List of capstone projects (091) by hmb46803

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									 EE 411                                                                    Dr. M. Deriche
                                                              List of capstone projects (092)
Project      Project Title        Advisor (s)                               Project Description                                   Pre-requisites and
Code                                                                                                                                Requirements
P1        Dual Audio Channel     Dr. Husain     This project requires the design, construction and testing of a basic fiber Required Courses:
          Transmission in an     A. Jamid       optics audio communication system. The system should be capable of EE 303, EE 340, EE 370
          Analog Fiber Optics                   successful transmission and reception of two independent audio channels.
                                                The system is a one way communication system. Each audio channel
                                                should have a bandwidth of approximately 5KHz. Two audio signals will be
                                                simultaneously transmitted along a single optical fiber and they will be
                                                separated at the receiving end of the system.
                                                The project is considered completed when each audio signal is heard on
                                                the receiving end of the system with sufficiently high clarity.
P2        Design of a 2D         Dr. Wajih      Two-dimension optical scanners have several forms. Most scanners in the Basic knowledge of
          Computer-              Abu-Al-Saud    market are of the flatbed form (a 1-D scanning head that scans a flat sheet programming using Matlab or C
          Controlled Grayscale                  of paper by moving along the second dimension). To avoid the difficult
                                                design of a 1-D scanning head, a single-point scanning head can be used.
          Optical Scanner
                                                The scanning head can be moved along one dimension of the sheet of
                                                paper to be scanned while the sheet is placed on a cylindrical-bed and
                                                rotated to scan the other dimension. This project involves the design of a
                                                cylindrical-bed computer-controlled grayscale 2-D optical scanner. The
                                                scanning head carries all optical components required for scanning
                                                including lenses, light emitting diodes (LED) or laser diodes (LD), and
                                                photodiodes (PD). The LED or the LD placed on the scanning head is
                                                directed to the image to be scanned and reflected light is collected by a
                                                lens and directed to a photodiode. The output signal of the photodiode is
                                                digitized and fed to a computer to generate the scanned image. The
                                                computer is also used to control motors that rotate the scanner bed and
                                                move the scanning head across.
P3        Design a S-band        Dr Sheikh      Lectures will be given to the students to increase their knowledge on       None
          microwave              Sharif Iqbal   microwave transmission and radiation. Then the students will design a
          communication                         novel antenna, optimize it using professional software and test it using
                                                network analyzer. Finally the antenna is integrated with the S-band
                                                communication link.
P4    Precise position of        Dr. Essam      Stepper motor is a motor that rotates certain angle when excited by            Courses: EE 203, EE200 and
      an object using            Hassan         electric pulses. To locate an object, a detector shall rotate an angle until
EE 411                                                                   Dr. M. Deriche
         Stepper P5Motor                      it captures the object then stops and take some action (like take a photo   EE360
                                              of the object).
                                                                                                                          No software

                                                                                                                       Equipments: Laser beam
                                                                                                                       source, stepper motor with its
                                                                                                                       integrated driver, photo cells.
P5       DTMF Remote            Samir         DTMF (Dual tone multiple frequency) circuits convert the dial tones on a EE 303, EE 200
         controller for smart   Alghadhban    telephone set to binary codes. In this project, students will build a
         homes                                hardware DTMF remote controller that controls electrical devices through
                                              a telephone line. Both analog interface and digital logic design are

                                              The objective of this Capstone project is to build a hardware DTMF
                                              remote controller. The project involves

                                                     Digital logic design of the controller.
                                                     Analog interface design.
                                                     Implementation using electronic components, digital integrated
                                                      circuits and relays.
                                                     Testing, verification and trouble shooting the design.

