours that shape the organisational culture
           consistent with vision, values and business / service imperatives

          Effective management that takes responsibility for the performance
           and development of teams and individuals

          Development of key skills in a professional and suitably prioritised

The first stage of this process is the framing process; in effect working out what
the change process is all about, and just as importantly what it is not:

   1) Setting the scene – the background to the challenge. This takes the form
      of a list of the main factors influencing the need to change. This might
      seem like a relatively simple thing to do, but to do it properly requires
      many discussions with a wide variety of stakeholders to establish the full
      (and consistent) picture.

   2) Opportunity statement – a brief outline of what the opportunity is and why
      action is needed. This element includes assessment of and answers to the
      key questions:

           a. Where are we now? What is the current state?
           b. Where do we want to be? Why?
           c. How do we get there?

   Establishing where you want to be can be a long process; this is not
   something that can be done in a few minutes. It requires awareness of

   existing longer-term plans, their impact and likely improvement needs (both
   operational and cultural). This process can last weeks to do it properly.

   3) Boundary conditions – establish what the limits of the project are; what is
      in scope and what is not. This is critical – “project creep” will inevitably set
      in and affect timing, cost and impact on people if a fully agreed project
      scope is not outlined early enough. For a simple team development
      programme, this might be a list of the “must have” outcomes.

   4) The success case – what does success look like? What must be achieved to
      be successful?

   5) Measurement – how will success be measured? How will we know if we are
      meeting the objectives of the project? This may seem like an easy
      question, but setting realistic longer-term measures of success that
      encompass both the short-term objectives and the longer-term issues
      (maybe when key people have moved on or forgotten about evaluation of
      success) is critical.

   6) Stakeholder Assessment – who are the stakeholders (all those likely to be
      affected) and what is their position with regard to the proposed change?
      How much influence do they have? (For stakeholders who are unlikely to
      support the change, develop mitigation plans).

   7) A simple SWOT analysis to consolidate the change requirement. This can
      often be used as a validation check that the change under discussion is
      fully defined and realistic.

   8) Risk – an assessment of the main risks, level of impact and mitigation
      plans. This is a key step in starting to identify and think about those things
      that can drive the change project off-course – and how to stop that
      happening. Failing to have adequate mitigation plans for when things do
      not go as well as planned is one of the biggest causes of overspend and
      overrun for both conventional projects and change projects.

   9) The proposed project organisation (if necessary) including sponsor /
      decision executive, project manager, core team members, additional
      resources and steering team / project board. No change project of any
      significance should be run without a robust enough management and
      governance process.

This then forms the basis for change. The frame must contain enough context
and overview to be a robust reference point for all future communications, project
plans, etc.

This stage should not be rushed, and recycling to establish agreement,
particularly for those tasked with leading the implementation, is critical.

B) Assessing complexity and resource need

One of the key issues in any change process, but nearly always missed, is an
assessment as to how well-placed the organisation is to manage the change
process. This will dictate what level of support, either internal or external, is
needed for successful change planning and implementation.

The following questionnaire will help to establish the degree of confidence that
the resources exist internally to manage the change:

   1) The leader or leaders in the organisation in question demonstrate the
      leadership behaviours necessary for successful change – YES/ NO
   2) The leader or leaders involved have the capability and credibility to instil
      the necessary sense of urgency and commitment amongst employees –
      YES / NO
   3) We have a history of effective “chartering” of project teams – i.e. clear
      objectives, clear results, meeting deadlines, etc – YES / NO
   4) We have a history of effective communication – YES / NO
   5) We inform people affected by change in a timely manner – YES / NO
   6) We are able to involve people affected by change, by getting feedback,
      involvement in focus groups, etc – YES / NO
   7) We recognise that behaviour change takes time, and set realistic
      implementation objectives and timescales – YES / NO
   8) We have a history of defining effective success criteria for change – YES /
   9) We have a history of effective change implementation, including effective
      measurement of success – YES / NO

   The more “yes” answers, the better – fewer “yes” answers demonstrates an
   increasing need for consultancy help – internal or external – or help to
   manage the change project.

