ECHELON - an Information Warfare System by happo6

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									                                                                                         DEFINITION:
                      ECHELON -
                                                                                     Communications Intelligence - Comint - is defined as
      an Information Warfare System                                                  “technical and intelligence information derived from foreign
                                                                                     communications by other than their intended recepient”
                                                                                     Communications Intelligence - Comint - is a major component
                          Presented by                                               of Signal Intelligence - Sigint.
                    Erland Jonsson                                                   Sigint also includes the collection of of non-communication
           Department of Computer Engineering                                        signals, such as radar emissions.
        CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


                                                CHALMERS                                                                              CHALMERS
                                                Department of Computer Engineering                                                    Department of Computer Engineering




    SIGINT ORGANISATIONS:                                                                SIGINT ORGANISATIONS (3):
•   UKUSA - UK and USA agreement (includes CAN, AU, NZ)                              •   CSE (Communactions Security Establishment - CA)
         - do not spy at each other (?)                                              •   GCHQ (Government Communications Headquarters - UK)
•   NSA (National Security Agency - USA)                                             •   DSD (Defence Signal Directorate - AU)
         - the major Sigint organisation                                             •   DGSE (Directorate Générale de Securité Exteriure - FR)
         - 250 secret projects                                                       •   FAPSI (Federalnoe Agentsvo Pravitelstvennoi Svyazi i
                                                                                         Informatsii - RUS)
         - organised as
                                                                                              - 54 000 employees
            OP - Operations and Plans
            CP - Collection Processing                                               •   plus over 30 other nations
            EP - Exploitation and Production

                                                CHALMERS                                                                              CHALMERS
                                                Department of Computer Engineering                                                    Department of Computer Engineering




    INTERCEPTION MEDIA (IM):
The Interception media are operated by International Leased                              IM - During the 1990’s:
  Carriers (ILC’s)
                                                                                     •   much is unknown
                                           interceptability
                                                                                     •   however, activity has expanded
•   HF radio (1945 - 1980+)                     OK
                                                                                     •   120+ UKUSA satellite systems in action
•   Microwave radio relay (radio links)         OK
                                                                                     •   no other nations has comparable systems
•   submarine carriers (electrical)        special installa-
                                           tions needed                              •   other nations have ground stations for comint collection

•   submarine carriers (optical)           very hard
•   COMSAT’s                                    OK

                                                CHALMERS                                                                              CHALMERS
                                                Department of Computer Engineering                                                    Department of Computer Engineering
    IM - INTERNET:                                                                            ECHELON:
•   “traditional” methods used                                                        •       has existed since the 70s
•   intercept communication links or sniff Internet Exchanges                         •       became widely known by the 1997 STOA1 report
    (IX’s)
                                                                                      •       the NSA “watch list” of individuals and organisations
•   many communication links pass the USA
                                                                                      •       makes use of NSA’s and GCHQ’s global comm network
•   much information can be discarded immediately
                                                                                      •       local “Dictionary” computers store databases of targets
•   UK DERA stores 90 days of Usenet messages
                                                                                      •       “matches” (hits) will be returned to NSA (without being read
•   there are (at least) 9 NSA Internet comint access points                                  locally)
                                                                                          1. Science and Technology Assessment Office for the European Parliament



                                                 CHALMERS                                                                                                          CHALMERS
                                                 Department of Computer Engineering                                                                                Department of Computer Engineering




                                                                                      SUMMARY:
    ECHELON (2):                                                                      •       interception has been taking place for more than 80 years
•   processing techniques:                                                            •       costs 15-20 GEuro/year
         - fax and modem data are prioritised (for simplicity)                        •       more than 120 satellite systems
         - filtering, keywords, other traditional methods                              •       all forms of communication can be intercepted
         - “topic spotting”                                                           •       word spotting not available (for vocal messages)
         - no “word spotting” (for voice)                                             •       not only the USA and the UK
         - “voiceprint” identification



                                                 CHALMERS                                                                                                          CHALMERS
                                                 Department of Computer Engineering                                                                                Department of Computer Engineering

								
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