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Chicago Agnes Rimando, Program Chair by smapdi55

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									Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry                                      Spring 2007




the      CORNUCOPIA
                          including AGFD abstracts for the
              233rd American Chemical Society National Meeting
                                    March 25-29, 2007
                                              in
                                       Chicago
              Agnes Rimando, Program Chair


         CONTENTS
   2     Message from the Chair
   2     Cornucopia editorial staff and contact information
   3     Future programs
   5     In memorium - Robert Earl Feeney
   6     Meeting minutes
   8     Roster of Officers and Committee Members
   9     Latest installment in the continuing saga - Mussinan’s Memoirs
   10    Puzzle page
   11    Membership application - get the next Cornucopia delivered to your lab or home!
   12    AGFD Award News
   16    New AGFD books - check out at the AGFD hospitality table and then order on-line
   17    233rd ACS National Meeting Ag & Food Technical Program, Abstracts, & Author Index


                  visit our website: http://membership.acs.org/a/agfd
           deadline for submission of content for Fall 2007 Cornucopia: June 1
2                                     the Cornucopia    - Spring 2007                                   AGFD

                              MESSAGE FROM THE CHAIR

Thematic programming was conceived in 2004 when ACS leaders met and contrived a way to improve
programming at national meetings. The first thematic program was held in Fall 2006 in San Francisco, with
the theme “Collaboration in Chemistry: Recovery from and Prevention of Natural Disasters." AGFD is
participating in the thematic program in the Spring 2007 meeting, with AGFD organizers having put together
a symposium on “Sustainable Food and Agriculture for African Drought Areas” in line with the theme
"Chemistry for a Sustainable Future Food Supply."

The core AGFD program consists of seven symposia with papers covering diverse subjects including
advanced techniques in active food ingredient encapsulation, and health benefits of small molecule and
polymeric food constituents. The multifariousness of topics presented at this meeting reflects the expanse of
techical and scientific disciplines that converge in the division. The membership of AGFD is steadily
growing, with over 2800 members as of August 2006. Participation of international scientists is also
increasing.

For the past years, AGFD and AGRO have jointly hosted a social hour in the Spring meetings. Due to
divisional programming changes, AGRO will not be able to co-host this event in Chicago. We will surely
miss their participation, and the raffle prizes as well. We hope that a joint social function can be arranged in
the Fall meetings. I invite all AGFD members and visitors to attend the social hour, an informal gathering to
get to know each other and the venue to present awards to graduate student symposium winners. We will
also be presenting the “Award for the Advancement of Application of Agricultural and Food Chemistry” to
Dr. D. Julian McClements at the social hour.

I would like to thank Jane Leland, who completed a remarkable year as Chair, and helped make a smooth
transition into this office. We all should acknowledge Cynthia Mussinan and Mike Tunick who have
dedicatedly served the division through the turnover of the gavel from one Chair to another. Let us welcome
our new Cornucopia editor, Carly Frey, who also is a past Chair. We thank Susan Bodett for her services as
Editor in the past two years.

I encourage everyone to attend all AGFD sessions in the Spring meeting. We now should also prepare for
2008, when AGFD will be 100 years old. Let us work together towards a big 100 th anniversary celebration.

Agnes Rimando
2007 AGFD Chair
arimando@msa-oxford.ars.usda.gov




             CORNUCOPIA EDITORIAL STAFF & CONTACT INFORMATION
            Editor-in-Chief    C. Frey, Pepsi-Cola R&D, 100 Stevens Avenue, Valhalla NY 10595
                               carl.frey@pepsi.com      914-742-4832 914-749-3329 (fax)
            General Manager    P. White
            Staff              C. Kent, L. Lane, J. Olsen, P. Parker (photographer)
AGFD                                  the Cornucopia    - Spring 2007                                         3


                                  FUTURE PROGRAMS
   submit abstracts via the On-line Abstract Submittal System (OASYS) - http://oasys.acs.org/oasys.htm

BOSTON – August 19- 23, 2007
Characterization and Bioavailability of Flavonoid Glycosides - Alyson Mitchell, UC Davis, Department of
Food Science and Technology 530-752-7926 aemitchell@ucdavis.edu

Chemistry, Biology and Safety of Acrylamides – Donald S. Mottram, The University of Reading, School of
Food Biosciences +44 (0)118-378-8712 d.s.mottram@reading.ac.uk; Mendel Friedman, USDA ARS WRRC 510-
559-5615 mfried@pw.usda.gov

Flavor Workshop – Terry E. Acree, Cornell University, Department of Food Science & Technology 315-787-2240
tea2@cornell.edu

Food Polymer Interactions – Qingrong Huang, Department of Food Science, Rutgers, The State University of
New Jersey 732-932-7193 qhuang@aesop.rutgers.edu

General Papers and General Posters

Genomics of Obesity – John Finley, A.M. Todd Group 215-469-1976 jfinley@amtodd.com

Interactions Between Taste, Smell and Somatosensation - Thomas Hofmann, Institute for Food Chemistry,
University of Muenster 0049-251-833-3391 thomas.hofmann@uni-muenster.de Paul Breslin, Monell Chemical
Senses Center: 215-898-5021 pbreslin@monell.org.; Wolfgang Meyerhof, Department of Molecular Genetics, German
Institute of Human Nutrition +49-33200-88-282 meyerhof@www.dife.de.; Jane V. Leland, Kraft Foods, Global
Technology and Quality 847-646-7491 jleland@kraft.com

Mass Transfer in Packaging Systems - Sara J. Risch, School of Packaging, Michigan State University 517-355-
9117 sjrisch@msu.edu; Maria Rubino, School of Packaging, Michigan State University 517-355-0172
mariar@msu.edu ; Rafael Auras, School of Packaging, Michigan State University 517-432-3254 aurasraf@mail.msu.edu

Nanostructure and Nanomaterials - Phoebe X. Qi, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
Service, Dairy Processing and Products Research 215-233-6438 pqi@errc.ars.usda.gov; Michael H. Tunick
mtunick@errc.ars.usda.gov

Process-induced Changes in Phytochemicals – Fereidoon Shahidi, Memorial University of Newfoundland,
Department of Biochemistry fshahidi@mun.ca

Sterling Hendricks Memorial Lectureship (co-sponsored by AGRO/AGFD) - James N. Seiber, Western Regional
Research Center, USDA-ARS jseiber@pw.usda.gov; Michael H. Tunick, Dairy Processing and Products Research Unit,
USDA, ARS, Eastern Regional Research Center 215-233-6454 mtunick@errc.ars.usda.gov.

Thermal Generation of Flavors and Off-flavors - Sree Raghavan sree.raghavan@conagrafoods.com; Chi Tang
Ho ho@aesop.rutgers.edu; Robert McGorrin robert.mcgorrin@oregonstate.edu

Tropical Fruits - Karl-Heinz Engel karl-heinz.engel@vmtubes.de
4                                     the Cornucopia   - Spring 2007                                  AGFD

                            FUTURE PROGRAMS - continued
NEW ORLEANS - April 6-10, 2008
Advanced Materials Using Bio-based Polymers – Victoria Finkenstadt, USDA-ARS-NCAUR, Plant Polymer
Research Unit 309-681-6469 finkenvl@ncaur.usda.gov

Chemistry and Flavor of Soy - Keith Cadwallader, University of Illinois, Dept. of Food Science and Human
Nutrition 217-333-5803 cadwlldr@staff.uiuc.edu

Emerging Techniques for Analysis of Foods and Beverages – William J. Balsanek, GBC Scientific
Equipment wbalsanek@gbcscientific.com; John V. Dudgeon, California State University jdudgeon@csulb.edu

General Papers and General Posters

Graduate Student Symposium - Charles J. Brine 609-924-3819 ccbrine74@aol.com or brinec11@verizon.net

Molecular Cuisine 2 – Michael H. Tunick, Dairy Processing and Products Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research
Center, USDA-ARS mtunick@errc.ars.usda.gov; Suzanne C. Johnson, Premium Ingredients International, Flavor
Savor, Inc. sue.johnson@flavorsavor.com

Mycotoxins - Michael Appell, USDA-ARS, NCAUR 309-681-6249 appellm@ncaur.usda.gov

Organic Foods – Ingolf Gruen, Department of Food Science, University of Missouri-Columbia
grueni@missouri.edu

Volatile Sulfur Compounds – Xuetong Fan, USDA-ARS-ERRC, Food Safety Intervention Technologies Research
Unit 215-836-3785 xfan@arserrc.gov


PHILADELPHIA - Aug. 17-21, 2008 (AGFD 100 th Anniversary)
100th Anniversary Symposium - Michael H. Tunick, Dairy Processing and Products Research Unit, USDA, ARS,
Eastern Regional Research Center 215-233-6454 mtunick@errc.ars.usda.gov

Conjugated Fatty Acids – Fereidoon Shahidi, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Department of Biochemistry
fshahidi@mun.ca; Lucy Yu, University of Maryland, Department of Nutrition and Food Science lyu5@umd.edu

Flavor and Health Benefits of Small Fruits - Michael Qian, Department of Food Science & Technology,
Oregon State University 541-737-9114 michael.qian@oregonstate.edu; Agnes Rimando arimando@msa-
oxford.ars.usda.gov

Flavors in Non-Carbonated Beverages - Jide Adedeji, Cadbury Schweppes, Americas Beverages, Science and
Technology Center 203-459 3137 jide.adedeji@cs-americas.com

General Papers and General Posters

Importance of “Sensory” for Food Flavor and Product Development – Christopher Simons
christopher.simons@givaudan.com; Terry Acree tea2@cornell.edu.
AGFD                                 the Cornucopia   - Spring 2007                                          5

            FUTURE PROGRAMS - PHILADELPHIA continued
Pre- and Post-Harvest Environmental Practices - Bhimanagouda S. Patil, Citrus Center and Vegetable and
Fruit Improvement Center, Texas A&M University-Kingvsille b-patil@tamu.edu

Sterling Hendricks Memorial Lectureship (co-sponsored by AGRO/AGFD) - James N. Seiber, Western Regional
Research Center, USDA-ARS jseiber@pw.usda.gov; Michael H. Tunick, Dairy Processing and Products Research
Unit, USDA, ARS, Eastern Regional Research Center mtunick@errc.ars.usda.gov.


2009 and Beyond
Botanicals in Personal Care Products – Fereidoon Shahidi, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Department
of Biochemistry fshahidi@mun.ca

Food Modeling – Donald S. Mottram, The University of Reading, School of Food Biosciences +44 (0)118-378-
8712 d.s.mottram@reading.ac.uk

Food Proteins/Food-based Protein Chemistry – John Finley, A.M. Todd Group 215-469-1976
jfinley@amtodd.com

Food-related Nanotechnology

Food Texture – Michael H. Tunick, Dairy Processing and Products Research Unit, USDA, ARS, Eastern Regional
Research Center mtunick@errc.ars.usda.gov.

Functional Emulsions – Andy J. Taylor, The University of Nottingham +44 (0)115 951-6144
andy.taylor@nottingham.ac.uk

New Technologies in Producing Phytopharmaceuticals/Nutraceuticals – Agnes Rimando; USDA ARS
NPURU 662-915-1037 arimando@msa-oxford.ars.usda.gov

Stress-induced Changes in Phytochemicals - Fereidoon Shahidi, Memorial University of Newfoundland,
Department of Biochemistry fshahidi@mun.ca



                                        AGFD Loses a Friend
On September 21, 2006, Robert Earl Feeney died at the age of 94. Feeney was born in Oak Park, Illinois
in 1913. He received his B.S. in chemistry at Northwestern University in 1938 and his Ph.D. in biochemistry
at the University of Wisconsin. He took a post doc at Harvard Medical School. His distinguished career
took him to the USDA Western Regional Research Laboratory, and the faculties of the University of
Nebraska and UC Davis, where he became emeritus professor in 1984. His interest in protein chemistry
and antifreeze proteins took him on several trips to the northern and southern polar regions and resulted in
his unique book - Polar Journeys: The Role of Food and Nutrition in Early Exploration. Feeney served as AGFD
Chair (1977-1978). His friends at AGFD will miss him and extend condolences to his family.
6                                     the Cornucopia    - Spring 2007                                  AGFD


              AGFD Executive Committee MEETING MINUTES
                                        Sunday, September 10, 2006
                                 Marriott San Francisco, San Francisco, CA
                                  Takes place at each ACS National Meeting

        Attendees: Terry Acree, Michael Appell, Charles Brine, Keith Cadwallader, Kathryn Deibler, John
Finley, Jane Leland, Robert McGorrin, Bradley Miller, Alyson Mitchell, Michael Morello, Cynthia Mussinan,
Bhimu Patil, Marshall Phillips, Agnes Rimando, Fereidoon Shahidi, Sharon Shoemaker, Michael Tunick,
Paulo Vieira, Deepthi Weerasinghe, Wallace Yokoyama

       AGFD Chair Jane Leland called the meeting to order at 5:02 p.m.

        Bradley Miller of ACS and Paulo Vieira of the Brazilian Chemical Society presented information
about the NSF Discovery Corps Fellowship Awards. Twelve fellowships annually are administered as
research grants, with programs in biorenewables. There will be joint ACS-BCS symposia in Sao Paulo and
Boston in 2007. If AGFD wants to become involved, we could identify the best of our publications in
biorenewables and raise our international profile. A possible liaison to this effort was identified.

       The minutes of the previous meeting were approved with no changes.

        Cynthia Mussinan distributed the Finance report, which stated that the total assets for AGFD stand
at $424,471. The Division has had more revenue and less expenditures in 2006 than was budgeted. Industry
donations for the sweeteners symposium in Atlanta totaled $65,000. Cynthia also pointed out that donation
checks have been arriving with no symposium indicated; when soliciting donations, please make sure that the
donor specifies which symposium is receiving the funds.

        Program Chair Agnes Rimando reported that there were two no-shows in the first day of this
meeting, and that 30% of the poster presenters in Atlanta did not show. We have eight symposia scheduled
for Chicago, with approximately 24 sessions. An $18,000 spending cap for that meeting was approved.
Agnes reviewed the symposia for Boston, where eleven symposia are scheduled. Jane Leland reported that
thematic programming for Boston will include sustainability. Sharon Shoemaker will coordinate food-
related programs, and explained that thematic programs produce additional financial support, higher visibility,
and advantages in co-location and scheduling flexibility. Tentative themes include biotechnology and
entrepreneurship for Boston, and energy and environment for New Orleans. John Finley announced that the
Biotechnology Secretariat is slated to have talks for and against stem cell research during a brown bag
lunch, and that a genomics symposium is scheduled. Wally Yokoyama agreed to be the Division’s contact for
Regional Meetings.