  It is also important to assess the level of complexity of the change project. The
following questionnaire will assess this:

   1) The change process will require significant adjustment to the way
      employees do their work – YES / NO
   2) The change process is to a large degree dependent upon behaviour change
      at employee level – YES / NO
   3) The project impacts people from several teams across RGU – YES / NO
   4) Stakeholders views vary significantly regarding buy-in – YES / NO
   5) The organisation has overly entrenched processes that have been that way
      for several years – YES / NO
   6) There is recent history of attempting change unsuccessfully – YES / NO
   7) In this change process, failing to implement fully has very large downside
      impact – YES / NO
   8) We need to move quickly and stick to the timeline – YES / NO
   9) We need to develop a comprehensive and systematic implementation plan
      that will be followed for at least 6 months – YES / NO

The more complexity, particularly regarding people factors and behaviours, then
the more comprehensive the project change plan needs to be. The history of
success with complex change projects is not good - even today, a majority fail to
meet enough of their main objectives to be declared successful. So there is no
substitute for comprehensive change project planning, particularly where the
project is complex.

Ultimately the more complexity to the change, the more robust the change plan
will need to be. Never underestimate the complexity – most people do, and regret
it later.

C) The 6 stages for successful implementation

This toolkit is based around a 6 stage process of implementation. The 6 stages
are in general common to most leading edge thinking regarding change;
modifications have been made to both try to improve the process and make it
more operationally meaningful. Each stage is laid out in detail below, including
any additional tool and techniques that might help implementation.

D) Stage 1 - Establish a clear direction; the compelling case
   and sense of urgency

For any change, no matter how small, it is essential to have a clear and well
thought out understanding as to why change is necessary. Framing and assessing
(A and B above) are critical to this.

For most organisations the starting point is about creating:

          A clear and agreed case for change, approved at the appropriate level
          A compelling and reasoned argument, laid out in the form of a
           directional paper
          An understanding of the timescale involved, even if its not fully defined
          An understanding of the urgency for change, and the consequences of
           not changing
          The right climate for change – the ground work with stakeholders to
           create an initial sense of involvement and engagement with the

Stage 1 cannot be rushed. It is fundamental to effective change, and the dialogue
with key stakeholders is critical to shaping a comprehensive and viable approach.
Often this step takes place over several weeks or months, and is highly iterative –
homing in on the most appropriate approach and ultimately to the compelling
case for change.

One of the biggest issues to be addressed in stage 1 is how to create enough
urgency without creating unnecessary stress – in effect ensuring it is taken
seriously but at the same time making sure the outline implementation timeframe
is reasonable.

People have a natural tendency to relegate things they perceive as unnecessary
to the bottom of their “to do” list. If this occurs with the key people who are
essential for early engagement and buy-in, then nothing will happen. So
creating the collective sense of urgency and priority with key stakeholders is
critical to getting a good start.

E) Stage 2 - Clear ownership and leadership

It is critical to any change process to establish clarity around who is leading the
process and who will approve the actions to be taken. For most major changes
there will also be a leadership team, reporting to the project manager, that needs
to be briefed, fully engaged and have the capacity (i.e. time and priority) to
contribute to the process.

As well as establishing the management (or governance) process, it is also
essential to establish the guiding principles and vision that all stakeholders
involved in the change process can buy into. This defines how the team will work
together, how they will communicate to other people, and how they will explain
the issues to others when appropriate. It is crucial that this is done with a
common message and language. People will simply not follow the lead of a team
that is perceived to be divided and acting as anything other than good role
models to them.

It is also good practice at this stage to identify who the “champions of change”
might be. The reality is that it’s the champions, the people who will take a
positive approach and use the right constructive and visionary language, who
make lasting change happen. There is a critical mass element to this, and a basic
“rule” of change is that there needs to be enough change championing occurring
appropriate to the magnitude of the change, if such changes are going to be
made in a reasonable timeframe. The reality is that having fewer champions
translates into a longer change transition period, and this can have a major
impact on the ultimate effective change.

Finally it is critical that ownership for the change process is with the relevant line
managers. Consultants, HR and other support teams can all help managers to
develop and implement successful change but line management ownership has to
be clear from start to finish.

