Asian HPC Perspectives Snapshot Dr. D.K. Kahaner Asian by smapdi56

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									  Asian HPC Perspectives &
         Snapshot

          Dr. D.K. Kahaner
Asian Technology Information Program
               (ATIP)

         kahaner@atip.or.jp
           25 June 2003
                  Outline
• What is ATIP?
• Key Trends – Illustrated in following slides
  – Earth Simulator
  – Special Purpose Computers in Japan
  – Grids everywhere
  – Biology as driver for new apps and markets


• Further away: QC & biocomputing
                      What is ATIP?
• US not-for-profit company operating since 1994
• On-the-ground foreign S&T analysis (not only HPC) based on site visits,
  interviews, human networking, etc.
• Reports, briefings, tours, seminars, liaison, ...
• Offices / staff (Local multilingual scientists): Alb NM, JP, KR, TW, SG,
  IN, HK, AU, CN,... Lyon France [for ETIP]
• Contractor to government agencies & companies
• HPC major focus since inception
• Reporting on HPC in Japan/Asia since 1989
• ATIP supports Asian participation in SC’XX
• ATIP Sponsors HPC-Asia: TW, KR, SG, CN, AU, IN
   – HPC-Asia 2004 to be held in Japan
   – Steering committee members are key decision makers in public
      sector
• WS in Beijing (9/03) “Programs & Plans for HPC Development in Asia”
      Overall Asian HPC
        Conclusions
• High End: ES is brilliant accomplishment,
  new science will develop. US depth &
  breadth in HW, SW, apps, System
  Integration, will continue to provide
  leadership.
• Real world: Significant capacity creation,
  SW/tools, System Integration, etc
  developing locally in most countries.
 HPC HW Development
      in Japan
• Financed indirectly through government procurements (large
  supercomputer accounts in national research centers and
  universities)
• Development of new large systems historically linked to major
  procurements at National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL), Japan
  Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)
• Future funding through government procurements is increasingly
  uncertain (university reform, tighter control of government R&D
  budget)
• Also, since 1997, market for Japanese vendors is confined to
  Japan and Europe
• Industry focus, as in the US is de-emphasizing processor
  development
• Academic/research focus is on grids and bio apps
               ES General
               Comments
• Custom vector processors & full crossbar have
  the potential to be very efficient on suitable
  problems, 65% system efficiency on large
  climate problem, 20% on nano problem. Fastest
  in the world (today).
• Speed + efficiency leads to new science.
• Credit to Dr Miyoshi for vision.
• ES vs ASCI: ES is not a “program” but a single
  system. We don’t see much momentum for a
  follow-on.
        Nanotube Simulation
          Nakamura, et al
Modeling Thermal Conductivity & Super Diamond Structures




3480PEs, 48,640 atoms, 5.47TF
                New Science
• CNT properties
   – Thermal conductivity, depends on length of CNT, different from
     3D materials
   – New material design – new nano-diamond, a light 3D
     semiconductor
   – Proof of stability of super diamond & fullerine encapsulated CNT
     (potential nano-memory)
• Lower C60 melting point ~3400K, than other less
  detailed simulations
• Resulted in funding for CNT-electronics simulation
  projects which are expected to lead to advances in
  electronic devices benefiting Japanese industry.
                Other Comments