                                Dr.           An embedded system for temperature monitoring of metal objects is to        Pre-requisites:
P6       Remote
                                              be developed based on Infra Red radiation. The embedded system will         Knowledge of C language
         Temperature                          utilize the use of a Microcontroller board to acquire the sensor reading    programming and Electronic
                                S. Sharawi    and post process them. The readings from the temperature sensor will be     design.
         sensing using IR
                                              displayed on an LCD panel on the development board, and warning
         thermometry                          messages will be displayed as well according to predefined monitoring       Requirements*:
                                Dr. Khurram   criteria. The project will investigate temperature remote sensing of        1. Microcontroller boards,
                                              different types of material and will have a design that is very useful in      Dragon 12 Plus + SW.
                                              industrial monitoring and maintenance of metallic objects (i.e.             2. Miscellaneous discrete
                                              transformers, gear boxes, etc.).                                               components that are
                                                                                                                             available in the EE shop.
                                                                                                                          3. IR temp sensors:
                                                                                                                             - Infra-Red Temperature
EE 411                                                                     Dr. M. Deriche
                                                                                                                                      sensors (CS) : QTY 2
                                                                                                                                      - Infra-Red Temperature
                                                                                                                                      sensors (Micro-CS) : QTY 2
                                                                                                                                      - Sensor board (GE-ZTP-
                                                                                                                                      25ASM) :
                                                                                                                                      QTY 4.
                                                                                                                                      - GE- ZTP-135SR : QTY 10.
                                                                                                                                      - GE- ZTP-015 : QTY 10.

                                                                                                                                   *NOTE: The components have
                                                                                                                                   been placed on order. Waiting
                                                                                                                                   for purchasing response.
P7       Ultrasound            Dr. Al Absi &   This project is an intention to design and implement an electronic circuit
         Tranceiver            Dr. Yamani      to excite the ultrasound transducer with high voltage controllable pulse
                                               and receive the reflected echoes using a preamplifier and variable gain
                                               amplifier. The received signal can be routed to the computer using data
                                               acquisition card or displayed on oscilloscope.
P8       Design and DSP        Dr.             Direct digital synthesis (DDS) is typically described as a method of
         Implementation of a   Landalosi       producing any desired signal waveforms (for example, a simple sine wave,
         Direct Digital                        or a carrier modulated signal) by generating a time-varying signal in digital
         Synthesizer (DDS)                     form and then performing a digital-to-analog signal conversion. This
                                               digital operation is a major advantage of DDS systems compared to pure
                                               analog waveform generators because DDS can offer flexible and precise
                                               control of the output signal characteristics (freq., amplitude, etc), fast
                                               switching between different frequencies, fine frequency resolution, and
                                               operation over a broad range of frequencies. Due to these advantages,
                                               DDS systems are one of the new promising techniques being implemented
                                               in modern mobile phones and base stations (in wireless cellular
                                               networks), as well as in many other devices and applications that require
                                               flexible and precise change of the operating frequency (such as high-
                                               performance function generators).
P9       Design and            Dr. Wajih &     A channelizer is basically a tunable filter with the ability of extracting a
         Implementation of a   Dr.             desired signal (with a given bandwidth) from a broadband received
         Digital Channelizer   Landalosi       spectrum containing several other signals. A digital channelizer, which
         for Software-Radio                    operates in the digital domain by processing samples of the received
         Applications                          signals, is highly desirable because of its flexibility, precision, and low-cost.

EE 411                                                                   Dr. M. Deriche
                                               Therefore, DC systems are an important part commonly found in modern
                                               communications devices.
                                               In this project, we focus on the design of simple and efficient, low-
                                               complexity Digital Channelizers (DC) that can be used in software-defined
                                               radio communication platforms, which are advanced architectures used in
                                               wireless base stations and mobile phones.

P10      Field Measurements     Dr. Dawoud, The students will conduct a measurement plan around specific mobile
         of Mobile base         Johar &     base stations for GSM and 3G. The measurements will involve the electric
         Stations               Pervez      field and radiation power density. Both narrow band and wide band
                                            measurements will be conducted. The measured results will be compared
                                            to the international standards for safe human exposure.
P11      A System for         Dr. Deriche   Images that we work with can be corrupted with noise, blurred, or
         Measuring Image                    compressed. The project aims at building an interactive system for
         and Video Quality                  measuring objectively the quality of a given image using mathematical
                                            cost functions such Peak Signal to Noise Ratio and other measures. The
                                            project will expose the students to different image and video processing
                                            techniques used in multimedia applications.
P12      Design of a DSP      Drs. Deriche, Active noise control (ANC) is an attractive means to achieve large amounts
         Based Electronic Car Zerguine,     of noise reduction in a small package, particularly at low frequencies,
         Muffler              and           where passive noise control may be impractical. In this capstone project,
                              Abduljawad the students will design and built a prototype ANC system for an
                                            electronic car muffler control application.
P13      Design of Antenna    Drs. Sharawi This project will focus on the design of printed antennas for modern
         Arrays for           & Iqbal       communication devices. It will involve the modeling, simulation and
         Communication                      analysis of antenna performance against the specifications of some
         Devices                            wireless standards. Several geometries will be studied and analyzed.
P14      Imaging of Sub-earth Drs. Mousa    The oil exploration process, in particular, finds possible drilling locations
         Structures for Oil   & Sunaidi     where the actual drilling of an oil well is used to test the geological
         Exploration                        hypothesis of oil. But, in order to produce oil, we need first to determine
         Purposes                           the sub-earth structure. This can be done by the method known as
                                            reflection seismology. This geophysical technique relies on the generation
                                            of artificial seismic waves and the recording of their reflections from
                                            different geological layers. However, such acquired seismic data does not
                                            reveal an accurate image of the sub-earth unless we use appropriate
                                            filtering, known as wavefield extrapolation. In this project, we are going to