There is often a strong case for identifying and appointing a Change Coordinator /
Facilitator – someone who can work closely with the sponsor and project leader to
coordinate and facilitate day-to-day aspects of the change process. This might for
instance involve day-to-day project coordination and project team facilitation. The
role holder does not own the project, but does work to ensure effective
engagement of key stakeholders in getting to effective and timely solutions.

At this stage it is also critical to establish how employees will be involved, and to
what degree – particularly those in leadership positions. The “RACI” approach can
help here. “RACI” stands for

          Responsibility
          Accountability
          Consult
          Inform

As we have seen above, establishing who is accountable is key – “where does the
buck stop”? There can be no confusion about this.

Responsibility can be shared, but the accountable person needs to be clear about
WHAT is being delegated to WHOM, and also to ensure that they have the
necessary authority and capability to act.

Consult and Inform are critical. You should plan to consult with people before
decisions are made, and take feedback into account. However there will also be
times when all you need to do is to inform people, typically once a decision has
been made.

To what degree one needs to consult versus inform (or both) depends on the
specific circumstances of the change in question. This is why it is so important to
think this through as part of the framing process outlined above.

F) Stage 3 - Communicate the case for change early and

One of the biggest barriers to effective change is poor communication – or to be
more accurate poor perceived communication. An effort may well have been
made to communicate, and the leadership team may well have felt they had done
a good job at this, but its perception that counts. If the message was poorly
understood, particularly where no effort has been made to discuss concerns, then
resistance can be expected, and it might be serious.

Some simple guidelines for communication during change are as follows:

      Set out at the start with the intention to “say what you can say” as often
       as possible. Engage people early in the “front-end” thinking; get their
       thoughts and concerns out so they are involved.
      Be consistent; keep a log of “what you said” and when. Put reminders in
       your diary to communication on a regular basis, and avoid long gaps as
       these are nearly always interpreted as “bad news coming”.
      Use a combination of media to get your point across (e-mail, formal
       meetings and drop-in sessions, etc). Avoid “e-mail only” at all costs.
      Be honest and open – but never speculate. If you don’t know then say so
       –and keep saying so. This is not avoidance; it is far more damaging to
       everyone to speculate about “what might happen” than to simply tell
       people when you will be able to tell them.
      Take the time to get feedback from people – at all levels. This is important
       not only because it helps involvement, but wider discussion can often lead
       to good ideas being generated to improve the outcome.
      Do everything possible to establish a consensus amongst the senior team.
       Having a common message from leaders will massively improve the
       chance of overall success.

G) Stage 4 - Create and maintain a workable change plan

With any change project it is important to build and maintain a project plan for
change that includes all the normal project elements – major tasks, deliverables,
timeline, who does what, risk assessment, logistical issues, etc. This will also
include the more traditional generic elements of change plans, such as:

          Scope, i.e. what is included and what is not
          Organisational structure
          Roles and responsibilities
          Selection, etc
          Implementation plans
          Progress review methodology

It is important that the change process is recognised and planned as a project,
and one that includes all aspects of implementation as part of the project.

At RGU we should use the “project and quality planning process” or an
equivalent. Typical required elements will be:

          Initiate the project (including defining scope, project board, team,
           manager, etc)
          Define the alternatives
          Select the best alternative and plan for detailed implementation

           Execute the approved plan
           Operate and make additional ongoing improvements

Establishment of “decision gates” is a critical step – the points at which decisions
are needed, and by whom. They must be designed into the project plan from the

Finally the essential aspects of the 6 stages should be embedded within the
project plan to avoid having two plans and to minimise confusion.

H) Stage 5 - Empower broad-based action – maintain and
measure progress

Once the decision has been made to make the change, then it is critical to “do
something” – in effect making it clear that there really will be a change and it will
have lasting impact. Generally speaking there is a “window of opportunity” to do
this, because if people see no changes and no action then they start to believe,
wrongly, that the change itself (and more worryingly the need for change) has
gone away.

What is more, people can be keen and creative when involved in the change
process, particularly when it has a direct impact on helping shape the outcome. A
mechanism needs to be in place to allow for modification of the implementation
plan, whilst still monitoring the overall project scope and timeline.