         The Council meeting will be attended by John Finley, Marshall Phillips, Sara Risch, and Charlie Brine
(substituting for Mike Morello). Mike reported that ACS and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers
will both have their National Meetings at the New Orleans Convention Center on April 6-10, 2008. ACS will
likely have joint programs with AIChE, with tentative plans including ten talks followed by a reception. The
Committee on Meetings and Expositions determined that there were a record 9968 abstracts submitted for
the San Francisco meeting, and that they are trying to come up with ways to combat poster no-shows.
Session chairs should make sure that attendance reports are sent to the Program Chair, who will make a copy
of the figures and send the sheets to Wanda Gordon.
AGFD                                 the Cornucopia   - Spring 2007                                       7

      AGFD Executive Committee MEETING MINUTES - continued
         After a brief discussion, it was decided that the AGFD Award for Advancement of Application of
Agricultural and Food Chemistry would be kept within the Division, rather than making it a national ACS
award. Making it an ACS award would garner more publicity, but we would lose some control over it. This
year’s winner could not attend because of a family emergency, so the presentation and a session built around
it will be delayed to Chicago. Fereidoon Shahidi moved that we increase the number of Withycombe-
Charalambous Graduate Student Awards from two to three. Six students are selected to present at this
symposium, which would mean that half would be winners. The proposal failed by a vote of nine for and ten
against. The Kansas City Local Section presents the Spencer Award annually for food research, and we will
start to canvas for this award. Steve Nagy will be asked to forward AGFD Award nominations to the
Spencer Award committee. The Division is looking for sponsors for the Teranishi and Young Scientist
Awards.

        Jane Leland gave the Cornucopia report for Editor Carl Frey. Carl had some shipped to Wally
Yokoyama, who brought them to the meeting. Lucy Yu assisted with mailing labels. All but one person
present at the Executive Committee meeting received their copy in the mail.

        Hospitality and Public Relations Chair Charlie Brine reported that the restaurant Wally Yokoyama
selected for the banquet is all set. The joint reception with AGRO at the Spring Meeting will revert to AGFD
only if AGRO does not program there.

        Mike Tunick reported for Lucy Yu that AGFD membership was now over 2800. Ten people will
receive 25-year pins. There was no information this time about the members who do not know their sex,
which disappointed the committee.

        Keith Cadwallader gave the Nominations for the 2007 slate of officers. A nomination for a Vice-
Chair from government will be needed for next year.

        John Finley said that the rejection rate for the Journal is now at 60%, which may possibly be too
high. Issues include plagiarism and submissions to two journals at once. There is an improvement in the
quality of manuscripts from China. The reviewer shortage was noted. If a presentation is on a web site, the
Journal does not consider it as a publication.

       Terry Acree is maintaining the Web Site. He has posted the vacancy for the ACS Assistant Director
for Division Advancement, who deals with web sites.

        In New Business, Agnes Rimando and Jane Leland wrote a letter to incoming ACS President
Catherine Hunt explaining the no-show situation and the fact that one person submitted 23 different
abstracts to the last meeting. These topics will be discussed at the Division Summit in Tampa in November.
An email will be sent to each of the Atlanta and San Francisco no-shows. Sharon Shoemaker said that ACS is
monitoring the situation, and that many of the culprits are from outside the U.S. Possible strategies were
discussed. The Division Secretary will keep track of the offenders. Bhimu Patil will attend the Program
Planning and Coordination Conference, which overlaps the Division Summit. Marshall Phillips will continue
to communicate information about Long-Range Planning by email.

The meeting was adjourned at 7:17 p.m.
8                                              the Cornucopia      - Spring 2007                                         AGFD

           2007 AGFD OFFICERS & COMMITTEE MEMBERS
Chair - Serves 1 year. Presides over           Councilors - Represent Division for 3      Hospitality - Organizes Spring
Division meetings, appoints committees         years on ACS council.                      Reception and Fall Banquet.
and chairs Spring Meeting Program.             John Finley (thru ‘08),                    Charles Brine - ccbrine74@aol.com
Agnes Rimando                                  jfinley@amtodd.com
USDA-ARS                                       Michael Morello (thru ‘08),                Membership - Responsible for
National Center for Natural Products           Mike_Morello@quakeroats.com                recruitment and retention of Division
Research                                       Marshall Phillips (thru ‘09),              members.
P.O. Box 8048                                  jafcaed@p3.net                             Lucy Yu - lyu5@umd.edu
University MS 38677                            Sara Risch (thru ‘07),
662-915-1037                                   sjrisch@sbcglobal.net                      Nominations - Develops slate of
arimando@msa-oxford.ars.usda.gov                                                          officers. Serves 1 year. Filled by
                                               Alternate Councilors - Substitute for      Immediate Past Chair.
Chair-Elect - Serves 1 year. Substitutes for   Councilors that can not attend Council     Jane Leland
the chair as needed and chairs Fall Meeting    meetings. Serve 3 years.                   JLeland@kraft.com
Program.                                       Charles Brine (thru ‘09),
Bhimu Patil                                    ccbrine74@aol.com                          Publications- Explores options for
Texas A&M University                           Chi-Tang Ho (thru ‘07),                    publication of Division proceedings.
1500 Research Pkwy.                            ho@aesop.rutgers.edu                       Charles Brine, ccbrine74@aol.com
College Station TX 77845                       Alyson Mitchell (thru ’08),                Robert McGorrin,
956-968-2132      b-patil@tamu.edu             aemitchell@ucdavis.edu                     robert.m cgorrin@oregonstate.edu
                                               Russ Rouseff (thru ‘07),                   Michael Morello,
Vice Chair - Serves 1 year. Assists Chair-     rlr@crec. ifas.ufl.edu                     Mike_Morello@quakeroats.com
elect in developing future technical                                                      Marshall Phillips, jafcaed@p3.net
programs.                                      At-Large Executive Committee
Deepthi Weerasinghe                            Members - Assist in management of          Public Relations - Publicizes Division.
The Coca-Cola-Company                          Division. Serve 3 years.                   Charles Brine - ccbrine74@aol.com
1 Coca-Cola-Plaza, TEC 614                     Terry Acree (thru ‘07), tea2@cornell.edu
Atlanta GA 30301                               Kathryn Deibler (thru ‘08),                Web Master - Lord of the web site.
404-676-7230                                   kdd3@cornell.edu                           Terry Acree - tea2@cornell.edu
dkweerasinghe@na.ko.com                        Robert McGorrin (thru ‘08),
                                               robert.mcgorrin@oregonstate.edu            Flavor subdivision - Develop
Secretary - Responsible for Division           Harold Pattee (thru ‘07),                  symposia.
correspondence and meeting minutes.            Harold_Pattee@ncsu.edu                     Chair - Michael Qian
Michael Tunick                                                                            michael.qian@oregonstate.edu
USDA-ARS                                       Awards Committee - Solicits                Chair-Elect - Sree Raghavan
Eastern Regional Research Center               nominations and oversees awards            sree.raghavan@conagrafoods.com
600 E. Mermaid La.                             process.                                   Vice-Chair - Kanjana Manhattanatawee
Wyndmoor PA 19038                              Chair - Steve Nagy                         kanjana@siam.th.edu
215-233-6454                                   agscience@juno.com
Michael.Tunick@ars.usda.gov                    Student Awards - Chi-Tang Ho               Functional Foods & Natural
                                               ho@aesop.rutgers.edu                       Products subdivision - Develop
Treasurer - Responsible for Division           Fellow Awards - Fereidoon Shahidi          symposia.
finances.                                      fshahidi@mun.ca                            Chair - Michael Appell,
Cynthia Mussinan                               Awards Canvassing - Lauren Jackson         appellm@ncaur.usda.gov
International Flavors & Fragrances R&D         lsj@cfsan.fda.gov                          Chair-Elect - Alyson Mitchell,
1515 Hwy. 36                                                                              aemitchell@ucdavis.edu
Union Beach NJ 07735                           Finance - Monitors the Division’s          Vice-Chair - David Schmidt,
732-335-2401                                   finances for 1 year. Filled by Immediate   schmidt@ific.org
cynthia.mussinan@iff.com                       Past Chair                                 Secretary - Richard Petroski,
                                               Jane Leland                                petrosrj@ncaur.usda.gov
Cornucopia Editor - Edits newsletter.          JLeland@kraft.com
Carl Frey
Pepsi-Cola R&D, 100 Stevens Avenue,
Valhalla NY 10595 914-742-4832
carl.frey@pepsi.com
AGFD                                      the Cornucopia     - Spring 2007                                             9

                                      MUSSINAN’S MEMOIRS
                                            Ripples from the Rock!
Here’s Mae arriving on time at the Marriott for the Functional Food symposium. Notice how happy she is. She
doesn’t realize yet that the Nob Hill rooms are actually in the basement (should be Nob Valley!) Of course, this is really
Mae returning from her first day of kindergarten, September 7.




It’s good to see that the ACS has our room assignments back to normal. Hence Section B was in Nob Hill C; Section C
was in Nob Hill B; and Section A was in Nob Hill D!! OK-enough of that. What has me really concerned are my plans
for tomorrow! (Hope my boss doesn’t read these, although I have been working very hard here. Yes, tomorrow I am
going to “the Rock” with our illustrious chair, Jane Leland, who already has a broken leg from her “escape from Africa”
and, Gail Tunick whom, you may recall, can get lost in an aquarium. Needless to say, this promises to be quite an
adventure! More later – if we make it back.
Busted!! My secretary caught me (by cell phone) on Alcatraz. I guess it’s “the hole” for me!! I am very glad to report
that we all returned safely and with no (more) broken bones. They call that place “the Rock,” but at least there weren’t
any “loose” rocks, i.e. of the type that caused Jane’s broken leg. I also managed not to lose Gail, although I believe she
was close to testing the escape route used by Clint Eastwood. In any case, we made it back to the conference. Back to
the real world.
Oh well, as we learned in our Molecular Cuisine Symposium – “that’s the way the cookie crumbles!!” See you in
Chicago.
10                                                  the Cornucopia        - Spring 2007                                          AGFD
                         THAT TAWDLIN’ TOWN
1      2     3      4                 5     5       6     7    8    9      10   11    12


12                        13          15    14                                        15
                                                                                             A prize to the first to fax
16                        17   18     19                       20               21
                                                                                             a correct solution to:
22                  23         24                         2    22          25
                                                                                             Carl Frey at Pepsi -Cola R&D
23     26                 27                4       25    28   29   4      30
                                                                                             914-749-3329
31                  31    32          33    31      34              35


36                  37    38   37           38


39                             4      40                  42   44          41   42    43

45           44     45    46   47                         48               49


50           50                             51      51         52   4      53
                                                                                             Congratulations to the
54     55           55    56          56    57      57    57        58
                                                                                             winner of the coveted
59                  62    63   2      60    61      62              63                64
                                                                                              Fall 2006 prize -
65                  66    67   66     68                       69          70
                                                                                             George Rizzi
71           72                73                         4    74   75
                                                                                              of P&G
74     76                                                      4    77




ACROSS                         41 home of the Spartans              3 Cubs home                      42 ‘----- first --- ask
1    soup ---- or super ----   44 altar lead-up words               4    no worry land (w/45 down)       questions later’
5 ‘When ------- it pours’      49 Hamburger article                 5 ‘---- many words’              43 Pepsi consumer comment
12..‘You go girl!’ urger       50 don’t dine out                    6 follow                         45 see 4 down
14 Chicago lakefront venue 51 reference to a ship                   7 vacation vehicle               46 baseball Giant Mel ---
16 ‘hearing’ prefix            53 Toody or Muldoon                  8 34 across creator, --- Rand    47 Parisian beverage
17..----- Generation           54 ailing                            9 brokerage house deal           48 moving van alternative
20 Bond fiend (w/28 across)    56 home of Jack Daniels              10 coinage element               52 typesetter’s measure
21 you and I                   57 -----cyanin                       11 tailor                        54 ---- Mommy Kissing…’
22 omen                        59 Vicious rocker                    13 Agilent parent                55 visible radiation
24 glycol                      60 salad dressing cheese             15 Cincinnati players            58 consumption
25 modern light source         63 small pieces                      18 paradises                     60 ----phenol blue
26 actor Doug Mc-----          65 -- and Food                       19 irrational ratio              61 fancy
28 see 20 across               66 Elliot’s friend                   23 Greek letter                  62 author White
30 MGM motto start             68 Russian bread                     26 Chicago border                64 kill
31 compete                     70 guy partner                       27 do -- mi                      66 Parisian summer
32 typically the last word     71 players at US Cellular Field      28 Homer Simpson remark          67 leaf based beverage
34 The Fountainhead hero       74 tropical vine                     29 artic explorer Dr. John ---   69 Chicago looper
36 the fifth of twelve         76 ‘Don’t ----- on --’               31 Lexington, Virginia school    72 spectroscopy option
37 ditto                       77 Harrison as adventurer            33 ----- und Herren              73 Pierre home
39 played with one sharp       DOWN                                 34 overhauls                     75 Roman pair
40 it’s a problem if your      1 Halloween sounds                   35 commuter option
     name is this              2    eyeglass specialist             38 Cadiz approval ‘--- bien’
AGFD                                  the Cornucopia   - Spring 2007                                       11

               AGFD DIVISION MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION
 The Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society is a non-profit organization
 dedicated to the technical advancement of all aspects of agricultural and food chemistry. The Division
 encourages AGFD technical advancement by -
- organizing AGFD symposia at ACS National Meetings and other venues
- providing workshops in AGFD topics
- publishing proceedings of AGFD symposia
- providing cash awards to leading grad students, post docs, and established AGFD scientists
- publishing the Cornucopia newsletter
- hosting social gatherings at national meetings

Come join the over 2500 members of the AGFD division. At ACS National Meetings you can meet and
discuss division activities at the AGFD hospitality table located near the AGFD technical session rooms. Use
the membership application form (below) or join on-line at www.chemistry.org (click on ACS Members and
them select Join a Division).

