Introduction to the Oceans
What is a Ocean?
• As we know, the Earth is mostly water.
– 71% in Fact
• We also know that almost all of the water on
the earth is salt water.
• Now, connection time, most of the world’s
water is found in the Oceans.
When an Ocean isn’t a Sea
• Now an ocean is basically a very large area of
• We all know it, we love it, we swim in it.
• But, what’s a sea?
• A sea is a large body of salt water that is
partially landlocked (surrounded by land).
– Example: Caspian Sea
What does an Ocean do?
• Oceans perform many necessary tasks for the
world to function.
• Oceans make the water cycle continue.
• Oceans regulate world temperatures.
• Oceans provide habitats for most of the life
found on the Earth.
The World’s Oceans
• There are five main oceans in the world.
1. Pacific Ocean
2. Atlantic Ocean
3. Indian Ocean
4. Arctic Ocean
5. Southern Ocean
• The Pacific Ocean is the
largest ocean in the
• 724 Million Cubic
• Average Depth: 4,637
meters (2.8 Miles)
• 15 times the size of the
More Fun Pacific Facts
• It has the Mariana
Trench of Guam
– Plunges 10,924 meters
(nearly 7 miles).
Pacific Ocean History
• The Pacific Ocean was named by Ferdinand
• Upon turning the corner of South America,
Magellan saw the Pacific for the first team.
• He described it as a “beautiful, peaceful
ocean”, thus it was named: “Pacific” meaning
• The Atlantic Ocean is the
second largest ocean.
– 322 Million Cubic
• About 6.5 times the size
of the United States
• Average Depth: 3,339
meters (10,950 ft)
• Deepest part: 8,605
meters (28,230 ft) at the
Puerto Rico Trench
Atlantic Ocean History
• The Atlantic Ocean is
named after the Greek god:
• This ocean was a key part to
the exploration of the
world. Like the America’s
• The Indian Ocean is the
third largest, or third
– 292 Million Cubic Kilometers
• About 5.5 times the size of
• Deepest point: 7,258
meters (23,812 feet)
Indian Ocean in the News
• In 2004 there was a
huge Tsunami in the
• While the tsunami was
caused by an
earthquake, the ocean’s
location help create the
perfect scene for a
The Arctic Ocean
• The Arctic Ocean is the smallest (good things
come in small packages)
– 12 Million Cubic Kilometers
– The average depth is 1,038 meters ( 3,410ft)
– Deepest point: 5,450 meters (17,900 ft)
• The Arctic Ocean is in a
very cold climate.
• As it is very cold, there
are large amounts of ice.
• Recently in the news,
there has been growing
concern for the amount
of sea ice in the arctic
• Sea ice is important for
animals such as polar
Southern Ocean Fun Facts
• The Southern Ocean is the new kid on the
– Well not really new, but newly defined as an
• This ocean simply used to be the southern tips
of the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Ocean.
• Scientists felt that this was a unique enough
ecological zone to be its own ocean.
The Southern Ocean
• The Southern Ocean is the second smallest of the
– 20.327 Million Sq Kilometers (About twice the size of
• Some environmental issues: increased solar
ultraviolet radiation resulting from the Antarctic
– This has been reducing phytoplankton by as much as
– Also it has been damaging the DNA of some fish
• Now what are we going to do with all of this information?
• I would like you to create a small poster of an Ocean of
– You must have an animal from your ocean (only your ocean).
• What is your animal?
• Why does it live in your ocean (food, temperature).
• Is it endangered?
• Is there something fun fact about it?
– You must have some interesting history of your ocean.
• Did your ocean play a large role in history? Exploration?
– What has your ocean done recently?
• Are there any news from your ocean? Any recent environmental