World Bank Support to Household Survey Programs by smapdi57

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									  World Bank Support to
Household Survey Programs

                  Misha Belkindas
                       13 May 2004

Presented at Forum on African Statistical DEVelopment (FASDEV)
     that took place 12-13 May 2004 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Three Dimensions of Poverty

    depth of

   Changes     distribution
 over time
       Tools for Poverty Monitoring
• Measuring depth of poverty and determinants
    – Tools: - A comprehensive household survey (there are various options –
      Household Budget Survey, LSMS, Integrated Household Survey, etc.)
    – Participative and qualitative assessments
• Monitoring Spatial/regional differences
    – Poverty maps
    – Tools: - Population census + Household survey
•   Monitoring Changes over time
    – Tools: Administrative data/MIS; Institution-based surveys; household
    – Monitoring leading indicators (Service Delivery)
    – Key requirements
        • Simple to execute
        • Rapid reporting
        • Disaggregatable to low levels
    – Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (CWIQ)
   The World Bank and Capacity Building in
   Household Surveys and Poverty Statistics
• Statistical capacity building in household surveys and poverty statistics are
  an integral part of World Bank’s development assistance for institutional
  and knowledge development to underpin research and policy work
• Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) surveys – a multi-purpose
  household survey – from 1985-present
• Social Dimensions of Adjustment (SDA) – Integrated Household Survey
  (HIS) and Priority Surveys (PS) – for African countries from late 80s to
• Core Welfare Indicators Survey (CWIQ) – An off-the-shelf survey package
  with core and optional questionnaire modules for service indicator
• MECOVI Program as an coordinated approach to build regional and
  country capacity for household surveys of living conditions
   MECOVI is short for “Programa para el Mejoramiento de las Encuestas y la Medición de
   Condiciones de Vida”, the Spanish translation for the Program for Improvement of the
   Surveys of Living Conditions (ISLC).
           A Brief History of the Living Standards
            Measurement Study (LSMS) Surveys
 Originally a research program to determine the feasibility of:
   collecting timely, policy-   measure determinants of      generating data for
relevant data at household    outcomes, not just levels   assessing the interaction of
level                                                     government policies and
                                                          household welfare/ behavior

 Phase I: 1980-85               Phase II: 1985-93            Phase III: 1993-
  Review and evaluation of      Implementation and         present
household surveys and         analysis of first LSMS         Providing support to
methodologies in use at the   surveys                      LSMS surveys in more than
time                          in Ivory Coast, Peru         40 countries
  Development of new            Followed by surveys in a     Comprehensive
proto-types                   further 11 countries         assessment of policy uses of
                                                           the LSMS
     Evolution of the Living Standard
           Measurement Study
• Originally a research program to determine feasibility,
  improve methodology and data
• The emphasis was on research
• Now, moved to a decentralized model
• WB has no central mandate: LSMS surveys are demand
  driven by countries
• WB’s Research Group provides technical / analytical
  support on LSMS activities to countries’ statistical offices
• Funding: Started with WB Research grants, now largely
  funded by WB loans, other country resources, donor grants,
  cooperative agreements
                   LSMS Surveys
LSMS Survey characteristics:   LSMS Program goals:
 • Multi-topic household       • Promoting linkages
   survey to collect data on     between users and
   wide range of factors         producers
   affecting household and     • Promoting open data
   individual welfare            access
 • Robust money-metric         • Capacity building for
   welfare measure               survey technique and
 • Emphasis on quality           policy analysis
   control and timeliness of
          LSMS/IS Surveys 1985-2005
•   Albania         •   Guyana            • Panama
•   Armenia         •   Honduras          • Papua New
•   Azerbaijan      •   India (part)        Guinea
•   Bolivia         •   Jamaica           • Paraguay
•   BiH             •   Kazakhstan        • Peru
•   Brazil          •   Kenya             • Russia
•   Bulgaria        •   Kyrgyz Republic   • South Africa
•   China (part)    •   Madagascar        • Tajikistan
•   Cote d’Ivoire   •   Mauritania        • Tanzania
•   Ecuador         •   Malawi            • Timor Leste
•   FRY: Kosovo     •   Morocco           • Tunisia
•   Gambia          •   Nepal             • Turkmenistan
•   Ghana           •   Nicaragua         • Uganda
•   Guatemala       •   Niger             • Viet Nam
•   Guinea          •   Pakistan
        Social Dimensions of Adjustment (SDA)
• World Bank’s response to international demands for knowledge on the
  human costs of a decade-long process of adjustments in 1980s
• Generous donor support to fund the work program for the Sub-Saharan
  Africa from late 80s to mid-90s
• Innovative approaches with Integrated Household Survey every 4-5 years,
  and Priority Survey in intervening years – falling short at the execution stage
• Lessons learned:
    – Distance between planning and implementation
    – Supply-driven process with little country input
    – Limited absorptive capacity
    – Scale up problem –> magnitude of the project should have required closer coordination
      and more technical support to surmount low country capacity
    – Resources spread too thin across many projects in many countries –> too much money to
      chase too many talents with problematic quality control
    – Narrow objectives of filling data gaps than building lasting country capacity –>
      sustainability was not achieved
    – Some capacity built and some data gaps filled –> laid a foundation for World Bank’s
      current technical assistance program for the Africa region
         The CWIQ is a
       household survey