                          APPLICATION FOR AGFD DIVISION MEMBERSHIP (7623P)
               title
             name
     st
   1 address line
   2nd address line
               city
              state
         Zip code
           country
    e-mail address
            phone
     check one         MEMBERSHIP FEE
         [ ]           I am an ACS member and wish to join AGFD ($8.00)

         [ ]           I am not an ACS member and wish to join AGFD ($10.00)
         [ ]           I am a full time student and wish to join AGFD ($5.00)

                       Return application, with payment, to AGFD Membership Chair:
                       Dr. Lucy Yu
                       University of Maryland
                       Department of Nutrition & Food Science,
                       3303 Marie Mount Hall
                       College Park MD 20742
12                                   the Cornucopia   - Spring 2007                                  AGFD

                                2006 AGFD AWARD NEWS

             Award for Advancement of Application of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Prof. David Julian McClements, Univ. of Massachusetts, has been chosen to receive the 2006 Award for
Advancement of Application of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. This prestigious Award, which consists of
$3000, a plaque and meeting travel expenses, is sponsored by International Flavors & Fragrances and
administered by AGFD. Owing to a family emergency, it will be presented to Prof. McClements as part of the
AGFD program during the 2007 ACS Spring Meeting in Chicago.

Prof. McClements has pioneered research in the development of novel interfacial engineering technologies to
improve food emulsion quality and functionality. His work will enable the food industry to improve the
quality and shelf life of existing products and to develop new encapsulation and delivery systems for
functional food ingredients and components. Of particular note has been his identification and development
of multi-layered interfacial membranes around oil droplets in oil-in-water emulsions. These multi-layered
emulsions, produced with food grade ingredients and by routine processing procedures, can be utilized widely
by the food industry, for example to protect omega-3 fatty acids from oxidation, to improve food emulsion
freeze-thaw stability, to create powdered emulsions with superior properties and to deliver functional
ingredients in food systems.

His work has resulted in 4 books, 220 referred papers, 32 book chapters, over 110 abstracts in conference
proceedings and 5 patents. He has also been a highly regarded teacher and research advisor during his 11
years at Massachusetts mentoring 27 graduate students, 13 Post-Docs, 8 foreign exchange students and
hosting 8 visiting professors.

The officers and membership of AGFD congratulate Prof. McClements on his selection for this prestigious
award.


                                           AGFD Fellow Award

Drs. Casimir Akoh, James N. Seiber and Andrew J. Taylor have been named to receive the 2006 AGFD
Fellow Awards. They received their awards at the AGFD Awards Banquet in San Francisco in September
during the 232th ACS National Meeting.

Dr. Akoh is from the University of Georgia. Dr. Seiber is from the USDA-ARS, Western Regional Research
Center. Dr. Taylor comes from the University of Nottingham(UK).

AGFD congratulates each of these distinguished people for their outstanding accomplishments and trusts our
recognition will add to and enhance their already prestigious records.


                                2006 Roy Teranishi Graduate Fellowship

Yu Wang, Rutgers University, Dept. of Food Science, has been chosen to receive the 2006 Roy Teranishi
Fellowship. She is in the Ph.D. research program in the Department of Food Science under Prof. Chi- Tang
Ho. Her current research focus is on the reactive carbonyl compounds generated during the Maillard reaction.
AGFD                                     the Cornucopia    - Spring 2007                                           13

                         2006 AGFD AWARD NEWS - continued
This award, sponsored by the Division of the Agricultural and Food Chemistry annually in honor of the late
Dr. Roy Teranishi, consists of a one-time fellowship of $2500. It is designed to support and encourage
graduate students displaying outstanding potential early in their program.

The officers and membership of AGFD congratulate her on her selection for this honor.


                                         AGFD Young Scientist Award

Dr. Liangli Lu, Associate Professor, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland,
College Park, MD, has been chosen to receive the 2006 AGFD Young Scientist Award. In making her
selection, AGFD recognized her superlative skills and unique vision in both teaching and research. Since
obtaining her Ph.D. at Purdue University in 1999 she has published 37 scientific papers and book chapters
including 15 papers in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. The publication of her book chapter in the
6 th edition of Bailey’s Industrial Oil & Fat Products, the bible for oil & fat research, is clearly indicative of her
leading position in the field of nutraceutical lipids.

Dr. Lu has developed an outstanding research program in Nutraceutical and Nutritional Chemistry at
Maryland. Her current research program which has developed a number of novel nutraceutical products for
use in functional foods/dietary supplements to prevent aging-associated health problems such as obesity,
cancer and cardiovascular diseases may have great impact on human health in the future. This research has
already resulted in 2 patent applications, more than 30 articles and 2 book chapters.

The AGFD Young Scientist Award recognizes outstanding young researchers who make significant technical
contributions in food or agricultural chemistry early in their careers. The Award consists of $1000, a plaque
and travel expenses to attend the fall ACS meeting. It was be presented to Dr. Liu at the AGFD awards
banquet in September during the 232th National ACS Meeting in San Francisco, CA.

The officers and members of AGFD congratulate Prof. Lu on her notable achievements and selection for this
prestigious award.


Withycombe-Charalambous Award for Excellence in Agricultural or Food Chemistry Graduate Research

The recipients of the 2006 Withycombe-Charalambous Awards for Excellence in Graduate Research in
Agricultural or Food Chemistry are: Amanda Bergschneider Newell, University of Illinois, first place and Mei
Lin Low, University of Reading(UK), second place. Both presented their award-winning research in papers as
part of the AGFD Graduate Student Symposium during the 231th National ACS Meeting in Atlanta, GA in
March.

Amanda Newell was given the $750 first place cash award and Jooyoung Lee received the $250 second place
prize. Both had their travel expenses to Atlanta paid by AGFD. They will each receive plaques in recognition
of their awards. AGFD congratulates them for their noteworthy achievements and trusts this recognition will
stimulate continued high caliber research in the future.
14                                           the Cornucopia       - Spring 2007                                          AGFD

                                        AWARD NEWS - continued
from the University of Maryland Newsdesk - www.newsdesk.umd.edu - contact: Ellen Ternes, 301 405 4627 or eternes@umd.edu
                                   photo credit - Edwin Remsberg, University of Maryland

                                       Functional Food Research Wins Yu Young Scientist Award
                                       For her innovative work with nutraceuticals -- natural ingredients used as food additives to
                                       prevent disease -- Liangli Lucy Yu, associate professor in the department of nutrition and
                                       food science, received the 2006 Young Scientist Award in September from the American
                                       Chemical Society (ACS), Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division.

                                       Says Jane Leland, Program Manager, GTQ Research at Kraft Foods and chair of the
                                       ACS Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division, "Dr. Yu has developed an outstanding
                                       research program in nutraceutical and nutritional chemistry that may have great impact on
                                       human health in the future. Her group has discovered and developed a number of novel
                                       nutraceutical products that may be used to prevent aging-associated health problems such as
                                       obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases."

                                          Among other discoveries, Yu has patented a way to prepare and add edible seed oils and
                                          flours, which contain natural anti-inflammatory agents, to foods, to suppress chronic
                                          inflammation. Some of the ingredients, such as cranberry and grape seeds, are waste by-
products of fruit processing or seed oil production.

Yu talked to Newsdesk about her work and the future of food as preventive "medicine."

Q: Describe your research.
Yu: My goal is to help people improve their health. I study bioactive factors in edible materials. Some of them
are foods and byproducts of food production, such as seeds from cranberry juice production. These products
have great potential for enhancing human health and quality of life. And because they are byproducts that are
normally thrown away, they are low cost. They also may add value to the fruit production and processing
industry.

Q: What are some of the nutraceuticals you work with?
Yu: One of the things I work with is anti-inflammatories. Chronic
inflammation leads to a lot of aging problems and disease, such as
cardiovascular disease and cancer. A number of these diseases you don't see
until you have a real problem. So prevention is a long time effort. I'm
looking at one of the most effective ways to deliver preventive agents, such
as anti-inflammatories and antioxidants -- putting them in food. Functional
food is the best and most practical approach for health promotion and
disease prevention, especially for those diseases that have no medicine to affect a cure, such as cancer.

Q: What do you have to consider in adding nutraceuticals to food?
Yu: One of the things we study is the kind of foods you can add to. You have to think about the consumer --
acceptability, cost, the benefits, convenience, consumer confidence, will it make money? Are people willing to
put it on the market? You also have to consider storage and processing, which may affect the release of the
bioactives.
AGFD                                    the Cornucopia    - Spring 2007                                     15

                                   AWARD NEWS - continued

                                Q: Why seeds?
                                Yu: Consumers want all-natural products. We selected grape and berry seeds,
                                which not only have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, they add
                                natural flavor and color and natural preservatives. You can create a seed oil,
                                meal or flour. Which seed or form you use depends on the food.

                                Q: How do you determine dosages that insure the bioactives are effective?
                                Yu: We tell the food company, "Here's something of promise." They then
                                conduct animal study and clinical trials.

Q: What kinds of foods have you added nutraceuticals to?
Yu: We have added nutraceutical ingredients in several bakery products such as bread, muffins and pizza
crust, instant microwavable muffin mix, as well as yogurt. Theoretically, one can make any kinds of foods
"functional." Practically, lots of research has to be conducted before one may create a successful functional
food product.

Q: Talk about your work with the chitosan, which is found in crab shells.
Yu: We examined and compared commercial chitosan samples with
different characteristics for their capacity to bind fat, cholesterol, and bile
acids. These properties are important in body weight control and reducing
blood cholesterol. We also developed utilization of chitosan derivatives in
controlled release and targeted delivery of bioactive factors to improve the
safety and effectiveness of these bioactive factors, nutraceuticals and
pharmaceuticals.

Q: What is the future of nutraceuticals?
Yu: As more evidence builds that nutraceuticals and functional foods may benefit human health, consumers
would like to have such products with improved sensory properties, effectiveness, safety, convenience,
stability, and cost. This will continue to offer opportunities and challenges for nutraceutical research and
development. Future nutraceutical research will require more multidisciplinary efforts.

Q: How did you get interested in this field of research?
Yu: In China I was head of a technical department of a cosmetic company, developing skin care products.
Before that, my research focused on discovery and development of anti-aging drugs. When I was at Purdue
University working on a Ph.D in food science, I decided on nutraceuticals and functional foods. Then, after
working at Kellogg, I decided on academia, where I can work on what I want. And I like to work with the
students. For me, it's not just a job, it's a part of my life.
New from ACS
      40% Discount for
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AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY                                    CHALLENGES IN TASTE CHEMISTRY                                             POLYKETIDES
Challenges and Prospects                                      AND BIOLOGY                                                               Biosynthesis, Biological Activity,
                                                              Edited by THOMAS HOFMANN, CHI-TANG HO                                     and Genetic Engineering
Edited by MAHESH K. BHALGAT,
                                                              and WILHELM PICKENHAGEN
WILLIAM P. RIDLEY, ALLAN S. FELSOT                                                                                                      Edited by AGNES M. RIMANDO and
and JAMES N. SEIBER                                           This book is divided into four sections. The first section                SCOTT R. BAERSON
                                                              contains an overview chapter that reviews taste transduction
This book examines the current challenges and future          and perception.                                                           Polyketides represent an array of often structural-
prospects for agricultural biotechnology from the                                                                                       ly complex natural products produced by diverse
perspectives of academic, industrial, and governmen-          The second section begins with a chapter describing a                     organisms, many of which are pharmacologically
tal research scientists.                                      new technique called taste dilution analysis, which uses the              valuable. This book provides an excellent
                                                              human tongue as a sensitive biosensor for tastants.                       overview of the chemistry, genetics, physiology,
(ACS Symposium Series No. 866)
2004        232 pp.; 15 halftones & line illus.               The third section emphasizes peptides as taste-active                     and enzymology of these compounds. Academic
978-0-8412-3815-2        $144.50/$87.70                       compounds.                                                                and industrial leaders from around the world
                                                                                                                                        working in the fields of medicine, microbiology,
                                                              The last section discusses the factors such as viscosity on               and plant biology have included some of their
ADVANCES IN BIOPOLYMERS                                       flavor perception.                                                        latest results for this volume.
Molecules, Clusters, Networks                                 (ACS Symposium Series No. 867)
and Interactions                                                                                                                        (ACS Symposium Series No. 955)
                                                              2003        304 pp.; 5 halftones, 100 line illus.                         December 2006                 272 pp.
Edited by MARSHALL L. FISHMAN,                                978-0-8412-3852-7         $149.50/$89.70                                  978-0-8412-3978-4             $179.50/$107.70
PHOEBE X. QI and LOUISE WICKER
This book covers selected recent research and
                                                              IRRADIATION OF FOOD AND PACKAGING                                         FOOD FACTORS IN HEALTH
developments involving elucidation of networks,               Recent Developments                                                       PROMOTION AND DISEASE
protein-polysaccharide interactions; and isolation,           Edited by VANEE KOMOLPRASERT                                              PREVENTION
characterization, modification and                            and KIM MOREHOUSE                                                         Edited by FEREIDOON SHAHIDI,
applications of biopolymers.                                                                                                            CHI-TANG HO, SHAW WATANABE
                                                              This book presents extensive coverage of irradiated foods and
(ACS Symposium Series)                                        food products contaminated with food borne pathogens,                     and TOSHIHIKO OSAWA
2006        332 pp.; 7 color, 110 b/w line illus.             and the effects on irradiation and packaging materials and                In recent years, due to increasing demands of
978-0-8412-3959-3         $179.50/$107.70                     additives. It also shows the effects ionizing radiation has               consumers for alternative and preventive health
                                                              on improved functional components in fresh fruits and                     management, the market for supplements,
NATURAL FLAVOR AND FRAGRANCES                                 vegetables.                                                               nutraceuticals, and functional foods has expanded
Chemistry, Analysis, and Production                           (ACS Symposium Series No. 875)
                                                                                                                                        exponentially. Food Factors in Health Promotion
Edited by CARL FREY and RUSSELL L.                            2004        376 pp.; 2 halftones, 68 line illus.                          and Disease Prevention brings together expert
                                                              978-0-8412-3869-5         $159.50/$95.70                                  scientists in chemistry, biochemistry, genetics,
ROUSEFF
                                                                                                                                        pharmacology, and related medical sciences from
With the development of synthetic organic chemistry                                                                                     Japan, Taiwan, Korea, Europe, and North America
techniques in the early 19th century the world of
                                                              POTENTIAL HEALTH BENEFITS OF CITRUS
                                                                                                                                        to addresss important food factors which have
synthetic F&F materials began and expanded, but               Edited by BHIMANAGOUDA S. PATIL, NANCY D.
                                                                                                                                        shown effects in health promotion and disease
it has not totally replaced natural F&F. How do the           TURNER, EDWARD G. MILLER and JENNIFER S.                                  prevention.
chemical, biological, and agricultural sciences               BRODBELT
                                                                                                                                        (ACS Symposium Series No. 851)
support the natural F&F industry? What is the state           During the last 10-20 years, interest in the health-promoting             2003        464 pp.; 151 b/w halftones & line
of current natural F&F research? These are questions          activity of chemicals in fruits and vegetables has increased              illus
this volume attempts to address.                              dramatically. The chapters will mainly focus on citrus                    978-0-8412-3807-7        $179.50/$107.70
(ACS Symposium Series No. 908)                                flavonoids, limonoids, and polysaccharides with emphasis on
2005        232 pp.; 75 halftones & line illus.               the ability of these naturally occurring chemicals to inhibit             NUTRACEUTICAL BEVERAGES
978-0-8412-3904-3        $124.50/$74.70                       the development of cancer, heart disease, and obesity.
                                                                                                                                        Chemistry, Nutrition, and Health
                                                              (ACS Symposium Series No. 936)                                            Effects
ORIENTAL FOODS AND HERBS                                      2006        296 pp.; 65 halftones & line illus.
                                                              978-0-8412-3957-9        $174.50/$104.70                                  FEREIDOON SHAHIDI and DEEPTHI K.
Chemistry and Health Benefits                                                                                                           WEERASINGHE
Edited by CHI-TANG HO, JEN-KUN LIN
                                                              OFF-FLAVORS IN AQUACULTURE                                                Beverages derived from fruits and vegetables are
and QUIN YI ZHENG
                                                              Edited by AGNES M. RIMANDO                                                a rich source of vitamin C, carotenoids, phenolics
This book discusses the modern chemical research              and KEVIN K. SCHRADER                                                     and polyphenolics as well as other bioactives.
on Oriental functional foods and herbal products.                                                                                       The bioactives in nutraceutical beverages may act
Emphasis is placed on the application of modern               Off-Flavors in Aquaculture discusses types of off-flavors,
                                                              analytical detection methods for off-flavor compounds, and                synergistically with one another and their effect
scientific technology to assure the efficacy and                                                                                        may be amplified through fortification, cultivating
safety of functional foods and nutraceutical                  pre-harvest and post-harvest management practices for
                                                              preventing and dealing with off-flavor in aquaculture                     practices, or biotechnological means. This book
supplements.                                                                                                                            discusses factors in the formulation, chemistry,
                                                              products such as catfish, shellfish, shrimp, tilapia, and trout.
(ACS Symposium Series No. 859)                                                                                                          nutrition, and health effects of nutraceutical
                                                              (ACS Symposium Series No. 848)                                            beverages.
2003        360 pp.; 6 halftones, 124 line illus.
978-0-8412-3841-1         $159.50/$95.70                      2003        280 pp.; 3 halftones & 38 line illus
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                                                                                                                                        2004        504 pp.; 136 line illus. & 8 halftones
                                                                                                                                        978-0-8412-3823-7         $164.50/$98.70