• From China: “The success of Japan’s Earth Simulator has shattered
  the US hegemon status in the supercomputer sector….
  Consequently,… such architecture will gain renewed attention and
  its market share will possibly expand. Japan may keep its leading
  position on HPC performance in the coming two years and the US
  will readjust its supercomputer development scheme.”
• Earth Simulator “buzz” is mostly from outside Japan.
   – However, publicity is certainly noted.
• Japanese emphasis is on applications, not architecture.
• Generated significant new interest in HPC in US, new programs, etc.
   – Positive impact on HPC community
    Special Purpose HW Under
      Development in Japan
• Protein Explorer @                                   $ / Gflops   W / Gflops
  Genomic Sciences Center           Protein Explorer     < 20          0.3
  (2PF)                             BlueGene/L           140            6
   – Fully completed in 2006
                                    Pentium 4 PC         250           50
   – Based on Grape, so is likely
     to be successful               Earth Simulator      8000          128
• eHPC (“embedded” HPC)             MDGRAPE-2            150           1.5
   – Special purpose LSI
   – Computational science
     based on SOC (System-On-
     a-Chip) technology
   – Project developers mostly
     from “real” apps domains
     (comp chem, comp phys,
     nanotech, etc)
             Special Purpose HW Under
               Development in Japan
               Akira Suyama, University of Tokyo
•   Molecular and Biotechnological Computing
    •    DNA computers, in particular, super parallel molecular
         computers using DNA molecular reactions are
         examined and constructed.
    •    DNA computers are used for analyzing a class of
         problems known to be “difficult” for digital electronic
         computers, such as the NP perfect problem.
    •    Additional projects include; a new molecule computer
         which utilizes a membrane structure, development of
         a logic circuit which operates autonomously and in
         parallel, and analysis of DNA genetic code.
                                                                        DNA Computer (Courtesy: A. Suyama.)

•   Protein Dynamics Simulation
    •    The simulation of large flexible complex molecular systems, i.e., protein molecules are carried
         out by computer and the "dynamics" which mediates between structure and a function is
         studied.
    •    Kinetic characteristics and functions, such as molecular motors are of special interest.
                Akira Suyama (cont.)
•   Gene Networks
    •    The functions of specialization, aging, etc.
         analyzed by discovering the control network
         of these genes.
    •    A new method for carrying out simultaneous
         measurement of the spatial / time change of
         a large number of genes, such as a DNA
         chip, is developed, and research which
         examines life phenomenon at the level of
         genes is performed.
                                                             Olympus DNA Computer (Courtesy: Olympus
•   Genomic Information Science                                         Optical Co., Ltd.)
    •    Computer analysis using a genome database is performed including, searches for primitive
         genes, evolution of gene structure, and exploration of gene control networks.
•   Other Research
    •    explored use of DNA computer for analysis in combination with DNA chips.
    •    Developed “universal chip”, a DNA chip designed to indirectly measure designed sequences,
         e.g. DNA Coded Numbers, translated from raw information.
    •    "intelligent DNA chip", which can perform logical reasoning and learning by using DNA
         computation on DNA Coded Numbers.
    JSPS Project on Molecular
     Computing (1996-2001)
•   US$60-80M per year from October 1996 to March 2001
•   Part of Research for the Future Program -- themes of molecular computing, artificial cells,
    evolutionary computation, input/output for molecular computing and complex systems.
•   Theory of Molecular Computation: Theoretical results based on new computation paradigms
    such as splicing systems and self-organization.
•   Analysis of Molecular Computation and Its Design Strategy: Simulation, computational
    complexity, reaction mechanism, and sequence design of molecular computation. A new
    simulator, known as VNA (Virtual Nucleic Acid), was developed for reproducing molecular
    computation in a computer.
•   Molecular Implementation of Autonomous DNA Comp: Implemented automata with hairpin-
    formed DNA molecules, Computational model became known worldwide as Whiplash PCR.
•   Automated DNA Computation in Solid-Phase: Invented a solid-phase method which
    drastically reduces the number of DNA molecules required for molecular computations. The
    group constructed a DNA computer based on this technology.
•   Molecular Memory: Proposed the implementation of a write-once memory and its
    application, and named it `aqueous computing'.
•   Molecular Computer Based on Evolutionary Reactor: Molecular evolutionary reactor under
    the 3SR self-replication system w multiple enzyme to analyze evolution of DNA sequences.
•   Modeling Signal Pathways and Its Application to Molecular Computation: Computation using
    living cells, studied signal pathways and its modeling strategies.
•   DNA Nano-technology: Nishikawa,
           Grids and Clusters
• Serious Cluster development
  – Planned: AIST SuperCluster (Tsukuba)
     • 10-29TF target
  – Existing: 108 cpu at TACC for QC Portal
  – Existing: 1064 cpu at CBRC
• Grids are everywhere
  – Energetic discussions about their efficacy
    notwithstanding
  – Most countries (JP, CN, SG,TW, KR, AU) have
    national grid projects (some illustrations follow)
                GRIDS in Japan
• SuperSINET
• Information Technology Based Laboratory (ITBL) Project
• Tokyo Institute or Technology Grid
• Osaka Life Sciences Grid
• RIKEN GSC Life Sciences Grid
• 2003 Projects
   – Business Grid (funded by vendors + METI) aimed at supporting
      Japanese vendors “competing with IBM in Grid technology”
      (Kuwahara)
   – National Research Grid Initiative, NaReGI (funded by MEXT),
      HW for “theme” centers, incl nanotech, materials, life sciences
   – Grid Technology Research Center (GTRC) in Tsukuba (AIST):
      Goal: demonstrate feasibility of utility computing as a new
      approach to mainstream corporate computing
        • Will buy a large “supercluster” in 2003
• The recent GGF (Tokyo) is hosted by GTRC
                Bio in Japan
                follow the money...
• Officially around US$3.7B, unofficially much
  more (proportional to US rel to pop)
• Examples of New projects
  – MEXT: Link SNPs info & clinical data ($80M), DBs &
    SW for whole cell simulations ($40M)
  – METI: BioIT fusion, Structural Genomics,
    NanoBiotech, Structural analysis of glycoproteins
    ($65M)
  – ...
• Many existing projects, e.g.
  – Brain Science ($80M), Protein 3000 (>$100M),
    Rice/insect genome...
 HPC Outside Japan
• Looking to US for inspiration / systems / SW
• No fundamental system development
• Many examples of COTS system building
   – Legend (China) announces TF system (from
     Academia Sinica)
   – CDAC (India) PARAM 10000 TF system
   – Cluster purchase plan in HKBU
• Many examples of basic research that may lead to
  future computing developments (plus, of course, QC
  such as at NTT)
• HPC getting huge drive from biosciences in every
  Asian country
China’s HPC Centers (2000)

