Introduction to the Oceans

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					Introduction to the Oceans

          Mr. Ellis
            What is a Ocean?
• As we know, the Earth is mostly water.
  – 71% in Fact
• We also know that almost all of the water on
  the earth is salt water.
• Now, connection time, most of the world’s
  water is found in the Oceans.
      When an Ocean isn’t a Sea
• Now an ocean is basically a very large area of
  salt water.
• We all know it, we love it, we swim in it.
• But, what’s a sea?
• A sea is a large body of salt water that is
  partially landlocked (surrounded by land).
  – Example: Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
      What does an Ocean do?
• Oceans perform many necessary tasks for the
  world to function.
• Oceans make the water cycle continue.
• Oceans regulate world temperatures.
• Oceans provide habitats for most of the life
  found on the Earth.
           The World’s Oceans
• There are five main oceans in the world.
  1.   Pacific Ocean
  2.   Atlantic Ocean
  3.   Indian Ocean
  4.   Arctic Ocean
  5.   Southern Ocean
                 Pacific Ocean
• The Pacific Ocean is the
  largest ocean in the
• 724 Million Cubic
• Average Depth: 4,637
  meters (2.8 Miles)
• 15 times the size of the
  United States.
          More Fun Pacific Facts
• It has the Mariana
  Trench of Guam
   – Plunges 10,924 meters
     (nearly 7 miles).
         Pacific Ocean History
• The Pacific Ocean was named by Ferdinand
• Upon turning the corner of South America,
  Magellan saw the Pacific for the first team.
• He described it as a “beautiful, peaceful
  ocean”, thus it was named: “Pacific” meaning
                   Atlantic Ocean
• The Atlantic Ocean is the
  second largest ocean.
   – 322 Million Cubic
• About 6.5 times the size
  of the United States
• Average Depth: 3,339
  meters (10,950 ft)
• Deepest part: 8,605
  meters (28,230 ft) at the
  Puerto Rico Trench
           Atlantic Ocean History

• The Atlantic Ocean is
  named after the Greek god:
• This ocean was a key part to
  the exploration of the
  world. Like the America’s
  being discovered.
                      Indian Ocean

• The Indian Ocean is the
  third largest, or third
  smallest (perspective
   – 292 Million Cubic Kilometers
• About 5.5 times the size of
  the US.
• Deepest point: 7,258
  meters (23,812 feet)
       Indian Ocean in the News
• In 2004 there was a
  huge Tsunami in the
  Indian Ocean.
• While the tsunami was
  caused by an
  earthquake, the ocean’s
  location help create the
  perfect scene for a
             The Arctic Ocean
• The Arctic Ocean is the smallest (good things
  come in small packages)
  – 12 Million Cubic Kilometers
  – The average depth is 1,038 meters ( 3,410ft)
  – Deepest point: 5,450 meters (17,900 ft)
                   Chilly Water
• The Arctic Ocean is in a
  very cold climate.
• As it is very cold, there
  are large amounts of ice.
• Recently in the news,
  there has been growing
  concern for the amount
  of sea ice in the arctic
• Sea ice is important for
  animals such as polar
      Southern Ocean Fun Facts
• The Southern Ocean is the new kid on the
  – Well not really new, but newly defined as an
• This ocean simply used to be the southern tips
  of the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Ocean.
• Scientists felt that this was a unique enough
  ecological zone to be its own ocean.
            The Southern Ocean
• The Southern Ocean is the second smallest of the
   – 20.327 Million Sq Kilometers (About twice the size of
• Some environmental issues: increased solar
  ultraviolet radiation resulting from the Antarctic
  ozone hole.
   – This has been reducing phytoplankton by as much as
   – Also it has been damaging the DNA of some fish
• Now what are we going to do with all of this information?
• I would like you to create a small poster of an Ocean of
  your choice.
   – You must have an animal from your ocean (only your ocean).
      •   What is your animal?
      •   Why does it live in your ocean (food, temperature).
      •   Is it endangered?
      •   Is there something fun fact about it?
   – You must have some interesting history of your ocean.
      • Did your ocean play a large role in history? Exploration?
   – What has your ocean done recently?
      • Are there any news from your ocean? Any recent environmental