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AGFD                                   the Cornucopia     - Spring 2007                                         17


  AGFD Program, 233rd ACS National Meeting, Chicago, March 25-29, 2006
                    A. M. Rimando, Program Chair


SUNDAY MORNING
                                                                                                         Section A
Soluble Cellulose as Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition and Health
Human Clinical Studies: Prevention of Metabolic Diseases
S. K. Lynch, M. Turowski, and W. H. Yokoyama, Organizers

8:30 — Introductory Remarks.
8:35 —1. Dietary portfolio including viscous fibers to control serum cholesterol. D. J. Jenkins, C. W. Kendall
9:15 —2. Efficacy of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose in lowering blood cholesterol. J. Dressman
9:45 —3. High-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose: A promising agent for metabolic risk factor management. K.
C. Maki
10:15 — Intermission.
10:35 —4. Decreases in adiposity by viscous indigestible polysaccharides in rats. D. D. Gallaher, L. M. Freiburger,
J -A. Nazare
10:55 —5. Human health benefits from consumption of soluble fibers. K. M. Behall
11:15 —6. Glycemic Index: Effect of fiber on postprandial glycemia. C. W. Kendall, D. J. Jenkins
11:45 — Concluding Remarks.

                                                                                                         Section B
Natural Products, Diets and Cancer Prevention
N. Suh and A. M. Rimando, Organizers
C. Gerhauser, Presiding

8:10 — Introductory Remarks.
8:15 —7. Natural products for cancer chemoprevention: Progress and promise. H. Mukhtar
8:45 —8. Prevention of gastrointestinal tract cancers with berries. G. D. Stoner, T. Chen
9:15 —9. Novel approaches for colon cancer prevention by types of dietary fat, pterostilbene and other food
components. B. S. Reddy, H. Newmark, N. Suh, A. M. Rimando, C. V. Rao
9:45 —10. Dietary calcium and (phyto)estrogens modulate vitamin D synthesis in colonocytes: A model for colon
cancer prevention. H. S. Cross
10:15 — Intermission.
10:25 —11. Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit photocarcinogenesis through prevention of UV-induced
suppression of immune responses via induction of interleukin-12 in mice. S. K. Katiyar
10:55 —12. Chemoprevention of inflammation-associated carcinogenesis afforded by dietary phytochemicals. Y -J.
Surh
11:25 —13. Molecular mechanism of prostate cancer prevention by a dietary nutrient inositol hexaphosphate. R.
Agarwal


SUNDAY AFTERNOON
                                                                                                         Section A
Soluble Cellulose as Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition and Health
Nutritional Studies and Food Chemistry
S. K. Lynch, M. Turowski, and W. H. Yokoyama, Organizers

1:15 — Introductory Remarks.
1:20 —14. Effects of HPMC on intralumenal characteristics that may be important to its hypocholesterolemic
activity in humans. C. Reppas
1:40 —15. Prevention of insulin resistance, hypertension and weight gain in hamsters fed soluble cellulose. W. H.
Yokoyama, Y -J. Hong, M. Turowski, S. K. Lynch
2:00 —16. Potential nutritional benefits and unique in product functionalities of methylcellulose. D. Lis, A.
McPherson
2:20 —17. Methylcellulose as bulk laxative. R. Zilberboim
2:40 — Intermission.
2:55 —18. Composition and properties of edible water soluble celluloses. J. R. Conklin
3:15 —19. Chemical characterization of cellulose ethers. M. J. Rinken
3:35 —20. Determination of soluble celluloses in food matrices. R. Harfmann, M. Turowski, B. Deshmukh, J. R.
Conklin, S. K. Lynch
3:55 —21. Modified celluloses in the restaurant. A. J. Taylor, R. Edwards-Stuart, H. Blumenthal, C. Young, J. Hort
4:15 —22. Role of cellulosic gums in bakery products: Gluten-free products. C. M. Rosell
4:35 — Concluding Remarks.

                                                                                                            Section B
Natural Products, Diets and Cancer Prevention
Metabolism, Bioavailability, and Dietary Prevention
A. M. Rimando, Organizer
N. Suh, Organizer, Presiding

1:00 — Introductory Remarks.
1:05 —23. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apple juice and apple juice extracts. L. Pan, H. Zessner, F. Will, K.
Klimo, N. Frank, H. Dietrich, H. Bartsch, H. Becker, C. Gerhauser
1:35 —24. Apple phytochemicals in the prevention of cancer: Mechanisms of action. R. H. Liu
2:05 —25. Modulation of the carcinogen activation and cellular signaling pathways by naturally occurring plant
phenols. W. Baer-Dubowska, R. Mikstacka
2:35 —26. Bioavailability issues in studying the health effects of plant polyphenolic compounds. C. S. Yang, J. D.
Lambert, S. Sang
3:05 — Intermission.
3:15 —27. Natural products and their pleiotropic interactions with molecular targets: Toward the molecular basis for
cancer chemoprevention. A. D. Mesecar, A. L. Eggler, B. Calamini, R. B. van Breemen, J. M. Pezzuto
3:45 —28. Inducers of the Phase 2 response: Combined direct and indirect antioxidant protection against
electrophiles and oxidants. A. T. Dinkova-Kostova
4:15 —29. Translating knowledge generated by epidemiological and in vitro studies into dietary cancer prevention.
E. H. Jeffery, R. M. Bheemreddy, R -H. Lai
4:45 —30. Marine microbes: The critical role they play in sustainable production of starting materials for the
synthesis of drug leads and the structure for the elusive Pfiesteria-associated fish killing toxin using 13C enrichment
and dual cryoprobe NMR studies. J. Peng, R. Hill, A. Place, C. Anklin, M. T. Hamann


MONDAY MORNING
                                                                                                            Section A
Micro/Nano Encapsulation of Active Food Ingredients
ACS Symposium Honors David Julian McClements
Q. Huang, P. Given, M. C. Qian, and W. H. Yokoyama, Organizers

8:30 — Introductory Remarks.
8:35 — Award.
8:45 — Introduction of Awardee.
8:50 —31. Application of nanolaminated biopolymer structures in foods. D. J. McClements
9:30 — Intermission.
9:45 —32. Protein-polyelectrolyte coacervates: Macro- and meso-phase separation. P. L. Dubin
10:10 —33. Self-assembly of proteins at polysaccharide surfaces. Q. Huang
10:35 —34. Milk protein nanotubes: Formation, structure and stability of a-lactalbumin nanotubes for application in
food and non-food systems. C. G. de Kruif
11:00 —35. Design and function of protein based micro-rods and microspheres. E. van der Linden
General Papers                                                                                          Section B
A. M. Rimando, Organizer
M. Appell, Presiding

8:15 — Introductory Remarks.
8:20 —36. Polyphenols in common beverages enrich lower density lipoproteins and increase their oxidative
resistance in vivo after human consumption of a single serving. J. A. Vinson, J. Jang, J. Yang, Y. Dabbagh, X.
Liang
8:40 —37. Cranberry phytochemicals: In vitro evidence for anticancer activity. C. C. Neto, A. M. Liberty, J. W.
Amoroso, E. Domingues, P. E. Hart, R. A. R. Hurta
9:00 —38. Blueberry skins lower plasma and liver cholesterol and triglycerides in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.
A. M. Rimando, W. H. Yokoyama, A. Patny, M. A. Avery, C. S. Mizuno
9:20 —39. Developments of aroma and aroma precursor in Pinot Noir grapes and their contribution to wine aroma
determined by stir bar sorptive extraction. M. C. Qian, Y. Fang
9:40 — Intermission.
9:50 —40. Bioassay-guided isolation of antimycobacterial compounds from Strychnos mitsherlichii and Clavija
procera, two ethnomedicinal Peruvian plants. J. C. Aponte, R. E. Rojas, L. Caviedes, R. H. Gilman, C. Sarasara,
W. H. Lewis, A. J. Vaisberg, G. B. Hammond
10:10 —41. Bioactivity-guided isolation of in vitro quinone reductase (QR) inducing agents from soybean (Glycine
max ssp.). B. Bolling, K. L. Parkin
10:30 —42. 2'-Epi-orobanchol and solanacol, two unique germination stimulants for root parasitic weeds produced
by tobacco plants. X. Xie, D. Kusumoto, Y. Takeuchi, K. Yoneyama, Y. Yamada
10:50 —43. Innovative modified gum acacia: A potential emulsifier for beverage emulsions. N. Naouli, R. S. Riefler,
G. Andon
11:10 —44. Comparison between Raman and near-infrared spectroscopic measurement of glucose and urea in
bovine blood ultrafiltrate. M. Ren, M. A. Arnold
11:30 —45. Studies on phytosterols in bamboo shoot using UPLC-APCI-MS. B. Lu, X. Wu, Y. Zhang


MONDAY AFTERNOON                                                                                         Section A

Micro/Nano Encapsulation of Active Food Ingredients
Novel Characterization Methods and Theoretical Approaches
Q. Huang, P. Given, M. C. Qian, and W. H. Yokoyama, Organizers

1:15 — Introductory Remarks.
1:20 —46. Molecular packing in glassy carbohydrates: Implications for encapsulation and biostabilization. J.
Ubbink, D. Kilburn, J. Claude, S. Townrow, A. Alam
1:45 —47. Design of multilayered biopolymer interfacial films for enhanced emulsion stability and for controlled
release: A theoretical study. R. Ettelaie, E. Dickinson, A. Akinshina
2:10 —48. Assembly and disassembly of biopolyelectrolyte multilayers and their potential for the encapsulation and
controlled release of active ingredients from foods. R. Parker, J. Moffat, T. Noel, S. G. Ring
2:35 — Intermission.
2:55 —49. Transport mechanisms in the micellar solubilization of emulsion droplets. S. R. Dungan
3:20 —50. Real time monitoring of interactions occurring in oil-in-water emulsions: Diffusing wave and ultrasonic
spectroscopy. M. Alexander, J. Liu, M. Corredig
3:45 —51. Characterization of encapsulated ingredients. N. K. Vail, J. D. Oxley

                                                                                                         Section B
Graduate Student Symposium
C. J. Brine, Organizer

1:30 — Introductory Remarks.
1:35 —52. Development of hypoallergenic fermented soybean products. Y. S. Song, J. Frias, E. de Mejia
2:05 —53. Anticancer potential and mechanisms of lunasin and soy protein hydrolysates. W. Wang, E. de Mejia
2:35 —54. Evaluation mechanism of resistance by Fusarium to the manzamine alkaloids. N. Kasanah, A. G.
Shilabin, L. A. Lucas, D. E. Wedge, M. T. Hamann
3:05 — Intermission.
3:20 —55. Ursolic acid and proanthocyanidins from cranberry(Vaccinium macrocarpon) inhibit colony formation and
proliferation in HCT-116 and HT-29 colon and MCF-7 breast tumor cells. A. M. Liberty, P. E. Hart, C. C. Neto
3:50 —56. Enhancing the availability of whole-grain wheat antioxidants through post-harvest treatments and
improving processing conditions. J. Moore, L. Yu
4:20 —57. Scavenging of reactive carbonyl species by dietary compounds. D. Tan