                          Beijing



           Xi’an                    Nanjing

 Chengdu

             Wuhan                  Shanghai
                          Hefei
               Changsha
            Chinese HPC Companies (2002)

• Top 3 domestic companies for low-end servers
   – Legend (spun off from ICT in 1981)
   – LangChao
   – Dawning (spun off from ICT in 1995)
• Top 3 domestic companies for HPC servers
   – Dawning (entered HPC market in 1995)
   – Legend (entered HPC market in 2001)
   – LangChao (entered HPC market in 2002)
• US vendors dominate but Chinese are developing
  indigenous capability
• Many other HPC vendors now
• Underpinnings: “China IT hardware production grows from
  $28.2B in 2001 to $35.2B in 2002, now No. 2 in the world”
    – No. 2 worldwide web audience
    – No. 2 PC sales
       Some Chinese Systems




2TFlops Legend Computer                   Shenwei-I, 384GFlops, Shanghai
Acad of Math & System Sci, CAS, Beijing   Supercomputer Center
(512 P4 Xeon 2GHz CPU, Myrinet)           (2D mesh distrib mem system)
        Grid Projects in China

• 2002-2005 China National Grid Project supported by the 863
  Plan of Ministry of Science & Technology (MOST)
• The Chinese Academy of Sciences e-Science Grid
• Vega Grid
• The China Education Grid
• Grid plans in Beijing and Shanghai
• The “Next Internet” Project
   – Upgrade network infrastructure
   – Basic research in computing, data and access grids
    The China National Grid Project (2002-2005)

•   Dawning Grid Enabling Clusters (>4 TF) 4/03
•   Grid Nodes (8-10 Nodes, Total 6-10 TF)
•   Grid Software (Grid OS, User Environment)
•   Grid Applications (resource integration and sharing)
     – Environment (Land Resources, Forestry, Pollution Control)
     – Industries (Aerospace, Automobile)
     – Service (Weather Forecasting)
     – Science (Bioinformatics,
         Drug Discovery, Basic Research)