Typical actions are:

           A clear implementation plan with realistic timescales and milestones
           Changing structures and processes
           Establishing clear new reporting lines
           Focus on new team development and individual development needs
           A culture of empowerment, trust and support
           Setting up measurement processes – with clear targets
           Focus on dealing with problems and potential roadblocks
           Role modelling good leadership behaviours

Measurement of progress is particularly important. It is all too easy to lose focus
once changes have been made, and to marginalise the effort needed to embed
and reinforce change. Clear measures of success (critical success factors)
MUST be established early, and embedded in the change project plan.

The “straw model” process

Effective change is not a linear process – it takes far too long to develop. To be
effective it requires the recycling of ideas and options, i.e. an iterative process.
What is more, teams and committees rarely develop such options; best practice is
to assign this to small “rapid action” teams, who then report back with “straw
models”. This process is effectively deployment of the classic Deming cycle of

   1)   Develop a “bold straw model” (a “thought-out” idea or proposal)
   2)   Test the proposal on a wider team – get feedback
   3)   Reflect on the feedback and improve the model
   4)   If appropriate, build the revised model into future plans

In this way progressive review cycles accelerate the development of options,
leading to more rapid overall progress.

I) Stage 6 - Anchor new approaches

No matter how effective the introduction of change may be, ultimately the “proof
of the pudding” will be how the new approach embeds and how visible this is. It is
about how effectively the transition is from the current state to the desired state
– particularly embedding new behaviours.

This should take the form of:

          Continual reinforcement of the agreed (and shared) vision
          Encouraging and recognising reinforcing behaviours in others
          Openly recognising people who do well, and celebrating as a team
          Embed a “whole team” approach with development and support
          Clear linkages between individual objectives and team success
          Realistic yet challenging goals and objectives
          A strong sense of “ we will succeed together”

It is crucial to make an early effort to make the “new way the normal way”. It is
all too easy to fall into the trap of continuing to work in the same way as before,
and to treat the changes as something that will be done “when we have time”.
This in effect makes the change process a “bolt-on” rather than “core”, and
invariably leads to poor implementation.

The language, behaviours and actions that leaders (at all levels) take will shape
the overall implementation and determine how effective it is. The key message is
to reinforce a “we” culture and avoid “they / them” language.

J) The Leaders Toolkit

This tool is to help guide leaders work through change. It highlights some specific
actions that can be taken to help ensure success.

In many ways leadership and change are the same thing – change will not
happen without good leadership, and anything less than good leadership will lead
to ineffective change.

The role of leaders during change cannot be overstated – they play a pivotal role
in making change happen. Employees look to leaders for guidance particularly
when situations are uncertain and change is likely; employees watch leaders for
any signs, whether intended or not, and read into them whatever they feel they
need to.

Consequently it should be no surprise that the ability to understand, believe in
and role model effective leadership behaviours is crucial. During change situations
people will only believe and buy into what credible leaders tell them – and the
reality is that too many people in lead positions are not able to do this effectively.

Leadership behaviours are critical to effective change. The RGU critical leadership
behaviours are as follows:

          Communicates a clear and consistent vision (or plan) with commitment
          Champions change – able to engage others and enhance buy-in

          Treats people with respect
          Demonstrates integrity and high ethical standards
          Sets and sustains high personal standards of delivery
          Is decisive, particularly when confronted with challenging issues
          Able to adapt and capitalise on new opportunities
          Builds effective relationships
          Builds effective team performance
          Openly encourages and recognises the contribution of others
          Gives constructive feedback on a regular basis
          Encourages personal development and provides appropriate

The RGU “framework for good management practice” (available on the RGU
staff development website under “Leadership at RGU”) is a comprehensive guide
to consistent and effective management – particularly during times of change.
The framework includes an assessment matrix designed around the 12 critical
leadership behaviours. This gives leaders, at al levels, a useful tool to assess their
behavioural skills and identify development needs.

What should leaders do to improve the chance of successful change?