EE 411                                                                   Dr. M. Deriche
                                                implement and test such a filtering process and try to understand how
                                                seismic waves propagate in the sub-earth.

P15      High resolution        Drs. Yamani     Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy has many applications in
         Electrochemical        & Deriche       engineering particularly in corrosion monitoring. However, existing
         Impedance                              potentioste, galvanostate are limited in the way they measure the
         Spectroscopy                           impedance by assuming that the applied voltage is fixed (potentiostate),
         measurement                            or current is fixed (galvanostate). However, fixed current/voltage cannot
                                                be maintained across the frequency band used which results in a
                                                measured impedance that presents unexplained phenomenon that are
                                                hard to understand even by expert corrosion engineers. This project will
                                                be focused on the extraction of impedance from circumstances where
                                                neither the voltage nor the current is assumed constant, and thus can
                                                produce very accurate EIS measurements. (ARAMCO)
P16      Development of an      Drs. Zidouri    Image processing techniques are extensively used in multimedia
         image processing       & Deriche       applications such as compression of images and video, recognition of
         system for real time                   objects or persons from images or video, disease diagnosis from medical
         application                            images, etc. The problem is that image processing techniques can be
                                                computationally very demanding. The aim of the project is to develop a
                                                suite of image processing algorithms that are not computationally
                                                expensive and which could be implemented in real time. The project will
                                                be implemented using the National Instruments Compact Vision System
                                                (NI CVS-1450) which was recently acquired by the EE Dept.
P17      Development of         M.              The project involves the development and evaluation of an active RFID
         RFID system for        Mohandes        system for person tracking.
         person tracking
P18      Indoors Radio          Dr. A. Sheikh   Wireless communication is now the preferred communication media for
         Communication                          voice, data and image transmission and reception. The latest applications
         channel                                of wireless communications are predominantly in high speed data
         measurements and
                                                transmission. The first step in the design of wireless communication is to
         data processing
                                                find the properties of radio channel. The work on this project started a
                                                few months ago and some data has been collected and analyzed to get
                                                some ideas about the nature of the channel. In this project the group is
                                                required to measure radio channel indoors (most probably in Building 59)
                                                and develop MATLAB to extract information on the nature of the channel.
EE 411                                                                    Dr. M. Deriche
                                                The measurement setup is ready, some data is available for analysis and
                                                some data will be collected.

P19      Study of sliding       Dr. A. Sheikh   The ideal channel measurement system is usually replaced by a channel
         correlator based                       sounder based on sliding correlator principle. However, the simplicity of
         channel sounder                        the equipment may result in some inaccuracies in measurements. This
         and its accuracy in
                                                project shall investigate the ideal and practical sounders using MATLAB
         radio channel
         measurements                           simulations and compare their results from the point of view of measured

P20      RFID Antenna Design Dr. Hassan         Radio Frequency Identification system has amny applications at different
                             Ragheb             frequencies. One of the most important part of this system is its antenna.
                                                In this project students are going to design, simulate and implement a
                                                microstrip slot antenna which has specifications that can fit the RFID.