                                                                                                               Section C
General Posters
A. M. Rimando, Organizer
D. Weerasinghe, Presiding

2:00 - 4:00
58. A survey of the alpha-mangostin content of commercial mangosteen beverages. W. G. Geilman, B -N. Zhou, B.
J. West
59. Garcinia mangostana liquid dietary suppplement-Mango.xan®: Its anti-inflammatory effects. A. K. Palu, W. G.
Geilman, B. J. West
60. Long term feeding trial with grapefruit flavonoids. E. G. Miller, M. H. Wasson, S. E. Taylor, R. D. Spears, G. K.
Jayaprakasha, B. S. Patil
61. Isolation and identification of flavonol glycosides in American cranberry fruit using HPLC and GC-MS. Y. Zuo,
H. Chen, Y. Deng
62. Distribution of catechins, epicatechins, and methylxanthines in green tea available in regular and decaffeinated
form. S. Kafley, M. G. Ondrus, C. Rohrer
63. Effect of extraction parameters on polyphenols in caffeinated and decaffeinated green tea. S. G. Gudala, M. G.
Ondrus, C. Rohrer
64. Effects of shelf-life on phytonutrients in beer beverages. C. Rohrer, S. Majoni
65. Quantitative combination effects between sulforaphane and 3,3'-diindolylmethane on proliferation of human
colon cancer cells in vitro. G. Pappa, H. Bartsch, C. Gerhauser
66. Methylothiostilbenes as inhibitors of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 activities. R. Mikstacka, W. Baer-
Dubowska, M. Wieczorek, S. Sobiak
67. Varietal differences in phenolic content and antioxidant activity of asparagus. E. Cakir, V. Sweet, J. Tang, J. R.
Powers
68. Phenolic content and inhibitory activity of aldose reductase of medicinal plant extracts from several genera. J.
Gavillán-Suárez, M. A. Ramírez-Vicéns, M. C. Quiñones, Y. Rivera
69. Effects of nitrogen application on the antioxidant properties of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). P. M. Nguyen, D. R.
Taub, E. D. Niemeyer
70. Selective analysis of 4-hydroxyproline and proline in gelatin hydrolysates using LC-IPAD. J. Russell, M.
Koppang
71. Chemical characteristics and anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharide fractions from Monostroma
latissium. W. Mao, H. Zhang, H. Li
72. Polysaccharides from marine green seaweed Ulva pertusa and their characteristics. W. Mao, X. Zang
73. Physicochemical properties of partially hydrolyzed waxy rice starches. J -S. Shin, S. H. Yoo, C -T. Kim, C -S.
Park, M -Y. Baik
74. Correlation between gluten protein composition and rheological properties. G. Liu, L. Li, B. Li, Q. Lu, L. Chen, L.
Han
75. Effect of content of wet gluten of wheat flour on rheological properties. L. Li, G. Liu, B. Li, Q. Lu, S. Guo
76. Effects of pressing procedure and storage conditions on the rheology and microstructure of Queso Blanco. M.
H. Tunick, D. L. Van Hekken, P. H. Cooke
77. Effect of ultrasound on the stability of casein in pasteurized milk. B. Li, W. Xiong, L. Li, L. Chen
78. Effect of microwave radiation on the physicochemical properties of maize starches. Z. Luo
79. Effect of roasting temperature and time on physicochemical characteristics of roasted soybean powder. J. H.
Eo, M. Park, F. H. Hsieh, J. B. Eun
80. Tensile strength and sorption characteristics of stearic acid-cysteine-soy protein isolate blend films. L. Li, G. Liu,
B. Li, Q. Lu, L. Chen, G. Huang
81. Encapsulation of MCT oil in modified starches by spray drying. H. Yoshii, M. Yasuda, H. Tobe, T. L. Neoh, T.
Furuta
82. Kinetics of molecular encapsulation of 1-methylcyclopropene into a-cyclodextrin. T. L. Neoh, K. Yamauchi, H.
Yoshii, T. Furuta
83. Pyrolysis of agricultural waste over nanoporous materials from zeolites. M. Yu, S. K. Ahn, S. I. Chang, J. Y.
Koo, J. Y. Lee, Y -K. Park
84. Microalgae culture for wastewater treatment and biodiesel production. F. Yu, Q. Kong, P. Chen, R. Ruan
85. Phytotoxicity of trichothecenes using an Arabidopsis detached leaf assay. S. P. McCormick, A. E. Desjardins,
M. Appell
86. Subterranean termite (Reticulitermes speratus ) and common cutworm (Spodoptera litura) antifeedants in
tropical Asia Resak. M. Morimoto, H. Fukumoto, Y. Fukuda, T. Kitayama, K. Komai
87. Migration and diffusion of common antioxidant additives from and through food contact polymers. W. M.
Heiserman, W. Limm, T. H. Begley, R. A. Walker
88. Mineral contents in seed coat and canning quality of selected cultivars of dark red kidney beans (Phaseolus
vulgaris L.). A. K. Anderson, X. J. WU
89. Changes of physicochemical characteristics and volatile flavor compounds of Jinyangju, a Korean traditional
rice wine sterilized at different temperatures. J. B. Eun, T. Y. Jin, S. H. Choi
90. Stability of fat soluble vitamins in commercial vitamin tablets during storage. J -H. Kim, S. H. Yoo, C -S. Park, M
-Y. Baik
91. NMR state diagram application study: Maillard reaction in model storage systems around transition point
temperature. J. Zhang, R. Ruan, X. Lin, P. Chen, F. Yu
92. Non-destructive detection of deep muscle bruising in salmon by near infrared spectroscopy. A. G. Cavinato, M.
M. Hammers, D. M. Mayes, M. Lin, B. A. Rasco
93. Nonlethal detection of bacterial kidney disease in Pacific salmon by near infrared spectroscopy. A. G. Cavinato,
T. L. Boethin, M. M. Hammers, K. Troutman, T. Hoffnagle, A. Greenlee
94. Reduction of parasites and diseases in honeybees. E. J. Geels, A. Korver, S. Hanenberg
95. Ab initio study of acetylated derivatives of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol. M. Appell, S. P. McCormick, A. E.
Desjardins
96. HPLC Determination of chlorate metabolism in ruminal fluid. R. C. Beier, M. E. Hume, R. C. Anderson, C. E.
Oliver, T. R. Callaway, T. S. Edrington, D. J. Nisbet
97. Development of a method for the determination of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) in edible oils by
graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). R. Boisvert, N. Boivin, A. Santagati
98. Recognition and inhibition of B. cereus spores in milk and juice using glycoconjugates. P. Bobryshev
99. Isolation and physicochemical characterization of EU rubber from Eucommia ulmoides leaves. Y. Su, J. Peng,
Q. Sun, J. Yue, N. Yoshihisa, R. Sun
100. Studies and development of a new method for effective extraction of the alkaloids from Lotus stem. Q -L.
Feng, D -Q. Liu, F. Lv
101. GC/MS analysis of the chemical constituents of mint volatile oil in the county of Shangri-La, Yunnan province.
Y. Yu Sr., Z. Guo Sr.
102. Detection of glutathione/glutahione-S-transferase interaction by surface plasmon resonance with BSA-
modified chip. L. Chen
103. Detection of potato virus by microarray and RT labeling method. N. He, Y. Gu, J. Chen, S. Li
104. Protein engineering of Sulfolobus solfataricus maltooligosyltrehalose synthase to alter its selectivity. T -Y.
Fang, W -C. Tseng, C -H. Pan, Y -T. Chung
105. Detection of potato spindle tuber viroid using RNA hybridization chips. N. He, Y. Gu, J. Chen, S. Li
106. Assessment of hydrogen bonds between maltooligosyltrehalose synthase and pentamaltose by computer
simulation and site directed mutagenesis. W -C. Tseng, T -Y. Fang, C -R. Lin
107. Kinetic model of ultrasound-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. D -L. Luo Sr., Y. Nie III, J -Y. Guo
Sr.
108. Mechanism of ultrasound-assisted extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide reverse microemulsions. D -L. Luo
Sr., Y. Nie III, T -Q. Qiu Sr.
109. Synthesis of medium chain triglycerides utilizing camphor seed oil. D -L. Luo Sr., Y. Nie III
110. Study on purification and stability of the pigment from fructus rhodomyrti. H. Ruqiang Sr., D. Qian Jr., D.
Weiling Jr., L. Chunhong Jr.
111. Preservation of idli batter: A hurdle approach. P. Nisha, L. Ananthanarayan, R. W. Sabnis
112. Synthesis of a new dendritic oligosaccharide with alkyl spacer. T. Yoshida
113. Crystal and molecular structures of organophosphorus pesticides. G. B. Hall, R. G. Baughman


MONDAY EVENING
                                                                                                            Section A
Sci-Mix
A. M. Rimando, Organizer, Presiding

8:00 - 10:00
58-60, 64-66, 71, 76-77, 80, 83-84, 86, 90-91, 93, 95, 98, 102, 105, 112-113. See previous listings.
TUESDAY MORNING
                                                                                                           Section A
Micro/Nano En capsulation of Active Food Ingredients
Assembly of Novel Delivery Systems
Q. Huang, P. Given, M. C. Qian, and W. H. Yokoyama, Organizers

8:30 — Introductory Remarks.
8:35 —114. USDA nanotechnology research and development for improving food quality and value. H. Chen
9:00 —115. Novel ingredient delivery systems using nanosome technology. W. Haehnlein
9:25 —116. Modulating lipid delivery in food emulsions. P. J. Wilde, M. J. Ridout, A. R. Mackie, M. S. J. Wickham,
R. M. Faulks
9:50 — Intermission.
10:10 —117. Formation of single surfactant microemulsions. H. L. Rosano, N. Naouli, J. L. Cavallo, G. E. Krammer
10:35 —118. Lipid structures as delivery vehicles in foods. P. R. Smith
11:00 —119. Benefits of a soy lecithin based nanotechnology for the animal and human food industry. S. E. Peters,
C. H. Brain


TUESDAY AFTERNOON
                                                                                                           Section A
Micro/Nano Encapsulation of Active Food Ingredients
Assembly of Novel Delivery Systems
Q. Huang, P. Given, M. C. Qian, and W. H. Yokoyama, Organizers

1:15 — Introductory Remarks.
1:20 —120. Complex coacervate core micelles as potential carriers of functional ingredients. W. Norde
1:45 —121. Nano- and microparticles from globular proteins: Applications to controlled release of food ingredients.
M. Subirade, L. Chen, C. Mercier
2:10 —122. Nano, microencapsulation of bioactive macromolecules for controlled release delivery (Nanoshells and
clay nanotubules). Y. M. Lvov
2:35 — Intermission.
2:55 —123. Nanoencapsulation systems based on milk proteins and phospholipids. H. Singh
3:20 —124. Controlled self-organization of zein nanostructures for encapsulation of active food ingredients. Q.
Wang, G. W. Padua
3:45 —125. Green nanocomposites films for food encapsulation. A. K. Mohanty
4:10 —126. Materials for encapsulation of food ingredients: Understanding the properties to find practical solutions.
C. MeCrae, B. Guthrie, J. Heigis, G. Mondro, W. Shieh


WEDNESDAY MORNING
                                                                                                           Section A
Micro/Nano Encapsulation of Active Food Ingredients
Novel Delivery Systems for Health Promotion Applications
Q. Huang, P. Given, M. C. Qian, and W. H. Yokoyama, Organizers

8:30 — Introductory Remarks.
8:35 —127. Micellar cubic structures, QL, and micellosomes for improved solubilization and bioavailability on
nutraceuticals. N. Garti, R. Efrat
9:00 —128. Solubilization and crystallization kinetics of lipophilic materials into nm-size O/W emulsion. K. Sato
9:25 —129. BioSwitch: A release-on-demand delivery system. H. Boumans
9:50 — Intermission.
10:10 —130. Enhancing stability and bioavailability of polyphenols using nanoemulsions. X. Wang, Y -W. Wang, Q.
Huang
10:35 —131. Enhancement of microcapsule barrier properties. J. D. Oxley, N. K. Vail
11:00 —132. Microencapsulation using coacervation for delivery of omega-3 oils into foods. C. J. Barrow, Y -L. Jin,
J. Curtis, S. Cloutier
WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON
                                                                                                          Section A
Micro/Nano Encapsulation of Active Food Ingredients
Novel Delivery Systems for Flavor/Aroma Applications
Q. Huang, P. Given, M. C. Qian, and W. H. Yokoyama, Organizers

1:15 — Introductory Remarks.
1:20 —133. Delivering flavor: From the molecular to the sensory level. A. J. Taylor, R. S. Linforth, J. Hort
1:45 —134. Citrus and vegetable oil microemulsions. N. Naouli, H. L. Rosano
2:10 —135. Capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for controlled release of drugs, proteins, nutrients, and flavor
chemicals. V. S -Y. Lin
2:35 — Intermission.
2:55 —136. Delivering flavorings via spray chilling. J. M. Finney, G. A. Reineccius
3:20 —137. Approaches to encapsulation of active food ingredients in spray drying. A. Millqvist Fureby
3:45 —138. Shelf-life oxidation study of coacervated orange oil. D. J. Paetznick, G. A. Reineccius

THURSDAY MORNING                                                                                          Section A

Functional Plant Phenolics
Analysis and Evaluation
M. Berhow, Organizer

8:30 — Introductory Remarks.
8:35 —139. Circular dichroism, a powerful tool for definition of the absolute configuration of proanthocyanidins. D.
Ferreira
8:55 —140. Polymethoxylated flavone analysis of citrus products using direct injection and in-line trace enrichment.
W. W. Widmer
9:15 —141. Polyphenols in Mate tea depend on cultivation and preparation conditions. C. Heck, E. de Mejia
9:35 —142. Recent development in application of polyphenols in polymer materials. Q. Shen, L -H. Zhang
9:55 —143. Polyphenols in white tea and their stability during storage. E. de Mejia, H. C. Lin
10:15 —144. Influence of sample preparation on assay of functional phenolic phytochemicals. D. L. Luthria
10:35 —145. Analysis of phenolics and glucosinolates in broccoli seeds and sprouts. M. Berhow, G. N. Jham, S. F.
Vaughn, B. Tisserat, S. M. Duval
10:55 —146. In vivo studies of the anti-inflammatory actions of citrus polymethoxylated flavones. J. A. Manthey
11:15 —147. Separation techniques impact proanthocyanidin bioactivity and degree of polymerization. J. L.
Alwerdt, D. Seigler, E. DeMejia, G. Yousef, M. A. Lila

THURSDAY AFTERNOON                                                                                        Section A

Functional Plant Phenolics              Functionality of Phenolics in Biological Systems
M. Berhow, Organizer