                  Dawning 3000 and Dawning 2000
                  Sunwei system
                  Sun Microsystems machine
                  SGI system
  China Market for HPC and Grid
• Scientific Research
   – Bioinformatics, drug discovery, virtual observatory, traditional
     Chinese medicine, scientific database, basic sciences
• Environment Protection and Natural Resources
   – Earth observation, forestry, pollution control, regional ecology
• Manufacturing Industries
   – Aero, space, automobile, steel, regional SMEs
• Services Sector
   – Railways, social security, labor markets, law enforcement,
     publications, communication, e-government, Digital Olympic
• Common requirements:
   – Resource sharing and collaboration based on general-purpose,
     standards, open technology, not necessarily supercomputing
          China Remarks

• China believes that HPC and Grid
  technology will reach mass adoption stage in
  less than 15 years
• Two of the top markets will be China and
  India
• Grid offers innovation opportunities
• Note: China and ICT are keen to cooperate
  internationally, especially in A/P regions
                         Singapore
•   Bio: SG has invested US$3.5B in biosci so far
         • SG Inst Mol Cell Bio managed by Sydney Brenner
         • Singapore Genomics Institute
         • SG Bioinformatics Institute Dir Gunarethnam Rajagopal
             – PhD Phys GaTech, Assist Dir Cambridge Cavendish Lab
         • SG Labs for Information Technology
             – GeneticXchange in Santa Clara to commercialize Klesli
             – BioMed Imaging Lab
             SG Institute for Bioengineering, SG BioProc Tech Center