P21      Secured voice          Dr.             Design a system that transmits voice over a secured wired channel
         system                 Alakhdhar
                                                Prerequisite: EE303 and EE370

P22      Wireless Sensor        Dr.             In this project, students will have the opportunity to experiment with a     A limited set of hardware and
         Networking (WSN)       Mohamed         wireless sensor network with compact nodes. The work will involve            software is already available.
         physical parameter     Abdul           enhancement of the sensor interfacing capabilities of the sensor node and    We may purchase additional
         field mapping                                                                                                       devices as needed.
                                Haleem &        development and calibration of software. Currently, the sensor network is
                                Dr.             capable of measuring and reporting temperatures. We expect to develop        Basic knowledge on electronic
                                Mohamed         the hardware and software required to measure and map humidity, light        circuits design and C /C++
                                Mohandes        intensity etc.                                                               program will be needed.

P23      Wireless Transceiver   Dr.             This is a somewhat open project in the sense, the type of unit to be           EE370
                                Mohamed         designed and built will be selected based on the interest of the group of
                                Abdul           students and the instructor. We will discuss different modulation and        An interest in Communication
                                Haleem          demodulation schemes and their applications and come up with a set of
                                                goals .

EE 411                                                                 Dr. M. Deriche
                                 Dr. M.A.    Direct digital synthesis (DDS) is a method of producing desired signal            1. EE207, EE370
P24      Design and
                                             waveforms (for example, a simple sine wave, or a carrier modulated                2. DSP card (will   be
         Implementation of a                 signal) by generating a time-varying signal in digital form and then                 provided)
                                             performing a digital-to-analog signal conversion. This digital operation
         Direct Digital Signal
                                             can offer flexible and precise control of the output signal characteristics
         Synthesizer                         fast switching between different frequencies, fine frequency resolution,
                                             and operation over a broad range of frequencies.

                                             Due to these advantages, DDS systems are among the new promising
                                             techniques being implemented in modern mobile phones and base
                                             stations (in wireless cellular networks), as well as in many other devices
                                             and applications that require flexible and precise change of the operating
                                             frequency (such as high-performance function generators).

                                             The project is based on using efficient algorithms to implement DDS
                                             systems. Specifically, the work will involve:

                                                 1. Developing a good understanding of direct digital synthesizer
                                                 2. Designing and implementation of a DDS system using high-level
                                                    programming language (like Matlab, C)
                                                 3. Testing the design using a DSP card in the lab, with user-friendly
                                                    development tools, for real-time operation

P25      Wireless Monitoring     Dr. Munir   This project requires the study of the HV insulator flashover case. Design a
         of HV insulator in      Absi,       sensor node to sense dust and humidity that causes flashover and
         high voltage yard                   compare the measured sensors output with a predetermined threshold .           EE303
                                 Dr. Salam
                                             If the output voltage Is greater than the threshold a warning signal is
                                 Zummo and
                                             displayed and corrective action has to be done
                                 Mr. Ahmar

P26      Design of a Seismic     Dr. Wail    A geophone is a device used in surface seismic acquisition, both onshore
         Geophone Sensor         Mousa       and on the seabed offshore that detects ground velocity produced by
                                             seismic waves and transforms the motion into electrical signals. In this
                                             project, we are interested to physically design a geophone and estimate

EE 411                                                                      Dr. M. Deriche
                                                 its response in the lab.

P27      Design of Current-      M.T.            This project involves the design, implementation and testing of current-        EE303
         Feedback                Abuelma’att     feedback operational-amplifier based sinusoidal oscillators.
         operational-            i                                                                                               ICs AD844/846 and OPA-695
         amplifier based                         Several topologies will be considered and developed circuits will be
         sinusoidal                              implemented using the AD844 or equivalent current-feedback operational
         oscillators.                            amplifier . Comparison between voltage-feedback and current-feedback
                                                 operational amplifier based oscillators will be performed to highlight the
                                                 advantages of current-feedback operational-amplifier based sinusoidal
                                                 oscillator circuits.