1:35 —148. Induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases by allelochemicals ameliorates xenobiotic toxicity in
Helicoverpa zea. Z. Wen, R. S. Zeng, G. Niu, M. R. Berenbaum, M. A. Schuler
1:55 —149. Antimicrobial activity of an apple extract. J. J. Willie
2:15 —150. Manipulating the lipid resorcinol pathway to enhance plant allelopathy. F. E. Dayan, D. Cook, S. R.
Baerson, Z. Pan, A. M. Rimando, S. O. Duke
2:35 —151. Phenolic bioavailability: Roles of gut microbes. S. Hendrich
2:55 —152. Activity of plant phenolics functioning as sources of insect resistance in plants. P. F. Dowd, R. O.
Musser, E. T. Johnson
3:15 —153. Feruloylated vegetable oils: Synthesis and applications of UV-absorbing/antioxidative lipids. D. L.
Compton, J. A. Laszlo
3:35 —154. Phenolics from purple carrots have higher radical scavenging activity. G. Jayaprakash, J. B. Patil, B.
Patil
3:55 —155. Transgenic phenolic production in corn silks moderately enhances insect resistance. E. T. Johnson, M.
Berhow, P. F. Dowd
4:15 —156. Exogenous carbon applications enhances the simultaneous occurrence of growth, morphogenesis and
rosmarinic acid levels in spearmint plantlets in vitro. B. Tisserat, M. Berhow, S. F. Vaughn
                     ABSTRACTS OF AGFD TECHNICAL PROGRAM
               at the 233rd ACS National Meeting, Chicago, March 25-29, 2006

AGFD 1 Dietary portfolio including viscous fibers to control serum cholesterol
David JA. Jenkins, Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modofication Centre, St. Michael's Hospital, 61 Queen Street East, 6th
Floor, Toronto, ON M5C2T2, Canada, Fax: 416-978-5310, cyril.kendall@utoronto.ca, and Cyril WC. Kendall, Nutritional
Sciences, University of Toronto
To determine whether a dietary portfolio (a combination dietary approach) containing viscous fiber can effectively control
serum cholesterol. In a series of metabolically controlled studies, we have demonstrated the efficacy of viscous fibers in
combination with other cholesterol lowering foods to maximize the effect of fiber. Viscous fibers from oats, barley, psyllium
and the vegetables okra and eggplant were combined with cholesterol-lowering foods (almonds and soy protein) and food
components (plant sterols,) in the same diet (dietary portfolio). Reductions in LDL-C cholesterol of 25-35% were achieved,
similar to a along with a significant reduction in C-reactive protein. The effects were similar to a first generation statin
(Lovastin). We have now assessed this dietary approach in a real-world ‘effectiveness' study in which 66 hyperlipidemic
individuals, who have been on the diet for over one-year, were instructed to follow a self-selected dietary portfolio. At one
year, the dietary portfolio resulted in mean LDL-cholesterol reductions of 12.8%. Reductions were related to compliance with
the diet. In approximately one third of the subjects who closely followed the diet, significant and clinically meaningful
reductions in LDL-cholesterol of greater than 20% were achieved together with lower blood pressure and a reduced
neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio, as a new hematologic marker of CHD risk. The portfolio diet is an effective approach for
maximizing the effectiveness of fiber in decreasing cholesterol levels and risk for coronary heart disease in those individuals
who are prepared to make a significant change to their diet.

AGFD 2 Efficacy of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose in lowering blood cholesterol
Jennifer Dressman, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Max            -von-Laue-Str. 9,
Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Fax: 49 69 7982 9724, dressman@em.uni-frankfurt.de
Many processed foods have a very high content of saturated fat (one of the most important factors in generating
hypercholesterolemia and obesity), as well as an excess of sugar and digestible starches (very efficient sources of energy, of
which the excess is also transformed into fat in the human body), yet they usually contain deficient amounts of dietary fiber.
Dietary fiber (DF), in particular soluble dietary fiber (SDF) is a fundamental factor in prevention and treatment of
hypercholesterolemia, which is linked with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially in association with overweight and obese
individuals.
Methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) food gums are produced from cellulose, a natural
carbohydrate that contains a basic repeating structure of anhydroglucose units. They have a proven track record of usage as
food additives and have no known adverse effects. The effectiveness of HPMC food gum in regulating the levels of blood
cholesterol lipoproteins, helping in management and/or prevention of cardiovascular disease, has been demonstrated to date in
six independent human clinical trials. In this presentation, the results of two further independent clinical trials with high and
medium viscosity HPMC in mildly hypercholesterolemic human subjects will be reported. The aims of the studies were to test
the ability of HPMC to reduce serum cholesterol levels in relation to its ability to generate a high viscosity in aqueous
solutions; to investigate whether viscosity effects are mediated via changes in upper GI transit time; to test whether viscosity
effects are mediated via a disruption in the efficiency of fat digestion and absorption and to investigate efficacy of HPMC at
two on a chronic base at two dose levels.

AGFD 3 High-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose: A promising agent for metabolic risk factor management
Kevin C. Maki, Provident Clinical Research, Inc, 1000 West 1st Street, Bloomington, IN 47403, Fax: 812-961-1525,
kmaki@providentcrc.com
Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), a viscous dietary fiber, has previously been shown to lower cholesterol and to blunt
postprandial glycemia at intakes of 10-30 g/d. We studied the metabolic effects of smaller quantities of high-viscosity (HV)
HPMC in a series of trials. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lowered by 6-13% with 2.5-7.5 g/d of HV-HPMC. Both 4
and 8 g of HV-HPMC with a standard meal blunted postprandial insulin and glucose responses in overweight subjects.
Incremental areas under the insulin and glucose curves (0-120 min) were reduced by 36 and 38%, respectively (average of 4
and 8 g tests). No differences in responses were observed between the two doses. The effects on postprandial glycemia were
most pronounced among subjects with above-average peak glucose during the control test. HV-HPMC shows promise as a
dietary intervention for reducing cardiovascular and diabetes risk.
AGFD 4 Decreases in adiposity by viscous indigestible polysaccharides in rats
Daniel D Gallaher1 , Laura M. Freiburger1 , and Julie-Anne Nazare 2 . (1) Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University
of Minnesota, 1334 Eckles Ave, St. Paul, MN 55108, Fax: 612-625-5272, dgallahe@umn.edu, (2) Ecole Nationale Supérieure
de Biologie Appliquée à la Nutrition et à l'Alimentation (ENSBANA)
The prevalence of obesity in countries worldwide has reached alarming levels. Obesity is, in essence, excess adiposity.
Although the causes of obesity are multifactorial, dietary components to decrease adiposity would be highly desirable. We
have examined the effect of indigestible polysaccharides of different viscosities on adiposity. In the first study, rats were fed
hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) or ß-glucans of different viscosities for 4 weeks. Animals were meal-fed, then
intestinal contents collected and the contents viscosity determined. Plasma leptin, an established marker of whole body
adiposity, was determined. Intestinal contents viscosity and plasma leptin were highly inversely correlated (R2 =0.87),
indicating that increases in gut viscosity reduced adiposity. In a similar second study, feeding different viscosity grades of
HPMC, contents viscosity again inversely correlated with plasma leptin. In addition, contents viscosity also correlated
inversely with fat pad weight (R2 =0.73). Body weights were not significantly reduced, suggesting that viscous polysaccharides
primarily affect adiposity.

AGFD 5 Human health benefits from consumption of soluble fibers
Kay M. Behall, Retired, USDA-ARS-BHNRC-DHPL, 10300 Baltimore Ave., BARC-East, Building 307B, Room 220,
Beltsville, MD 20705, Fax: 301-504-9098, kay.behall@ars.usda.gov
Interest exists in the use of beneficial food components and lifestyle changes for the prevention and/or management of risk
factors of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Diets containing sufficient soluble fiber from grains (including oats and
barley) or isolated soluble fibers (such as carboxymethylcellulose, LBG, and Oatrim) to a healthy diet generally have been
effective in lowering total and LDL-cholesterol in both men and women and decreasing glucose and insulin responses of non-
diabetic and type 2 diabetic individuals. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has allowed a health claim related to the
lowering of blood cholesterol for oats, barley, Oatrim and pyllium extracts based on the soluble fiber content. The effects of
soluble fibers on blood pressure are less well described. The amount of soluble fiber consumed, initial blood glucose, insulin or
cholesterol concentrations, and the sex and age of the individual affect the magnitude of the reductions observed.

AGFD 6 Glycemic Index: Effect of fiber on postprandial glycemia
Cyril WC. Kendall, Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, 150 College Street, Toronto, ON
m5S3E2, Canada, Fax: 416-978-5310, cyril.kendall@utoronto.ca, and David JA. Jenkins, Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor
Modofication Centre, St. Michael's Hospital
Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of plant-based diets reduce risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart
disease. The “fiber hypothesis” suggested that this was a direct effect of fiber. The glycemic index concept is an extension of
the fiber hypothesis suggesting that fiber would reduce the rate of nutrient influx from the gut. It has particular relevance to
those chronic Western diseases associated with central obesity and insulin resistance. Early studies demonstrated starchy
carbohydrate foods had very different effects on postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses in healthy and diabetic
subjects depending on the rate of digestion. A range of factors associated with foods, including soluble fiber, were shown to
alter the rate of glucose absorption and the subsequent glycemic and insulinemic responses. Carbohydrate rich foods were
tested and the resulting glycemic index classification of foods provided a numeric physiological classification of carbohydrate
foods of relevance in prevention and treatment of diseases such as diabetes. Despite inconsistencies in the data, sufficient
positive findings have emerged to suggest that the dietary glycemic index is an aspect of diet of potential importance in the
treatment and prevention of chronic diseases. The development of novel fibers and their addition to functional foods may also
prove effective in decreasing postprandial glycemia.

AGFD 7 Natural products for cancer chemoprevention: Progress and promise
Hasan Mukhtar, Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1300 University Avenue, MSC B-25,
Madison, WI 53706, Fax: 608-263-5223, hmukhtar@wisc.edu
For cancer chemoprevention naturally occurring diet-based agents are preferred. The prevailing mantra of chemoprevention has
been: “Find effective agents with acceptable or no toxicity and use them in individuals at high risk for developing cancer”. In
pursuing this goal many phytochemicals capable of affording protection against carcinogenesis have been described. However,
clinical trials of single agents have yielded disappointing results. Since carcinogenesis is a multistage phenomenon, it is
unlikely that one agent could prove effective. Thus, it is important to first identify all biochemical defects through which
particular cancer could occur and then establish the signature of defects in the individual for whom chemoprevention is sought.
At the same time we need to build an armamentarium of diet-based chemopreventive substances that could reverse or repair the
biochemical defects. Using this multidisciplinary approach the new effective mantra for cancer prevention “building
customized mechanism      -based chemoprevention cocktail of naturally occurring substances” is advocated.
AGFD 8 Prevention of gastrointestinal tract cancers with berries
Gary D. Stoner and Tong Chen, Department of Internal Medicine, Ohio State University, 2001 Polaris Parkway, Columbus,
OH 43240, Fax: (614)293-4072, gary.stoner@osumc.edu
Our laboratory has reported the ability of lyophilized black raspberries to inhibit carcinogen-induced cancer in the rodent
esophagus and colon. At 5% and 10% of the diet, berries inhibited the number N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced tumors in
the rat esophagus by 40-60%, and this correlated with reduction in the formation of O6-methylguanine adducts in esophageal
DNA and in the growth rate of premalignant cells. Mechanistic studies indicate that berries down-regulate the expression of
COX-2, c-Jun, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and VEGF. Berries also prevented the development of colon tumors by
up-to 80%. Based upon these data, we initiated prevention trials in humans. In an initial Phase I trial berries were well tolerated
with minimal side effects. Phase IIa clinical trials of berries are underway in subjects with Barrett's esophagus and colonic
polyps to determine if they will modulate histological and molecular biomarkers of esophageal and colon tumor development.
Supported by the USDA and NCI grants CA96130 and CA10318.

AGFD 9 Novel approaches for colon cancer prevention by types of dietary fat, pterostilbene and other food components
Bandaru S. Reddy1 , H. Newmark1 , Nanjoo Suh1 , Agnes M. Rimando2 , and Chintalapally V. Rao3 . (1) Rutgers, The State
University of New Jersey, Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ
08854, Fax: 732-445-0687, (2) USDA, ARS, Natural Products Utilization Research Unit, (3) University of Oklahoma Health
Sciences Center, University of Oklahoma Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine
Populations that have a high intake of saturated fats and calories have a higher risk for colon cancer development. Dietary fish
oil and olive oil reduce the risk. In support of these observations, several preclinical studies using animal models provided
evidence that high dietary saturated fats such as those in Western diets promote colon carcinogenesis whereas diets high in fish
oil or olive oil, or low calories had no such promoting effect. Epidemiological studies have provided initial leads for the
identification of naturally occurring candidate chemopreventive agents from fruits, vegetables and grains which are principal
sources of micronutrients and several minor constituents including isoflavonoids, ? -3 PUFA, triterpenoids, polyphenols,
isothiocyanates and stilbenes. Pterostilbene, a naturally occurring stilbene found in blueberries, was tested for its preventive
activity against colon carcinogenesis. Administration of pterostilbene (40 ppm) significantly suppressed azoxymethane-induced
formation of colonic aberrant crypt foci and multiple clusters of aberrant crypts. A very low dose (250 ppm) of Celecoxib, a
COX-2 inhibitor, administered in high ? -3 PUFA diet suppressed colon tumorigenesis more efficiently than when it is given in
a high fat Western-style diet. An important strategy to reduce the risks associated with the use of pharmacological agents is to
identify combinations of agents with different modes of action that are very effective at very low doses. This approach is very
important when a promising chemopreventive agent demonstrates significant efficacy but may produce toxic effects at high
doses. The use of low doses of pharmacological agents with different modes of action in combination with healthy lifestyles
seems to be a promising approach that may evolve into a better chemopreventive strategy for future human clinical trials.
(Supported by USPHS grant CA-37763 from the National Cancer Institute)

AGFD 10 Dietary calcium and (phyto)estrogens modulate vitamin D synthesis in colonocytes: A model for colon cancer
prevention
Heide S Cross, Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090,
Austria, Fax: 431 40400 5130, heide.cross@meduniwien.ac.at
Epidemiological evidence indicates vitamin D and calcium as active in colorectal tumor prevention. Among age-matched
women and men, women are far less likely to acquire colorectal cancer. Female sex hormones could be additional protective
factors since there is reduced tumor incidence in countries where phytoestrogens are consumed in nutritional soy. We have
demonstrated an interaction of calcium and estrogenic compounds with respect to metabolism and catabolism of the active
vitamin D metabolite 1?,25 -dihydroxyvitamin D3 in colonocytes: in mice a low calcium diet induces catabolic
1?,25(OH)2D3-24-hydroxylase expression, whereas the phytoestrogen genistein enhances expression of the synthesizing
25(OH)D3-1? -hydroxylase and reduces that of 1?,25(OH)2D3-24-hydroxylase. In rectal biopsies from postmenopausal
women replenishment with 17? -estradiol led to elevated expression of 25(OH)D3-1? -hydroxylase. We conclude that adequate
dietary calcium as well as (phyto)estrogen intake could be protective against hyperproliferation and tumor progression due to
enhanced accumulation of 1? ,25(OH)2D3 in colonic mucosa.