          Recognise that you are a role model, and act accordingly
          Be visible, and listen to concerns - encourage constructive debate and
          Even if you don’t “buy-in” fully to what is happening, you still have a
           responsibility to help employees through the process in a supportive,
           positive and constructive way
          Be consistent in what you say, and don’t speculate
          Be empathetic to concerns, and help people understand what is
           actually happening, not what they think is happening
          Ensure that business keeps running smoothly during the change
           process – keep your “eye on the ball”
          Go out of your way to involve people and explain what is happening
          Focus on team working and team development needs
          Be aware that people respond differently to change, and a variety of
           approaches and leadership styles will be needed to deal with this

K) Facilitation Toolkit

Although the detailed facilitation plan will vary dependent on the type of
intervention, the general framework remains the same:

   1) A meeting agenda, time-bound
   2) Basic tools – flip charts, pens, paper, overhead projector
   3) Recognition of the facilitator role:
         a. Keeping the meeting on schedule
         b. Keeping in process
         c. Checking for understanding
         d. Encouraging involvement
         e. Driving for an agreed action plan
   4) An end-point in mind. (No meeting should begin without this)
   5) An understanding of who will lead each section, either to:
         a. Present a case or proposal
         b. Initiate debate
         c. Chair the session

   6) Basic facilitation tools (see later)
   7) Time to ensure the attendees know each other, and understand why they
      are there
   8) Closure. Every meeting must get closure – this is closely tied to the 4th
      point above, i.e. closure should be to achieve the expectation of outcomes.

There are many tools and techniques available to the facilitator – this is a list of
the ones that are most useful:

Ice breaker - it is important that an event is “set-up” correctly. Failure can be
almost assured if the participants fail to get on with each other. An ice breaker
can be a very simple exercise and task, or a more complex puzzle or even a rapid
action / outdoor event.

Expectations – most meetings should have an expectations exchange at the
start. This gets out on the flip chart how people see the meeting, and what they
want to achieve from the meeting. This list should be reviewed during the
meeting to check progress.

“Success looks like” – this is a very powerful tool for visioning a future state. It
helps people see what they need to aim for, and to help visualise the gap
between where they are now, and where they would like to be.

Straw model - sometimes in order to get to an outcome, a straw model is
needed. A straw model is a bold model that is “out-the-box”, and can initiate
debate. Progress is rarely made in a large team by working as one group. The
most common way to accelerate development is for a small sub-team (or even a
single person) to develop a bold idea, then for the full team to see the straw
model and comment on its pros and cons. The review process should be
conducted in a formal way, to avoid being divisive or overly critical.
The review process is:
       - Points of clarification -aiding understanding
       - What do you like about it?
       - What improvements are needed? Improvements must be constructive.
       - The sub-team then takes the feedback and recycles the model for
           further review

Brainstorming. This is all about idea generation. Good brainstorming should
have as its starting point a problem statement. This must be very clearly laid out,
and easy to understand. Brainstorming is a free-rolling process of idea generation
with no debate, with all ideas accepted as viable. Nothing is too crazy. The more
out-the-box, the better. Facilitation must be loose, non-judgemental, and
enthusiastic. Volume is not an issue – keep going as long as necessary. It is best
to use yellow “post-its” or coloured sticky cards for brainstorming, so that
everyone can participate at one time, and you are able to sort the ideas without
having to re-write them on a new flip chart!

List reduction / validation. After a brainstorming session, you have to have
some way of reducing the list of ideas down into a useable form. Some common
approaches are:

       -   Do a “rough cut” of the ideas into People, Processes, or Technology
       -   Look for similarities, and group the ideas under each heading
       -   Re-state the grouped ideas
       -   Finalise the reduced list

Then you can proceed to reduce further by either:

       -   Debate – working the team to get to the most viable options
       -   Asking every team member to vote for their top ideas using coloured
       -   Perform an analysis of complexity of implementation. Number all the
           ideas, and then plot on a flip chart graph with “ease of
           implementation” on X-axis, and “criticality/risk” on Y-axis.

       -   A further list reduction process is to group the ideas under convenient
           headings, such as team charter, next steps, lessons learned, ideas
           box, vision, consequences, etc.

