How Do I Make My Outline a Rough Draft?! Each Roman Numeral will be a new paragraph. There also may be multiple paragraphs within each Roman Numeral depending on how much information you have under than number. You will need to have your source and note cards with you as you go from outline to Rough Draft Your note cards will fill in the details your Outline does not have. They will also provide the page numbers necessary for your internal citing as will your source cards provide the author’s last name for the internal citing.* Let’s look at an example of how to turn an Outline into sentences and paragraphs and then an entire Research Paper! YAY! Here is Roman Numeral I from my Outline: I. Introduction A. Thesis- Forest Fires are a national problem that all citizens should be aware of and preventing from spreading further. B. Background Information 1. 1st reported American forest fire was in 1881 2. in the past had to let them burn out 3. increased in number over the years a. more people using forests b. more dangers i. man-made ii. natural 4. advancements in fire fighting continue to lessen the impact Here is what it looks like in sentence and paragraph form: Smokey the Bear says, “Only YOU can prevent forest fires.” And he is right. Forest Fires are a national problem that all citizens should be aware of and preventing from spreading further. The first reported American forest fire was in Montana in 1881 (Baker, p9). At this time, the only thing fire fighters and citizens could do was let them burn themselves out. Over the years, as the advancements in fire fighting grew, so did the number of forest fires. This is attributed to the fact that our population continues to grow, as do the dangers (Johnson, pg287). Some of the dangers can be attributed to humans, but some are also natural occurrences we can’t prevent. We must continue to advance in our prevention and fire fighting methods in order to lessen the impact of forest fires in the United Sates. Compare my outline and the paragraph above. I have all of the same information in both and in the same order. I added a “hook” to the beginning of the Introductory Paragraph in order to “reel in” my reader. Also notice my Internal citing.* This is the process you will use for each Roman Numeral from your Outline. Now let’s look at an example where the Roman Numeral has so much information under it, it needs to be written out as more than one paragraph: From my Outline: II. History A. First fire department called to forest fire 1. Utah- 1901 2. burned 87 acres of National Park B. National Committee of fire fighters- 1907 1. differences in domestic and forest fires 2. how to better fight & prevent forest fires C. Smokey the Bear 1. 1921 2. First national forest fire prevention campaign 3. raised national awareness 4. became a national icon And here it is in sentence and paragraph form: While the first reported forest fire in the United States was in Montana in 1881, the first one that a fire department was able to respond to was in the Utah National Forest in 1901. The Talooka Lake Fire Department was too small and too under equipped to handle such a huge and out of control fire. They were quickly overwhelmed and after trying for several hours to bring it under control, they just had to stand and watch as the fire eventually destroyed 87 acres of National Forest (Johnson, pg. 300). Six years later, and as a direct result of the Utah fire, the President called a national committee to investigate the unique problems of forest fires. It was held in Chicago in 1907 and fire chiefs from all over the country attended. There were also a lot of politicians there to try and get help for their own home states (Harris, pgs 46-50). The Committee discussed the differences in domestic (house) fires and forest fires and the best way to fight both. The focus was, however, on how to better fight and prevent forest fires in the first place. The Committee decided we needed a national campaign to make people aware of the dangers and how to prevent forest fires (Harris, pg 51). After years of trying to educate the public about hazards in the forest, the National Committee on Forest Fires (NCFF) came up with a genius idea. In 1921, one NCFF member, Tommy Haverlack, told the group about a baby bear that had been rescued from a forest fire in California. His parents had died in the fire and he was a very sad and lonely bear. The zoo that adopted him nicknamed him “Smokey”. Haverlack suggested they use the image of Smokey for a new national ad campaign and thus Smokey the Bear was born! He became the face and the voice of the biggest campaign about fire safety the country had ever known. He immediately raised national awareness about forest fires and ways to prevent them. They country loved Smokey. He is still used by the NCFF today and has become a national icon (Harris pgs 52-80). The inspiration for Smokey died of old age in his new home in 1940. He will always be alive in the hearts and minds of Americans. There was enough information on Smokey the Bear that I dedicated an entire paragraph to it even though all of the information was under one Roman Numeral. It wouldn’t have made sense just to tack it onto the paragraph above as I had started a new sub-topic. You will need to do this for all of your Roman Numerals (take them from outline form to sentence and paragraph form to create your Rough Draft and include your internal cites). Now let’s look at our conclusions. You often do a terrible job with your conclusions because you are done and do not want to write anymore, so you slap some mess together in a sentence or two and call it a conclusion. Well, I hate to break it to you, but without a complete conclusion, you AREN’T done! From my Outline: III. Conclusion A. Restate Thesis- Each year thousands of acres and millions of dollars are lost to forest fires in the United States B. Draw Conclusions and Make Predictions (“So what?”)- In the past, we were helpless to the destruction caused by forest fires. Over the years, the United States has progressed in both prevention and fighting of this disaster. We still need to develop further advancements in this area, however. If we do not, we will continue to waste money and time and more importantly, precious land. If we do not, there might not be any forests for your children and grandchildren to explore and roam through and enjoy. And here it is in sentence and paragraph form: Each year thousands of acres and millions of dollars are lost to forest fires in the United States. In the past, we were helpless to the destruction caused by forest fires. Over the years, the United States has progressed in both prevention and fighting of this disaster. We still need to develop further advancements in this area, however. If we do not, we will continue to waste money and time and more importantly, precious land. If we do not, there might not be any forests for your children and grandchildren to explore and roam through and enjoy. *Internal citing is explained and demonstrated on pgs 10-12. ** We cover your “Works Cited” page next week before your final drafts are due!
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