AGFD 11 Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit photocarcinogenesis through prevention of UV-induced
suppression of immune responses via induction of interleukin-12 in mice
Santosh K. Katiyar, Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Blvd., Volker Hall, Room #557,
Birmingham, AL 35294, Fax: 205-934-5745, skatiyar@uab.edu
We determined whether grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs)-supplemented AIN76A control diet prevent ultraviolet (UV)
radiation-induced skin cancer in mice and concomitantly the mechanism of action of GSPs. Following photocarcinogenesis
protocol, we observed that inclusion of GSPs (0.2 and 0.5%, w/w) in the diet resulted in prevention of UVB-induced skin
tumorigenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice in terms of tumor incidence (20 and 35%), tumor multiplicity (46 and 65%) and tumor
size (66 and 78%). As UVB-induced immune suppression has been implicated in the risk of skin cancer, we investigated
whether dietary GSPs can modulate the effects of UVB on the immune system using C3H/HeN mice. We found that dietary
GSPs inhibited UVB (180 mJ/cm2)-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in a local model of
immunosuppression but had moderate inhibitory effect in a systemic model of immunosuppression. Dietary GSPs reduced the
UVB-induced increase in immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in skin and draining lymph nodes compared to mice
that did not receive GSPs. In contrast, GSPs enhanced the production of immunostimulatory cytokine IL-12 in the draining
lymph nodes. Intraperitoneal injection of mice fed GSPs with a neutralizing anti-IL-12 antibody abrogated the protective
effects of the GSPs against UVB-induced suppression of the CHS response. Further, dietary GSPs did not prevent UVB-
induced suppression of CHS in IL-12-deficient mice but prevented it in their wild type mice. Together, our data suggested that
prevention of photocarcinogenesis by GSPs is mediated through development of anti-tumor immune responses, which are
regulated by IL-12 induction in mice.

AGFD 12 Chemoprevention of inflammation-associated carcinogenesis afforded by dietary phytochemicals
Young-Joon Surh, College of Pharmacy (Building 29, Room 223), Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu,
Seoul 151-742, South Korea, Fax: +82 2 874-9775, surh@plaza.snu.ac.kr
Recent progress in our understanding of molecular biology of cancer highlights the intracellular signal transduction network,
including that involved in mediating inflammatory response, which often functions abnormally during carcinogenesis. One of
the key players in the inflammatory signaling is cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Aberrant upregulation of COX-2 has been
frequently observed in various precancerous and malignant tissues. Pro-inflammatory stimuli trigger the activation of
intracellular signal transduction network comprising proline-directed serine/threonine kinases and their downstream
transcription factors, resulting in an inappropriate induction of COX-2. Therefore, the normalization of inappropriately
overamplified signaling cascades implicated in chronic inflammation-associated carcinogenesis by use of COX-2 specific
inhibitors has been recognized as a rational and pragmatic strategy in molecular target-based chemoprevention. As part of our
research program, we have explored the chemopreventive effects of some anti-inflammatory phytochemicals derived from
edible plants, and their underlying molecular mechanisms with redox-sensitive transcription factors as prime targets.

AGFD 13 Molecular mechanism of prostate cancer prevention by a dietary nutrient inositol hexaphosphate
Rajesh Agarwal, Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East 9th Avenue, Box C238,
Denver, CO 80262, Fax: 303-315-6281, Rajesh.Agarwal@uchsc.edu
Extensive scientific data suggest potential role of phytochemicals in prevention and control of prostate cancer (PCA) growth
and progression; a disease of elderly men with slower growth, and therefore, is a candidate malignancy for preventive
intervention. Overall, PCA growth and progression involve aberrant mitogenic and survival signaling and deregulated cell
cycle progression, and accordingly, phytochemicals targeting them could have potential for PCA prevention. Inositol
hexaphosphate (IP6) is a major constituent of most cereals, legumes, nuts, oil seeds and soybean. Anticancer efficacy of IP6 is
observed by us in many human and rodent PCA cells, and its oral feeding inhibits human PCA xenograft growth in nude mice
without toxicity. We also observed preventive effects of IP6 on prostate tumorigenesis in TRAMP model. In mechanistic
studies, IP6 targets mitogenic and survival signaling, and causes cell cycle arrest. Overall, our results suggest that IP6 could be
effective agent for preventive intervention of PCA.

AGFD 14 Effects of HPMC on intralumenal characteristics that may be important to its hypocholesterolemic activity in
humans
Christos Reppas, Faculty of Pharmacy, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografou 157 71,
Greece, reppas@pharm.uoa.gr
The effects of HPMC on intralumenal viscosity, upper GI transit profile, diffusivity towards the gut wall, and net water flux,
are discussed according to data collected in dogs. The effects of HPMC on lipase activity and the binding of taurocholates onto
HPMC are discussed according to in vitro data.
In both fasted and fed dogs, HPMC elevates intralumenal viscosity with a linear relationship existing between input and
lumenal values. The ability to modify intralumenal viscosity is greater for isoosmotic than for hyperosmotic solutions. In fasted
dogs, upper GI transit profile is significantly delayed by the HPMC. In fed dogs the effects are milder (especially when
solutions were hyperosmotic) but relevant data should be considered cautiously as they were collected in dogs fistulated at
midgut and, therefore, feedback inhibition mechanisms might not be fully extant. Based on data with glucose, the increased
intralumenal viscosity leads to reduction of diffusivity and/or convection. Net water flux is not affected by HPMC, regardless
of the dosing conditions.
In vitro data collected by using K8515 HPMC showed that at taurocholate concentrations higher than ~4mM, binding of
sodium taurocholate onto K8515 HPMC may be significant, especially in the fed state. Further, modification of lipase activity
seems to be as expected from viscosity considerations and a 2% K8515 HPMC solution decreases lipase activity substantially.
In conclusion, canine and in vitro data suggest that HPMC can modify upper gastrointestinal transit, diffusivity of small solutes
and/or convection of intestinal contents, lipase activity and availability of bile salts for reabsorption in the small intestine.
These effects could be related, at least partly, to the hypocholesterolemic activity of HPMC in humans.
AGFD 15 Prevention of insulin resistance, hypertension and weight gain in hamsters fed soluble cellulose
Wallace H. Yokoyama1 , Yun-Jeong Hong2 , Maciej Turowski3 , and Stephanie K. Lynch3 . (1) Western Regional Research
Center, USDA ARS, 800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA 94710, Fax: 510-559-5777, (2) Processed Food Research, USDA, ARS,
Western Regional Research Center, (3) METHOCEL Food Group, The Dow Chemical Company
Fat intake, particularly saturated fat intake, has been associated with cardiovascular disease and more recently the role of fat as
a causative factor for other metabolic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension is being appreciated. The Syrian hamster has
been widely used as an animal model of fat metabolism. Hamsters fed diets containing 15% butterfat and 5% corn oil become
insulin resistant after a few weeks when the diet contains insoluble fiber. However, on the same diet containing hydroxypropyl-
methylcellulose (HPMC) the animals remain normal despite high fat intake. Other studies show that animals fed diets
containing high fat and HPMC have lower weight gain, lower abdominal adiposity, lower systolic blood pressure, lower
plasma cholesterol and triglyceride, lower liver fat and cholesterol ester concentrations. HPMC feeding also increases fecal
lipid excretion including increased excretion of cholesterol or its metabolites and triglycerides. Quantitative PCR analysis of
expressed hepatic genes reveal lower levels of stearoyl Co -A desaturase in HPMC fed animals, suggesting that lower
concentrations of fatty acids are present in the liver. This may be the result of a decreased rate of absorption of fat. Increased
cholesterol, bile acid and triglyceride excretion are consistent with disruption of fat digestion. Further expressed hepatic genes
indicative of o xidative stress are lower in HPMC fed animals compared to controls. HPMC works by multiple mechanisms
within the digestive system. It is a hydrophilic/hydrophobic viscous polymer. It may bind lipids and/or lipase, increase bile acid
secretion by pressure sensors, increase gastric emptying time, and decrease the glycemic response.

AGFD 16 Potential nutritional benefits and unique in product functionalities of methylcellulose
Daniel Lis and Andrew McPherson, Kraft Foods R&D, 801 Waukegan Rd, Glenville, IL 60093, dlis@Kraft.com
With the shift in definitions of soluble fibers, there may be increased opportunities to stress the nutritional benefits of
previously unclaimed fiber contributions of functional carbohydrates. With some of the more unique functionalities not
accessible through other ingredient systems, methylcellulose offers a functional formulation option that may now also have
associated nutritional benefits. This presentation will briefly discuss the shift in definitions and give examples of the nutritive
and functional benefits in two commercially available food systems.

AGFD 17 Methylcellulose as bulk laxative
Ronit Zilberboim, Medical Affairs, GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare, 1500 Littleton Road, Parsippany, NJ 07054, Fax:
973-889-2268, Ronit.k.Zilberboim@gsk.com
It is well established that most Americans only consume about 14 g of fiber per day, about half of the recommended adequate
intake (AI) of 25-38 g. The current recommendation for dietary fiber intake is based on multiple desirable physiological effects
of fiber on human health. Fiber has been shown to improve stool bulk and laxation via various mechanisms. Although the
majority of Americans do not include enough fiber due to their life style choices, there is a significant segment of the
population that is reluctant to increase their fiber intake due to the well known side effects, like gas, and the associated
inconvenience. Regardless of water solubility, virtually all fibers are not digested by human digestive enzymes but are
fermented in the human colon. In the fermentation process, with the help of the gut microflora several classes of end products
are formed. One kind of end products, short chain fatty acids, are absorbed into the blood stream and are used as a source of
energy. Large quantities of gas are also often produced are mostly excreted. There is only one source of fiber that is neither
digested nor fermented. It is modified cellulose called methylcellulose. It is an edible fiber that is excreted intact as ingested.
Because it is not fermented in the human colon it is not a source of calories and does not directly contribute to the production
of excess gas. In addition, it has been shown to significantly provide bulk and thus promote laxation.

AGFD 18 Composition and properties of edible water soluble celluloses
Jerry R Conklin, Designed Polymers - Health Sciences, The Dow Chemical Company, Larkin Laboratory, 1691 N. Swede
Rd, Midland, MI 48674, jrconklin@dow.com
The inclusion of soluble celluloses as dietary fiber in human nutrition has been technically recognized for many years. Very
recently, new research has enabled development of an improved method for assaying methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxypropyl
methylcellulose (HPMC), two specific soluble celluloses that have been globally used for many years as food hydrocolloids.
This newly published capability along with other recent findings and ongoing research has brought to light previously
unknown health benefits from food use of these two types of soluble cellulose. While the fundamental reasons for the health
attributes which derive from consumption of MC and HPMC are still under investigation, there are certain key properties that
allow their comparison to other soluble celluloses which are compelling and which illustrate a probable basis for their superior
efficacy. This paper will compare and contrast the compositions and properties of several edible soluble celluloses to further
this understanding.

AGFD 19 Chemical characterization of cellulose ethers
Marian J Rinken, Analytical Chemistry, Dow Deutschland GmbH & Co, Werk Stade, Stade, Germany, mjrinken@dow.com
Although cellulose ethers have been commercially manufactured for more than seventy years and are used in many food and
consumer application areas, similar to the case of most plant polysaccharides there is still a lack of in-depth knowledge about
their precise chemical structure. The reasons can be attributed to limitations in technology and science along with the structural
complexity of modified cellulosic polymers. We will discuss methods to chemically characterize cellulose ethers and will
present examples of established chemical structure - performance property relationships.

AGFD 20 Determination of soluble celluloses in food matrices
Robert Harfmann1 , Maciej Turowski2 , Balasaheb Deshmukh 3 , Jerry R Conklin 4 , and Stephanie K. Lynch2 . (1) Analytical
Sciences, The Dow Chemical Company, 1897 Building / B36, Midland, MI 48667, rgharfmann@dow.com, (2) METHOCEL
Food Group, The Dow Chemical Company, (3) Analytical Sciences R&D, The Dow Chemical Company, (4) Designed
Polymers - Health Sciences, The Dow Chemical Company
Modified cellulose food gums have been used in foods for decades to improve food quality and to enhance the manufacturing
process. It is now clear that food gums such as methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) provide
many of the physiological benefits of dietary fiber. Yet there are no adequate methods for the determination of these important
food additives. The 'gold-standard' methods for soluble dietary fiber are ineffective because most cellulose fibers remain
soluble in aqueous ethanol and pass through the gravimetric filtration process undetected. A size exclusion liquid
chromatographic method was developed to fill a need for the determination of modified cellulose fiber in food. The method
was validated using a series of foods containing MC or HPMC. The method provides reasonable precision and accuracy for the
determination of these fibers in food and it is expected to be applicable to other cellulose fibers.

AGFD 21 Modified celluloses in the restaurant
Andrew John Taylor 1 , Rachel Edwards-Stuart 1 , Heston Blumenthal2 , Chris Young2 , and Joanne Hort 1 . (1) Division of Food
Sciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD, United Kingdom,
andy.taylor@nottingham.ac.uk, (2) Fat Duck Restaurant
Soluble celluloses that gel when heated and melt as they cool have been investigated for use in Innovative Cuisine. Suitable
formulations and procedures have been developed to prepare the products in a conventional kitchen and to meet the
expectations of consumers and chefs. The properties of the hot gels (e.g. gelling and melting points aligned with food and
mouth temperatures) have been established and soluble cellulose materials selected. Their performance was measured using
laboratory analyses like rheology to determine their behaviour at a fundamental level. However, to ensure that these properties
could be attained consistently in the kitchen, simple QC checks were developed to guide the development chefs as they sought
to convert these simple, bland systems into innovative and tasty dishes that would surprise and delight the restaurant diners.
The work brings together science, cooking and innovation to produce novel products.