P28      Stand-alone Wind-       Dr. A. H. A-    Variable speed induction generators are widely used in wind generation
         driven Self-excited     Rahim, and      systems of isolated power systems where constancy of frequency is not of
         Induction               Dr. Z. Al-      prime consideration. In this project the students will learn the principle of
                                 Hamouz          generation by induction machines, design for level of excitation for the
         Excitation system
         design and testing                      machine to generate, verify the minimum excitation level through

                                                 Major Tasks Using CASSY Software

                                                 1.Design the induction generator assembly with the drive system

                                                 2.Perform necessary tests to determine the machine parameters

                                                 3.Run the machine as generator; determine the level of excitation

                                                 4.Run simulations to verify minimum excitation

P29      Design of a digitally   Dr. M. A. Al-   This project involves the design and implementation of digitally EE303
         programmable            Gahtani         programmable signal generators (DPSG). Several topologies will be
         signal generator                        considered and a comparison between different programmable signal
                                                 generators will be performed. The developed DPSG will be capable of
                                                 generating the classical signals: sinusoidal, triangular and square. The
                                                 amplitude and the period of the output signal are going to be digitally
EE 411                                                                   Dr. M. Deriche
                                               controlled over a wide range.

P30      Design,                M. M.          Overcurrent relays are the most common type of protective relays. They EE360 & EE390
         Implementation         Mansour,       are being used for protecting Feeders, Motors, Generators, Transformers,
         and Testing of a                      etc. Microcontrollers are being used nowadays by all manufacturers for Requested Components:
         Microcontroller-       M. Abido       realizing such relays.
         Based Over Current ,                                                                                                 1) 3 Units - Microcontroller
         Multifunction Relay    &              In this project a prototype is to be implemented and tested for such relay
                                                                                                                              development kit for
                                                                                                                              microcontroller PIC 16 bit with the
                                Alaa Hussain   with added functions such as Metering, negative sequence protection and        following options:
                                               overload protection.
                                                                                                                              a. LCD display

                                                                                                                              b. Full Keypad

                                                                                                                              c. 4 analog inputs

                                                                                                                              d. 8 digital inputs

                                                                                                                              e. 8 digital outputs

                                                                                                                              f. Output LEDs

                                                                                                                              2) 10 units - Current
                                                                                                                              Transformers with a rating 5A to

                                                                                                                              3) 10 units – Hole effect
                                                                                                                              transducer with a rating 5A to 0.1

P31      Wideband               Dr. Ali        The objective is to characterize the attenuative and dispersive effects of
         Characterization of    Muqaibel,      typical indoor walls. Typical walls include wood and glass…etc. This project
         Through the Wall       Dr. Sharif     involves learning how to use the vector network analyzer and wideband
                                Iqbal, & Mr.   antennas. The acquired data will be processed using MATLAB. The signal

EE 411                                                                  Dr. M. Deriche
                               Umar Johar     processing involve the use of inverse Fourier Transform to estimate the
                                              delay associated with the wall. Simulation will also be used to characterize
                                              the propagation through typical walls.

                                              There are many applications which make use of the results including
                                              indoor link budget analysis, indoor high resolution positioning, and
                                              through wall imaging.

P32      Design and            Dr. Wajih A.   Project Objectives                                                                  Programming skills in Matlab
         Implementation of a   Abu-Al-Saud
         Camera-Based                         Upon the completion of this project, the team members will be familiar
         Guidance System for                  with the basics of control systems, simple image processing algorithms,
         a Computer–                          and simple mechanical systems.
         Controlled Vehicle
                                              Project Description

                                              This project involves the design of a computer-controlled vehicle that uses
                                              a single line (or pair of lines) of a specific color on the floor to guide itself
                                              as it moves trying to track the line (or centers itself between the pair of
                                              lines). The line (or pair of lines) on the floor is/are detected using a simple
                                              color camera connected to a PC. In addition to detecting the location of
                                              the line(s), and determining the best action to take to track it, the PC also
                                              controls the complete movement of the vehicle forward and controls its
                                              turns (a vehicle that is fully controllable by a PC is available).

                                              This project involves the following main parts (the estimated time for
                                              completing each part is stated between parentheses):

                                              1. Testing the movement of the available vehicle and making any
                                                 necessary adjustments to it (2 weeks).

                                              2. Acquiring a simple web-camera and testing its operation (1 week).

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EE 411                                                             Dr. M. Deriche
                                          3. Writing the code for determining detecting features in the video
                                             images provided by the camera and detecting specific colors (5

                                          4. Writing the code that determines the required actions to be sent to
                                             the vehicle (how much to move, how much to turn and to which
                                             direction) (2 week)

                                          5. Writing the code that converts the actions into instructions to move
                                             the vehicle (1 week)

                                          6. Testing the complete design and making needed adjustments (2

                                          Project Specifications

                                          The vehicle is supposed to travel over long distances following a thick line
                                          that is drawn on the ground. The vehicle should also be able to track the
                                          line inspire of short discontinuities in the line as long as the camera has a
                                          view of the two ends of the discontinuity. Speed of movement of the
                                          vehicle is not an issue pauses in the movement of the vehicle are allowed.

