DESIGN, BUILD AND EVALUATE AN INDUCTION GENERATOR MOHD HAFIZ by smapdi62

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									DESIGN, BUILD AND EVALUATE AN INDUCTION
               GENERATOR




                           by




        MOHD HAFIZ BIN ARSHAD



         Report submitted in partial fulfillment
           of the requirements for the degree
                of System Engineering




                     APRIL 2008
                                ACKNOWLEDGEMENT




        Firstly, thank to God throughout all His Almighty kindness and loveliness for letting
me to finish my final year project. Secondly, I wish to hand a million thank to my final year
project supervisor En. Rosnazri Ali because his encouragement guidance, critics, advice
and consistent supports to finish this project. He always reminded me about status of my
project’s progress. He also gave me a guide how to complete my final year project step by
step in proper way.


        I would like to extend my thank UniMAP associates that contribute in the project
progress either directly or indirectly especially Prof. Ismail Daut our Dean. Also, thank to
our PLV En. Zakir and En Syukor because help me to obtain all components I needed for
the project.


        For all of that, I am very thankful to the cooperation and contribution from everyone
that has driven me to accomplish of this project especially my lovely friend Huzairi Abu
Samah, Izzat Rosli, Fadhlan Tajudin, Reza Mohyin, Zaquan Hafizee, Zulhisham Radzi, Nor
Azhar and all final year student who was helped me to finish this final year project include
in hardware and report.


        My great thanks to my family especially my beloved father and mother who give a
very good support to me.
                   APPROVAL AND DECLARATION SHEET




This project report titled Design, Build and Evaluate An Induction Generator was
prepared and submitted by Mohd Hafiz Bin Arshad (Matrix Number: 041090316) and
has been found satisfactory in terms of scope, quality and presentation as partial
fulfillment of the requirement for the Bachelor of Engineering ( Electrical System
Engineering ) in Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP).




                            Checked and Approved by




                            _______________________

                           (EN. ROSNAZRI BIN ALI)
                               Project Supervisor




                      School of Electrical System Engineering
                       Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)


                                    April 2008
            MEREKA, MEMBINA DAN MENILAI PENJANA ARUHAN




                                      ABSTRAK




Dalam penjanaan tenaga elektrik, sesebuah penjana elektrik mengubah tenaga kinetik
kepada tenaga elektrik secara umumnya menggunakan aruhan elektromagnetik. Tugas
menukar tenaga elektrik ke dalam tenaga mekanik adalah dicapai dengan menggunakan
sebuah motor. Pada asasnya, motor boleh beroperasi sebagai penjana. Penjana aruhan satu
fasa boleh diubahsuai dengan menggunakan motor sangkar tupai di mana boleh dijumpai
dalam mesin basuh, mesin pengering, pam air dan alat-alat lain. Kelebihan apabila
menggunakan penjana aruhan akan menghasilkan voltan gelombang sinus AC paling
bersih. Selain itu, ia juga tidak menggunakan berus dan tidak mengeluarkan gangguan
frekuensi radio. Untuk membina penjana aruhan ini sangat murah dan mudah. Namun
begitu, terdapat juga masalah apabila mengunakan motor aruhan tersebut. Masalah utama
adalah untuk menyediakan medan magnet. Jalan penyelesaiannya adalah dengan memasang
kapasitor dalam keadaan selari dengan menambah kuasa, dan memacu dengan RPM enjin
yang tinggi supaya boleh menjana voltan AC. Kapasitor membantu untuk mengaruhkan
arus ke dalam rotor dan terhasil arus AC. Sistem ini bergantung pada magnetisme sebagai
pemutar untuk memulakan penjanaan. Hasil daripada projek ini menunjukkan motor aruhan
boleh dijadikan sebagai penjana. Ia juga boleh digunakan dengan selamat.
         DESIGN, BUILD AND EVALUATE AN INDUCTION GENERATOR




                                        ABSTRACT




In electricity generation, an electrical generator is a device that converts kinetic energy to
electrical energy where it generally using electromagnetic induction. The task of converting
the electrical energy into mechanical energy is accomplished by using a motor. Basically,
motor can be operated as generator. The single-phase induction generator can be modified
by using squirrel-cage motor where the motor can find in washing machine, dryers, water
pump and other devices. The benefit to use induction generator are there will provide AC
voltage of the purest sine wave. There use no brushes and do not produce any radio
frequency interference. There are also easy and cheap to build. There have some problem
by using induction motor. The main problem is to provide the magnetic field. For the
solution is by adding capacitors in parallel with the power leads, and driving it a little
required RPM the motor can generate AC voltage. The capacitance helps to induce current
into the rotor conductors and cause it produce AC current. The power is taken off of the
motor power leads, or capacitor lead since they are all in parallel. This system depends
upon residual magnetism in the rotor to start generating. The result shows that a single-
phase induction generator can be safely used to feed an identical single-phase induction
motor.
                               TABLE OF CONTENTS




                                                   Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                       ii
APPROVAL AND DECLARATION SHEET                       iii
ABSTRAK                                              iv
ABSTRACT                                              v
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                    vi
LIST OF FIGURES                                      x
LIST OF TABLES                                      xii
LIST OF SYMBOL, ABBREVIATION & NOMENCLATURE         xiii


CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1   General                                         1
1.2   Induction Generator                             2
1.3   Problem Statement                               3
1.4   Objectives of Project                           4
1.5   Scope of Project                                4
1.6   Thesis Outline                                  5


CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1   General                                         6
2.2   Induction Machine                               6
      2.2.1   Squirrel Cage motor                     7
2.3   Part of squirrel cage induction motor           9
      2.3.1   Mechanical                                                        9
      2.3.2   Electrical                                                        10
2.4   Basic Principle of generator                                              11
2.5   Basic of electromagnetism                                                 12
      2.5.1   Electromagnetism                                                  12
      2.5.2   Left Hand Rules for Conductor                                     12
      2.5.3   Electromagnet                                                     13
      2.5.4   No of Turns                                                       13
      2.5.5   Changing Polarity                                                 14
      2.5.6   Induce Voltage                                                    15
      2.5.7   Electromagnetic Attraction                                        16
      2.5.8   Developing a Rotating Magnetic Field                              17
      2.5.9   Stator Coil Arrangement                                           17
      2.5.10 Power Supply                                                       18
      2.5.11 Synchronous Speed                                                  19
      2.5.12 Rotor Rotation                                                     20
      2.5.13 Induce Voltage Electromagnet                                       21
      2.5.14 Slip                                                               22
2.6   DC Motor (Prime Mover)                                                    23
      2.6.1   Direct current motors may be divided into three general classes   23
2.7   DC General Construction                                                   24
2.8   AC Capacitors                                                             24
      2.8.1   Capacitor Starting and Running                                    25
              2.8.1.1 Capacitor-start induction motor                           25
              2.8.1.2 Capacitor-run motor induction motor                       26
      2.8.2   Charging and Discharging                                          27
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY
3.1   General                                          28
3.2   Design Operation                                 30
      3.2.1   The function of equipment                31
      3.2.2   Specification of equipment               32
      3.2.3   Costing                                  33
      3.2.4   Design circuit diagram                   33
      3.2.5   Design basement of induction generator   34
3.3   Build Operation                                  35
      3.3.1   Method to Build Induction Generator      36
3.4   Evaluate Operation                               37
      3.4.1   Synchronous speed calculation            38
      3.4.2   Experiment                               38
              3.4.2.1 Brief theory                     39
              3.4.2.2 Work procedure                   39




CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1   General                                          41
4.2   The objective                                    42
4.3   Result and Discussion                            42
      4.3.1   Design and Build Operation               42
      4.3.2   Evaluate Operation                       43
4.4   Advantages of Squirrel Cage type                 50



CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION
5.1   Summary                                          51
5.2   Recommendation for Future Work                   52
5.3   Commercialization Potential                      53
REFERENCES   54


APPENDICES
Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
                                    LIST OF FIGURES




Figures No.                                                                         Page


1.1           Sample of AC motor or generator that is use to be and induction generator 3


2.1           Induction Machine                                                        7
2.2           Squirrel Cage Motor                                                      8
2.3           Rotor and Stator assemblies in induction motor                          10
2.4           Armature                                                                10
2.5           Rotating Magnetic Field                                                 11
2.6           Left Hand Rule                                                          12
2.7           Effect No. of Turn                                                      13
2.8           Changing Polarity sine wave                                             15
2.9           Determine the induce voltage                                            16
2.10          When electromagnetic attraction                                         16
2.11          The relationship of coil                                                17
2.12          The connection of stator with the power supply                          18
2.13          2 pole stator winding                                                   18
2.14          Permanent magnet synchronous motor                                      20
2.15          Electromagnetic field cuts across the rotor bars                        21
2.16          Magnetic field of the stator and rotor continuously change              21
2.17          Magnetic field in the rotor tooth produces                              22
2.18          Four Pole DC Motor Construction                                         24
2.19          AC capacitor                                                            25
2.20          Symbol of capacitor                                                     25
2.21          Capacitor-start induction motor.                                        26
Figures No.                                                 Page


2.22          Capacitor-run motor induction motor.           26
2.23          Charging and discharging wave                  27
3.1           Flowchart for Overall System                   29
3.2           Flowchart for Design Operation                 30
3.3           Induction Generator Circuit Diagram            33
3.4           Front view basement                            34
3.5           Upper view basement                            34
3.6           Site view basement                              34
3.7           Flowchart for Build Operation                  35
3.8           Connect by pulley                              36
3.9           Adjustment basement                            36
3.10          Connection with the primmover                  36
3.11          Connection with the load                       36
3.12          Flowchart for Evaluate Operation               37
3.13          Motoring and generating characteristic         39
3.14          Power Scope                                    40


4.1           Basement view                                   42
4.2           Other view for the basement                     42
4.3           Assemble the equipment                          43
4.4           The Induction Generator                         44
4.5           Waveform voltage vs speed in no load test      45
4.6           Waveform voltage vs current in no load test     45
4.7           Waveform voltage vs power in no load test      46
4.8           Waveform voltage vs speed with load test       47
4.9           Waveform voltage vs current with load test      47
4.10          Waveform voltage vs power with load test       47
4.11          How to calculate the frequency                 48
                                  LIST OF TABLES




Tables No.                                                                    Page


2.1          Developed of rotating magnetic field                              19
2.2          The synchronous speed at 50 Hz                                    20


3.1          List of equipment and the function                                31
3.2          Equipment Specification                                           32
3.3          Equipment Price                                                   33


4.1          Result for no load test for speed, current and power               45
4.2          Result for with load test for speed, current and power            46
4.3          Voltage output waveform and frequency value for the two tests.    49
4.4          Comparison of a squirrel-cage and slip ring induction motor        50
        LIST OF SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS OR NOMENCLATURE




VL         Voltage with load

V NL       Voltage no load
A          Ampere
NS         Synchronous speed

Nr         Rotor speed
RPM        round per minute
e.m.f      electromagnetic force
hp         horse power
DC         Direct current
AC         Alternator Current
F          frequency
S          Slip
T          Time per cycle
P          Pole

								
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