• It is used to monitor outcomes
  of development actions, (such
  as HIPC/PRSPs) ….
  …..through the use of leading
  indicators, such as access, use
  and satisfaction
    How does the CWIQ work?
                                        An off-the-shelf
                                        survey package

                  Fixed core,
               flexible modules

      Quick data entry       Simple
        & validation        reporting

                    Short          Rigorous control
Large sample     questionnaire      of data quality
      MECOVI Program in Latin America
•   A Coordinated Approach – A Regional Program of Technical Assistance for
    Capacity Building to Improve Household Surveys to Measure Living Conditions
    and Poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean
•   Launched in 1996 jointly by IDB, World Bank and UN-ECLAC
     – Subsequently supported by other donors: UNDP, Canada, Germany, Sweden,
       Norway, Denmark, US, Japan, Soros Foundation, etc.
•   With a Shared Vision for Change in Doing Business in Household Surveys
     – A multi-year program instead of a one-shot project with a view to building
       sustainable capacity
     – Breaking the vicious circle with intervention at various entry points
     – Program design built on the profile of existing country capacity and statistical system
     – Program sponsors offer resources according to respective strengths and comparative
     – Allocation of generous amount of resources for coordination and supervision of
       program activities
     – All to ensure significant improvement of statistical capacity for producing and
       analyzing household survey and poverty data
MECOVI Program: Objectives and Organization
• Program Objectives
   – Improve quality, relevance and timeliness of household survey and poverty
   – Promote wide use of the improved data for research and policy analysis
   – Promote open accessibility to the household survey and poverty data
   – Improve survey methodologies and poverty analysis
• Organization: a clear mechanism for governance,
  counsel, and inter-institutional coordination
   – Steering Committee (made up of IDB VP, World Bank LAC VP, UN-
     ECLAC Executive Secretary) decides and guides on key matters of policy,
     planning and resource mobilization.
   – Advisory Board provides input to technical issues
   – Program Coordinators handle day-to-day operational matters, including
     program coordination, project development, preparation and
     implementation, and fielding joint missions to supervise on-going
   MECOVI Program: Results by Component
• As of May 2004, a national MECOVI program of technical
  assistance operation were rolled out in 10 countries:
                Argentina        Bolivia
                Dominican Rep.   Ecuador
                El Salvador      Guatemala
                Honduras         Nicaragua
                Paraguay         Peru
• 12 regional seminars/workshops on survey methodologies &
  poverty measurement Promotion of good practices in definitions,
  measurement, data collection and analysis
• 11 regional training courses  270 participants from 20 countries
• Data Dissemination: LAC regional data bank made up of micro-
  data sets from 300+ household surveys  key input to country and
  regional reports
       MECOVI Program: Some Success Factors
• Relatively favorable environments to develop a joint regional
  initiative  common language and some existing infrastructure
• Extensive consultation helps create country stakeholder buy-in and
  country ownership  NSOs in the driver seats
• Institutional commitment of the NSOs creates a virtuous circle of:
    – Better data  Better publicity  Increased demand  Increased allocation of
      resources Better data
• Fundamental changes in the concept of key deliverables:
    – Relevant and high-quality data timely available to a wide group of users
    – Emphasis on building capacity than just perfecting survey instruments alone
• Producer-user interaction increases long-term viability of the
  program –> via constitution of an inter-institutional committee
• Promote “Culture of Statistics” and democratization of statistical
  information –> open data access policy as pre-conditions for
  participation in MECOVI program
     Lessons of MECOVI Program for International
      Cooperation on Statistical Capacity Building
• Success of MECOVI exposed weaknesses of other statistical
  activities  an island of efficiency in a sea of inefficiency
• MECOVI-like framework to serve as a platform of international
  technical cooperation to mobilize resources to scale up joint
  operation to build statistical capacity  substantial up-front
  investment needed to set up the structure
• A call for scaling up MECOVI mandates to:
   – Replicate in other regions (SPARC, PADI, etc.)
   – Formulate and implement a comprehensive strategy to develop
     statistical capacity (a la Marrakech Plan)
   – Increase coordination and information sharing with setting up of
     International Household Network

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