P33      Design And          Dr. Chokri   Hybrid wind and Photovoltaic as well as diesel power generation system
         Implementation Of   Belhaj       connected at the distribution level has a wide spread use in the last
         An Integrated       Ahmed and    decade. The team will investigate the integration of emulated wind power
         Hybrid Wind- PV
                             Dr.          generation with variable speed source a long with DC power from semi
         Power System
                             Mahmoud      conductor photovoltaic panels. It is about the design of an integrated
                             Kassas       system to feed a variable load at constant frequency. This system is to be
                                          implemented in the LAB.

                                          Major Tasks Using CASSY Software

                                          1.Design CASSY LAB driven wind emulated induction generator along
                                          with its connected rectification system

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EE 411                                                                  Dr. M. Deriche
                                             2. Integrate the PV panel source with its inverter device.

                                             3. Integrate both systems to feed a load as test practice.

                                             4.testing the synchronization of the integrated system with SEC Network

P34      Air-Conditioning       Dr.          The goal of this project is to investigate the possibility of peak load
         Load Management        Mahmoud      reduction utilizing air conditioning load management.
         for Residential Area   Kassas and
                                             Energy and power analyzer needed to obtain the data will be tested in
                                Dr. Chokri
                                             laboratory on a temporary feeder to insure the right measurement before
                                             installing it on the real system. Possible adjustment may be needed to
                                             guarantee that the correct measurement is taken. Also, temperature and
                                             humidity data will be measured directly special sensors or requested from
                                             Research Institute for association with the energy consumed during the
                                             measurement. Residents of the particular feeder selected for
                                             measurement will be asked to register their air-condition setting to help
                                             us in the study.

                                             A detailed literature survey on the utilization of Air conditioning loads in
                                             demand side management programs will be carried out. Based on the
                                             literature survey, a load management program which suites the
                                             environment inside KFUPM campus will be designed. The expected effect
                                             of the load management program will be investigated utilizing appropriate
                                             simulation tool.

                                             Major Tasks

                                                    Measuring load profile for a feeder that feeds a set of residential
                                                    Data measurement will continue for several days and could be
                                                     taken in another different part of the month.
                                                    Design load management program to reduce a peak load in
                                                     residential area.

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EE 411                                                                   Dr. M. Deriche
                                                     Study effect of load management program in peak load

P35      Smart house project   Dr. Munir      Our project talks about “SMART HOUSES”. The main idea of this project is
                               Al-Absi        to have a controlling unit in the house that controls the most important
                                              devices in our houses. This unit controls these devices using SMS
                                              messages from the user mobile such as turning on these devices and vice
                                              versa. The control unit also sends warning and alerting messages to the
                                              user for example warning message for gas leak or alerting message for
                                              receiving a phone call. This project has many advantages and it develops
                                              our life style in many aspects because it very easy to be implemented in
                                              our houses, friendly user and adds more safety to our houses.

P36      ECG Data Analysis     Dr. M.         The aim is to improve the operation of an existing PC based system for
         using Labview         Deriche,       automatic ECG signal analysis. The system will be used in rela applications
                               Dr. S. Abdul   to assist medical doctors in their consultations to patients. Different signal
                               Jauwad         processing techniques will be used for this purpose.

P37      Modeling of Tumor     Dr. M.         It is a common protocol to treat cancer patients using radiation therapy or         Digital Image
         Volumes in PET/CT     Deriche,       radionuclide therapy (2 treatment types). There are many medical                     Processing
         Images                Dr Omer        imaging techniques that are used to see the tumor and to determine it
                               Demirkaya,     extent (or volume) including CT, SPECT, PET, SPECT/CT, PET/CT and others.
                               (specialist    Therefore, determination of the correct volume of the tumor tissues from            Physics Background
                               hospital,      the images is an important factor so that the tumor will be treated                  (will be given)
                               Riaydh), and   completely and the normal tissue dose is reduced.. The students will use
                                Mr. Ibrahim   read data to model tumor volumes for the purpose of efficient treatment
                               Saihati        program.

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