History of the Beef Industry by klz10308


									History of the Beef Industry
1493                                                                                 1900                                         1926                                               1958                                                                                 1996                                    2001
Christopher Columbus introduces           programs. It is called the “people’s       First International Livestock                USDA introduces beef grading                       Humane Slaughter Act passed to          consumer infomation and promotion.           Beef Quality Assurance Advisory         Flat Iron Steak introduced after
cattle to the Western Hemisphere on       department” because farmers make           Exposition in Chicago.                       standards so packing plants can better             govern livestock handling procedures    Beef checkoff collections of $1 per          Board develops first structured         research on undervalued cuts of
his second voyage to the New World.       up more than half of the population.                                                    meet customer needs for different                  in meat packing plants.                 head begin.                                  animal care guidelines known as         beef finds new ways to cut the
                                                                                     1904                                         beef qualities.                                                                                                                         the “Producer Code of Cattle Care.”     steaks from the chuck.
1519                                      1865                                       First livestock auction market                                                                  1960                                    1987
Hernando Cortez brings first cattle       Union Stockyards in Chicago                opened in Union, Iowa. By 1952,              1930                                               Transportation shifts from rail to      Beef Quality Assurance program               1996                                    2002
to North American continent, setting      become hub of livestock industry.          there are 2,500 public auctions.             Voluntary checkoff deduction rate                  truck; slaughter operations             officially started to help beef              National Cattlemen's Beef               USDA national standards for organi-
up ranches in Mexico. Often the                                                                                                   increases to 25 cents per carload (or              built near feedyards and moved          producers meet customer expecta-             Association (NCBA) is formed from a     cally grown agriculture products
cattle roamed wild and later came         1867                                       1904                                         1 cent per head).                                  from centralized city stockyards.       tions for safety and quality.                merger of the National Cattlemen’s      implemented.
to the United States by way of Texas      Kansas Pacific Railroad reaches            A reporter for the New York Tribune                                                                                                                                                  Association and the Beef Industry
and California. Around the same           Abilene, Kansas, establishing a            writes from the St. Louis World’s Fair       1933                                               1962                                    1987                                         Council of the National Live Stock      2002
time, a cattle industry is also emer-     gateway for Texas trail herds to           of a new sandwich called a hamburg-          First Farm Bill, called the “Agricultural          Voluntary checkoff deduction rate       American Heart Association                   and Meat Board.                         Task force organized to develop a
ging in Florida.                          reach eastern consumer markets.            er. Fletcher Davis is credited with          Adjustment Act” passed by Congress                 increases to 3 cents per head.          endorses beef as a healthy food.                                                     plan of work for creating a national
                                          Cattle drives begin. First shipment        inventing the hamburger, which               to establish and maintain a balance                                                                                                     1997                                    animal identification program.
1620                                      of cattle from Abilene to Chicago.         consisted of fried ground beef patties       between the production and consump-                1964                                    1987                                         Beef producers join with government
An estimated 500-head herd of                                                        served with hot mustard and sliced           tion of agricultural commodities.                  Meat Import Act passed; formula         Cattle first sold via satellite in           and other industry groups to fund       2003
cattle is established in Virginia; by     1875                                       onions on homemade bread.                                                                       limits imports to 6.7 percent of        “video auctions.”                            launch of the Partnership for Food      Bovine genome sequencing project
1639, there are 30,000.                   Chilled beef is transported from                                                        1934                                               domestic production.                                                                 Safety Education and the consumer       initiated. Researchers announce
                                          New York to Europe in refrigerated         1906                                         Taylor Grazing Act passed to regulate                                                      1988                                                                                 first phase of sequencing work
                                                                                                                                                                                     1967                                    Beef producers approve contin-               program, Fight BAC!
1625                                      ships, followed by a frozen shipment       U.S. Food and Drug Administration            the use of public lands for grazing                                                                                                                                             complete in 2004.
Cattle from England and northern          to England the following year.             established to ensure wholesome              of cattle and sheep and prevent over-              Boxed beef is introduced providing      uation of The Beef Checkoff in a
Europe begin arriving in New York.                                                   and truthfully labeled foods; first          grazing, by leasing public lands to                more conveniently sized cuts for        national referendum.                         Beef Industry Food Safety Council       2003
                                          1878                                       Food Administrator, Herbert C. Hoover,       ranchers.                                          retailers and butchers.                                                              (BIFSCo) formed to develop indus-       Industry leaders approve expanded
1779                                      Meat packer Gustavus Swift perfects                                                                                                                                                1989                                                                                 version of “Guidelines for the Care
                                                                                     appointed in 1917.                                                                              1968                                    Veal Quality Assurance                       try-wide, science-based strategies
First cattle trail in North America,      the refrigerated railcar, greatly                                                       1941-1946                                                                                                                               for addressing E. coli.                 and Handling of Cattle.”
from San Antonio, Texas to the            expanding the market for perishable                                                     War time price controls are placed on              Cattle-Fax is established to provide    program initiated.
Louisiana Territory.                      products.                                  Upton Sinclair writes “The Jungle”;          beef; a large “black market” emerges.              cattle and beef industry statistics                                                                                          2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1991                                         1998