Sentiment checks. In any meeting, there may come a point where it is
important to “gauge the mood”, and get a good idea of how people are feeling. A
sentiment check can help by giving the team direct feedback on progress, and
helping to shape the way forward.
Basic rules:
       - Develop a proposition to vote on
       - Put it on display
       - Hand out a small piece of paper to every attendee
       - Ask them to write a number between 1 and 10
       - Define 1 as failure
       - Define 10 as absolute success
       - Ask people to underline the number if they vote 6 or 9
       - Collect in all the papers before doing any marking
       - Mix up the papers, then record on a flip chart
       - Make relevant observations based on the scores

It is critical that the vote remains anonymous, and as such no detailed analysis of
the data should be undertaken – it might start to indicate who voted which way.
If the group is smaller than about 6-8 people the vote may be invalid statistically,
so beware.

Force-field diagram. This can be useful to draw out the positive and negative
forces influencing a situation, and help to visualise the action needed:
        - Draw a line across the flip chart, write the issue below it
        - Put arrows vertically up and down, from the horizontal line
        - Write positive influences to the North, and negative influences to the
        - Go round the room and gather all the positive and negative points

Once completed, the force-field diagram can be a powerful tool to use in defining
the approach needed to influence change, particularly when relationships are
critical to success.

Pro / con analysis. This is a bit like the force-field diagram, but more specific.
It is primarily of use when a decision is needed on a given proposition.
         - Divide the flip chart into 2
         - On left side, head it Pros
         - On the right side, head it Cons
         - Ask the team to list the key points they feel are relevant as to the pros
           and cons of the idea or proposition.

“How to ensure failure”. This is a very powerful tool. It helps a team
understand what they have to do to avoid failure, by focusing first on what will
ensure failure. After the list is developed, go through it and “turn around” each

point, looking for the actions necessary to avoid failure. This is a particularly good
way to develop a team charter.

SWOT Analysis. This is a very powerful way of assessing all the different forces
affecting a particular situation. SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses,
Opportunities, and Threats. Firstly define the problem or situation under review.
Write this at the top of a flip chart. Then divide the rest of the flip chart into 4
equal areas, and mark then each with one of the 4 major headings. Then ask the
team to write down, on post-it notes, all the things they can think of that are
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats to the given situation. Put the
notes in the relevant place on the flip chart. After this, proceed with a list
reduction method as described above.

Feedback / Feedforward. This is an effective way of assessing progress to
date, and using the lessons learned so far to project how this might change the
approach for the next stage. The team simply divides a flip-chart page into 2
vertical sections, and titles each side accordingly. In the feedback column they
list their thoughts and key insights into progress so far. Then in the feedforward
column, they list what they as a team need to do differently, if anything, to
improve as they go forward into the next stage or ask.

                                              Appendix A

                        A change management roadmap
                             Effective communication is critical!
                  Consistent message / Check for Understanding / Open and honest feedback

 Establish clear                                                     Empower action
 direction - the                                Create workable       - maintain and          Anchor new
    case for                                      change plan            measure               approach
                          and leadership
     change                                                              progress

                                                                                             Make “new way”
                                                   Finalise plan:     Clear imp’n plan
Where are we now?                                                                           the norm – avoid
                              Clarity of              Scope            and timeline
Where do we want                                                                                 delays
                             Ownership:             Deliverable
      to be?
                              Sponsor?              Timeline           Milestones
   Gap analysis                                                                                  Continual
                             Decisions?               Roles
                           Project team?          Risk analysis    Remediation plans
Stakeholder analysis                                                                          of “new vision”
                           Governance?             Imp’n plan
                                                  Review process      Establish new
Why is “status quo”                                                                            Role model
                           Communicate                                 reporting lines
      not OK?                                                                                  Supportive
                           guiding vision         Impact analysis
                           and principles                                New team
 Options / climate
                                                 Development needs      Development
   for change?                                                                                 Realistic yet
                           Capacity (time /
                                                                                             challenging goals
                           priority) of key        “New way” of      Personal dev’t plans
    Dialog with
                               people?               Working
    Employees                                                                               Team – “we / us”
                                                                       Role modelling
                         Change champions?         Communicate!          leadership
Outline change plan                                                                         Celebrate success!

                                                                                                   N.J. Browne March 2005


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