•   SG’s Bio-Grid
     – Connect computing facilities & DBs at major life-sci res centers &
       hospitals
     – Long term goal to build large genome cohort repository to
       facilitate drug development.
•   Main problem for Singapore (general) is lack of qualified human
    resources
                  Singapore, cont
• iHPC (Inst of HPC), Nat Res Inst under A*STAR
• Emphases:
   –   Comp Mechanics (solid dynamics, CFD, multiphysics)
   –   Comp Chem & Elec Systems (Materials, Electronics)
   –   MEMS/NEMS modeling)
   –   MINDEF collaborations
• HW:
   –   SGI Origin 2000 with 64 CPUs & 16 CPUs;
   –   SUN E10000 with 40 CPUs & 29GB RAM;
   –   IBM SP2 with 8 nodes & 10GB RAM; and
   –   Linux Cluster with 30 (PIII 933Mhz, 1GB RAM) CPUs
   –   7 x IBM p690 (32CPUs) and total 512GB RAM
   –   IBM Enterprise Storage System SAN with 4 TB hard-disk
   –   CAVE
• World-class center for engineering-modeling HPC apps
                       Korea
• Fastest (Dec 2002)
  cluster system @
  Aerospace Structures
  Lab, Seoul National U,
  180 Intel Xeons (1.6TF
  64bit peak), 80th on the
  Nov 2002 Top 500.
   – Largely CFD, Comp Mech
     oriented
• Nine computers in the
  Top 500 in Korea.
                  India
• Several parallel systems developed during
  the 1990s at independent institutes, all
  using COTs (from transputers to WSs)
• Most fallen away. Center for Development
  of Advanced Computing (CDAC) remains,
  but has moved to developing system
  software and applications on commercial
  products
   HPC Facility @ C-DAC
 PARAM 10000
    cluster of Sun Ultra e450
     workstations
    Communication networks -
     Fast Ethernet, Myrinet and
     PARAMNet         (in-house
     product
 PARAM Padma at Bangalore: 1TF
    Power 4 Processors (IBM)
    Storage System (Sun)
    CDAC’s System Area Network
     & CDAC’s System Software
                 PARAM Padma
• Compute Nodes based on the
  Power4 RISC processors,
  using Copper and SOI
  technology,in Symmetric
  Multiprocessor (SMP)
  configurations.
• Nodes are connected through
  a primary high performance
  System Area Network,
  PARAMNet-II,designed and
  developed by C-DAC
   – Also a Gigabit Ethernet
                 PARAM Padma
•   Runs C-DAC’s flexible and scalable HPCC software environment.
•   The Storage System designed to provide a primary storage of 5 Terabytes
    scalable to 22 Terabytes.
•   The network centric storage architecture, based on state-of-the-art Storage
    Area Network (SAN) technologies.
•    Uses Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) based technology for
    interconnecting storage subsystems like Parallel File Servers, NAS
    Servers, Metadata Servers, Raid Storage Arrays and Automated Tape
    Libraries, with I/O performance of up to 2Gigabytes/Second.
•   The Secondary backup storage subsystem is scalable from 10 to 100
    Terabytes with automated tape library and support for DLT, SDLT and LTO
    Ultrium tape drivers.
•   Implements Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) technology to
    optimize the demand on primary storage and effectively utilize the
    secondary storage
•   Accessible by users from remote locations.
•
           PARAMNet-II Switch
    Low latency, high bandwidth
    interconnect, provides data rates of 2.5
    Gigabits/sec in full duplex over fiber. The
    message latency is as low as 10 µsec.
•   Uses 16 port switch and a Network
    Interface Card (NIC) with an Application
    Programming Interface i.e. C-DAC’s
    Virtual Interface Provider Library(C-
    VIPL).
•   The non-blocking architecture of the
    switch allows multilevel switching for
    realizing a large cluster. The switch
    offers latency of the order of 0.5µsec.
•   Has 12 PARAMNet-II switches
    connected in two level configurations to
    form a 64-node CLOS network.
PARAMNet-II Switch,
     cont.
•   NIC is based on C-DAC’s
    Communication Co-Processor-III (CCP-
    III) chip based on 0.15 micron 1M gates.
•   Implementation of packetization &
    reassembly, flow control, protection
    mechanism, address translation and
    error recovery in CCP-III, results in low
    latencies and very low overheads for the
    CPU.
•   Interfaces to SANSW8(8 port) and
    SANSW16 (16port) PARAMNet-II switch;
    Supports 2.5 Gbps(fibre)links; Host
    interface PCI 2.264bit/66MHz
PARAM Padma
           CDAC Major Efforts
• Parallelize commercial bio and engineering codes to
  run efficiently on PARAM 10000 and move to PARAM
  PADMA and develop suitable PSEs
   – Ex: CHARMM, AMBER, BLAST, Smith-Waterman, etc
   – Computational Atmospheric Sciences, Computational Fluid
     Dynamics, Computational Structural Mechanics,, Seismic Data
     Processing Bioinformatics, Quantum Chemistry ,Ab-initio
     Molecular Dynamics, Medical Imaging, Documentation Imaging,
     Machine Translation Server
   – Collaborate w Indian companies & univ
   – Ex: Strand Genomics: C.Delisi on Board
                  RICCR
• Russian Indian Center for Advanced Computing
  Research
  – CDAC ICAD (Moscow) Dir by Lenin Prize Winner
    (O.M. Belotserkovskii)
  – Aerohydrodynamics
  – Atmosphere and ocean
  – Weather forecasting
  – Seismic prospecting
  – Clean rooms
  – Forest Fires
  – Medicine
Japan Semiconductor Special Projects
 That May Impact HPC Developments
      ASUKA
          70 billion yen


      MIRAI                                • Total budget
          30 billion yen                      - $800 million
                                           • From 2001 – 2007
      HALCA
          8 billion yen
                                           • Over 400 researchers



 METI’s Super Clean Room in Tsukuba (~$250M)
    Available for Japanese research community
    (nothing similar available in the US)
 New GaN High-frequency Device Development Project
          METI proposed (April 2003 – March 2004)
               Industrial Technology Budget
              Semiconductor Related Projects


                                        Next fiscal    Current
                  (US$ million dollars) year           fiscal year
                                        budget         budget
                                        (request)
Next generation’s Semiconductor
materials: Process – base project             $66.0        $38.0
Semiconductor Application-chip
project (New) – For High-end server           $33.0             0
MRAM
EUV System Project (New)                      $22.4             0
Super-advanced System LSI design                $6.7            0
project
What about software development?
 Apps & System tools mostly




Apologies for too many slides in too little
 time...
Thank you very much for your attention.

								
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