                                                                                     leads to Meat Inspection Act.                                                                   and market and economic analysis.                                                    Meat packing facilities implement       Carcass Merit project completed,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Beef industry’s Environmental                                                        validating DNA markers for
1805                                      1880                                                                                    1945                                                                                                                                    Food and Drug Administration Hazard
First recorded Northern cattle drive      Western cattle boom begins.                                                             “Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle”             1973                                    Stewardship Award Program (ESAP)                                                     economically important carcass
                                                                                     1911                                                                                                                                                                                 Analysis and Critical Control Point
from Circleville, Ohio. Western                                                      First motor truck delivery of livestock      is published providing cattle producers            Texas Cattle Feeders Association        established to provide opportunity                                                   and consumer satisfaction traits.
                                          1883                                                                                                                                       proposes uniform Beef Checkoff          to showcase the environmental                (HACCP) system aimed at preventing
farmers seek livestock markets in                                                    reaches Indianapolis. Prior to that, all     with a guide for feeding cattle.                                                                                                        hazards that could cause foodborne
populous East.                            First national gathering of cattlemen      livestock were transported via railroad.                                                        Program. Task force appointed to        stewardship and profitable busi-                                                     2005
                                          called by U.S. Commissioner of                                                          1947                                               study proposal.                         ness practices that exist together           illness. The HACCP principles           USDA announces E. coli O157:H7
1810                                      Agriculture, George Loring. A per-         1922                                         Beef consumption reaches the                                                               on progressive farms and ranches.            apply science-based means of            prevalence dropped by more than 80
First State Fair held in Pittsfield,      manent organization, The National          National Live Stock and Meat Board           highest level in 40 years, with prices             1978                                                                                 assuring food safety from harvest       percent in four years.
Massachusetts. It is called the           Cattle Growers Association, is             (“Meat Board”) is founded to conduct         125 percent greater than in 1941.                  The Humane Slaughter Act of             1994                                         to consumption.
Berkshire Cattle Fair.                    established at a second meeting            meat promotion, research and edu-            Cattle producers struggle to keep up               1978 dictates strict animal handling    USDA mandates safe food handling                                                     2005
                                                                                                                                                                                     and slaughter practices which are       instructions on labels of fresh and          1999                                    Nutrient database shows 29 cuts
                                          in 1884.                                   cation efforts funded by a voluntary,        with new demand for beef.                                                                                                               Parity study published in Archives
1852                                                                                 per-head checkoff fee collected from                                                            closely monitored by government         frozen meat and poultry items                                                        of beef meet government guidelines
Railroads reach Chicago from East,        1884                                                                                    1953                                               inspectors.                             packaged in retail supermarkets.             of Internal Medicine finds beef         for lean.
                                                                                     livestock producers and voluntarily                                                                                                                                                  works as well as chicken in a
adding to the westward spread of          Along with the establishment of the        matched by packers.                          Voluntary checkoff deduction rate
livestock raising and feeding. Five       Bureau of Animal Industry, the                                                          increases to 2 cents per head.                     1985                                    1994                                         cholesterol-lowering diet.
different railroads establish their       Animal and Plant Inspection Service                                                                                                        Farm Bill creates Beef Promotion        Beef industry Blue Ribbon Task
                                                                                     1922                                                                                                                                                                                 2000
own stockyards there.                     is established as part of USDA.            First voluntary checkoff deductions of       1953                                               and Research Act establishing           Force reports on ways to eliminate
                                                                                                                                  “Great Cattle Bust” begins, brought                the Beef Checkoff Program and           E. coli O157:H7 in beef.                     Muscle-profiling study findings
                                                                                     5 cents per carload (25 head of cattle                                                                                                                                               presented to industry to help find
1862                                      1886-87                                    per car) are requested by the Meat           on by drought, grasshoppers and fire.              enabling cattle producers to create,
President Abraham Lincoln creates         Worst ever recorded winter for cattle                                                   Continues until 1957.                              finance and carry out a coordinated                                                  new, convenient ways of preparing
                                                                                     Board.                                                                                                                                                                               the 39 muscles from the chuck
the U.S. Department of Agriculture        producers, putting many western                                                                                                            program of research, industry and                                                                                                     Brought to you by the National
(USDA) to administer agricultural         producers out of business.                                                                                                                                                                                                      and the round detailed in study.                Cattlemen’s Beef Association on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              behalf of The Beef Checkoff.

1493          1620          1779        1805      1862         1880         1887   1900      1906         1910          1922    1926     1930         1941-46              1953   1958    1962         1968        1978     1985        1989         1991         1994   1996     1997        1998         2000      2002          2003          2005

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