AGFD 22 Role of cellulosic gums in bakery products: Gluten-free products
Cristina M Rosell, Department of Food Science, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, PO Box 73. Burjasot,
Valencia 46100, Spain
Over the last decades, cellulosic gums have been playing different roles in the development of bakery products. Cellulosic
gums were added initially for improving the quality of the fresh baked goods and also extending their shelf life due to the water
retention capacity of these gums. Later, cellulosic gums revealed their potential for keeping the quality of frozen baked
products, acting as structuring agents. The last challenge was to replace the gluten proteins role in the development of gluten
free products, creating a network for holding the rest of the ingredients during proofing and baking, and resulting in breads
with a structured crumb. This presentation will include biochemical, rheological and microstructure studies showing that
cellulosic gums could be integrated in the dough structure changing their properties, and this effect is even more evident on
gluten free products, like rice flour based bread, where it seems that cellulosic gums create and “artificial viscoelastic” doughs.

AGFD 23 Cancer chemopreventive potential of apple juice and apple juice extracts
Lydia Pan1 , Henriette Zessner2 , Frank Will3 , Karin Klimo 1 , Norbert Frank1 , Helmut Dietrich3 , Helmut Bartsch1 , Hans Becker2 ,
and Clarissa Gerhauser1 . (1) Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld
280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany, Fax: +49 6221 42 3359, c.gerhauser@dkfz.de, (2) University of Saarland, Saarbruecken,
Germany, (3) Research Institute Geisenheim, Germany
We have investigated colon cancer preventive efficacy of cloudy apple juice and apple extract in ApcMin mice. Dietary
intervention with juice or extract in drinking water significantly lowered the number of adenomas in the small intestine by 38%
and 40%, respectively, whereas tumor numbers in the colon were not affected. Apple juice is known to contain several classes
of phenolic compounds, including phenol carbonic acids, dehydrochalcones, flavonoids, catechins and procyanidins. In vitro
screening revealed a broad spectrum of colon cancer preventive properties, including antioxidant and radical scavenging
activity, modulation of xenobiotic metabolis m, anti-inflammatory, anti-hormonal and anti-proliferative effects. Oligomeric
procyanidins were identified as the most potent class of constituents. Distinct classes of polyphenols account for specific
activities, but these do not fully explain the preventive potential obtained with complex apple extracts. Combinations of
chemopreventive mechanisms may contribute additively or synergistically to cancer preventive efficacy.
Apple juice is an integral part of the human diet and is consumed by a majority of the population, including children. Our study
suggests that apple juice and apple extracts should be further investigated as part of a prevention strategy for hereditary and
sporadic colorectal cancer.
AGFD 24 Apple phytochemicals in the prevention of cancer: Mechanisms of action
Rui Hai Liu, Department of Food Science, Cornell University, 108 Stocking Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, Fax: 607-254-4868,
RL23@cornell.edu
Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced
risk of developing cancer. Apples are commonly consumed and the major contributors of phytochemicals in human diets. We
have shown that apple extracts exhibited potent antioxidant activity and anti-proliferative activity. Recently, we reported that
whole apple phytochemical extracts effectively inhibited mammary cancer growth in a rat model. Application of low, middle
and high doses of whole apple phytochemical extracts, comparable to human consumption of 1, 3, and 6 apples per day,
reduced the tumor incidence by 17, 39, and 44 percent, respectively. In addition, apple extracts decreased the expression of cell
proliferation and induced apoptosis in mammary cancer tissue of rats in vivo in a dose-dependent manner. This presentation
will cover our current research on the health benefits of apple phytochemicals in the prevention of cancer, and focus on the
mechanisms of action.

AGFD 25 Modulation of the carcinogen activation and cellular signaling pathways by naturally occurring plant phenols
Wanda Baer-Dubowska, Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciencies, Swieckiego
4, 60780 Poznan, Poland, Fax: 48-61-8546620, baerw@amp.edu.pl, and Renata Mikstacka, Department of Pharmaceutical
Biochemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences
Plant phenols are considered as potential chemopreventive agents. The objective of our studies was to evaluate the effect of
structurally diverse phenolic acids and stilbenes on the tumor initiation and promotion markers. Tannic acid and resveratrol
derivative-pterostlbene were the most effective inhibitors of CYP1A1/1A2 in vitro, while resveratrol was the most potent
modulator of the phase 1 enzymes and induced UDP glucuronosyltransferase and quinone oxidoreductase in mouse epidermis.
Phenolic acids inhibited the covalent benzo[a]pyrene-diol epoxide (B[a]PDE) binding to epidermal DNA. Resveratrol had no
effect on B[a]PDE binding to DNA but reduced the levels of all major 7,12- dimethylbenz[a]anthracene adducts. All tested
phenolics decreased the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) activation of AP-1 and NFkappaB
transcription factors. Pterostilbene was the strongest inhibitor of NFkappaB activation. These results suggest that the ability of
phenolics to inhibit tumor development may be mediated by impairing signal transduction pathways.

AGFD 26 Bioavailability issues in studying the health effects of plant polyphenolic compounds
Chung S Yang, Joshua D. Lambert, and Shengmin Sang, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy,
Rutgers University, 164 Frelinghuysen Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08854, Fax: 7324450687, csyang@rci.rutgers.edu
The beneficial health effects of many phytochemicals have been proposed based on results obtained from studies in vitro. In
making the popular statement that “these compounds are good for health because they are strong antioxidants”, the
bioavailability issue has not been considered. Some of the commonly mentioned compounds are catechins and theaflavins in
tea; and proanthocyanidins in fruits, berries, grapes, red wine, cocoa, and cinnamon. According to Lipinski's Rule of Five,
compounds with more than five phenolic groups and having a molecular weight higher than 500 usually have low
bioavailability. The well-studied green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), with eight phenolic groups and a
molecular weight approaching 500, has only limited bioavailability. Proanthocyanidins, which are oligomers of catechins with
many phenolic groups, also have even lower bioavailability. Some of these compounds and their conjugated metabolites are
barely detectable in the blood. The increase of total antioxidative capacities in blood after ingestion of these compounds by
animals is also low. “Do these compounds really have beneficial health effect?” and “how do they work?” are open questions.
It is possible that these compounds, even though not absorbed, could exert their effects on the oral-digestive tract, to which
they have direct access. It is also possible that these compounds are degraded in the digestive tract, chemically or
microbiologically, into smaller bioactive molecules which can be absorbed and are bioavailable to internal organs. These
compounds may also affect the population of intestinal microorganisms and influence the whole body physiology. Examples
will be given to illustrate that the biological effects of phytochemicals and their mechanisms of action need to be demonstrated
in vivo (supported by NIH grant CA 88961).

AGFD 27 Natural products and their pleiotropic interactions with molecular targets: Toward the molecular basis for
cancer chemoprevention
Andrew D. Mesecar 1 , Aimee L. Eggler1 , Barbara Calamini1 , Richard B. van Breemen2 , and John M Pezzuto3 . (1) Center for
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 900 S. Ashland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60607,
mesecar@uic.edu, (2) Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at
Chicago, (3) College of Pharmacy, University of Hawai'i at Hilo
Through the use of genomic & proteomic technologies coupled with molecular analysis, researchers are showing that dietary
constituents can indeed modulate carcinogenesis via one or more nutrient-modulated pathways including: altering carcinogen
activation by inhibiting Phase I drug metabolizing enzymes; modifying carcinogen detoxification through induction of Phase 2
drug metabolizing enzymes; scavenging reactive DNA agents and enhancing DNA repair mechanisms; modulating signal
transduction pathways; inhibiting angiogenesis; and suppressing abnormal proliferative characteristics. In some pathways,
important molecular have been identified, whereas in many of these pathways, the precise molecular-target(s) for these agents
remain elusive. Evidence is now mounting that many cancer chemopreventive agents may act pleiotropically through multiple
targets. Our recent progress on the pleiotropic interactions of resveratrol and other compounds with Cox1, Cox2, Sirt1, Keap1
and quinone reductase2 will be presented, as well as our most recent model for the mechanism of Phase 2 enzyme induction via
the Keap1-Nrf2-Cul3-Rbx1-ubiquitin supercomplex.

AGFD 28 Inducers of the Phase 2 response: Combined direct and indirect antioxidant protection against electrophiles
and oxidants
Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova, Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Johns Hopkins University, 600 N
Wolfe Street Osler 501, Baltimore, MD 21287-5554, Fax: 410-502-6818, adkostov@jhmi.edu
The implication of oxidative stress in disease pathogenesis has led to the accepted view that antioxidants could be protective.
Curiously, some small molecules act indirectly, by inducing phase 2 cytoprotective enzymes (e.g., quinone reductase,
glutathione S -transferases). Sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate from broccoli, curcumin the principal coloring agent from curry,
and triterpenoid Michael acceptors are potent phase 2 inducers and therefore indirect antioxidants. In addition, phase 2
inducers bearing phenolic hydroxyl groups are also direct antioxidants. Critically, both radical scavenging and phase 2 inducer
potencies are markedly increased by the presence of ortho -hydroxyl groups on the aromatic ring(s), and are correlated with
reactivity with model thiol compounds. Thus, such bifunctional antioxidants could provide protection by: (i) scavenging
hazardous oxidants directly and instantaneously; and (ii) inducing the phase 2 response to resolve the consequences of
hazardous processes that are already in progress, i.e., acting indirectly, but with much more diverse and long-lasting effects.

AGFD 29 Translating knowledge generated by epidemiological and in vitro studies into dietary cancer prevention
Elizabeth H. Jeffery, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana, 258 Bevier Hall, 905
S Goodwin Ave, Urbana, IL 61801, Fax: 217-265-0925, ejeffery@uiuc.edu, Radha M. Bheemreddy, Food Science and Human
Nutrition, University of Illinois, and Ren-Hau Lai, Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana
Epidemiological data support a role for cruciferous vegetables (Brassica oleracea) in decreasing risk for a number of cancers.
Cell culture and animal studies have identified the isothiocyanate hydrolysis products of glucosinolates as responsible for this
activity. In broccoli, the most abundant glucosinolate is glucoraphanin, which can be hydrolyzed to the isothiocyanate
sulforaphane, shown to prevent chemical-induced carcinogenesis in rats and mice. Unhydrolyzed glucoraphanin, present in
cooked foods and dietary supplements, undergoes enterohepatic circulation and is hydrolyzed by gut microbiota.
Bioavailability studies using semi -purified and purified glucoraphanin show the dose range that is safe and effective. We have
identified a broccoli protein that directs hydrolysis away from sulforaphane and toward an inactive nitrile. Heat destruction of
this protein, without destruction of the hydrolyzing enzyme, enhances bioactivity and allows cancer risk reduction without
abnormally high dietary levels of broccoli.

AGFD 30 Marine microbes: The critical role they play in sustainable production of starting materials for the synthesis
of drug leads and the structure for the elusive Pfiesteria-associated fish killing toxin using 13C enrichment and dual
cryoprobe NMR studies
Jiangnan Peng1 , Russell Hill2 , Allen Place2 , Clemens Anklin 3 , and Mark T. Hamann1 . (1) Department of Pharmacognosy, The
University of Mississippi, School of Pharmacy, University, MS 38677, Fax: 662-232-7026, peng@olemiss.edu,
mthamann@olemiss.edu, (2) The Center for Marine Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, (3)
Bruker BioSpin
Abstract Results for several key invertebrate-derived drug leads including the manza mine and kahalalide class show that
associated bacteria are ultimately responsible for the biosynthesis of these marine natural products first identified from
invertebrates. This discovery opens tremendous possibilities for cost-effective and environmentally friendly production of these
drug products and extends their utilization to applications requiring a low cost of goods. The manzamine class is effective in
the control of malaria in rodent models and the kahalalides are in three different Phase II trials for cancer. The structure
assignment using 13C enrichment and dual cryoprobe NMR studies of the toxin associated with fish-kills attributed to
Pfiesteria along the Atlantic Coast in recent decades will also be reported.

AGFD 31 Application of nanolaminated biopolymer structures in foods
D. Julian McClements, Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, Fax: 413-545-1019,
mcclements@foodsci.umass.edu
The bulk physicochemical, sensory and physiological attributes of most foods are determined by the characteristics,
interactions and structural organization of the various ingredients they contain. Biopolymers are important functional
ingredients in many foods, contributing to their overall texture, stability, appearance, flavor and nutritional quality. An
improved understanding of the molecular and physicochemical basis of biopolymer functionality in foods can lead to the
design of improved or novel functional attributes into foods.
This presentation describes how nano-laminated layers can be formed from food biopolymers, and highlights their potential
applications within the food industry. Electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) of charged biopolymers can be used to form nano-
structured interfacial layers with specific properties, e.g., charge, thickness, porosity, permeability, responsiveness. These
layers may be formed around macroscopic, microscopic or nanoscopic materials, and are therefore applicable to a wide range
of food categories. Systematic manipulation of interfacial properties can be used to create materials with novel functional
attributes, e.g., improved stability to environmental stresses or controlled release characteristics. The potential of this technique
is highlighted using recent studies on the formation of nano-laminated biopolymer layers around lipid droplets and on hydrogel
surfaces.

AGFD 32 Protein-polyelectrolyte coacervates: Macro- and meso-phase separation
Paul L. Dubin, Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003,
dubin@chem.umass.edu
Proteins and polyelectrolytes can form soluble complexes, coacervates or precipitates, states of association corresponding to
increasing electrostatic interaction, counterion loss, and concomitantly decreasing hydration. Although "coacervate"
sometimes refe rs to metastable liquid-liquid protein-polyelectrolyte suspensions, here it means the dense, protein- and
polyelectrolyte-rich homogeneous fluids formed upon coalescence of the metastable suspension. These optically clear, viscous
and very stable fluids can be characterized by many techniques. In order to reduce system polydispersity, coacervates were
formed from a well-characterized protein (BSA) and polycation (PDADMAC or chitosan), and studied by DLS, SLS, SANS,
FRAP, Cryo-TEM, TIRF and rheology, as a function of polyelectrolyte MW, and protein-polyelectrolyte affinity (depending
on pH and ionic strength). The results indicate unique properties that appear to arise from the formation of stable but transient
protein-rich and protein-poor mesophases.

AGFD 33 Self-assembly of proteins at polysaccharide surfaces
Qingrong Huang, Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, Fax: 732-
932-6776, qhuang@aesop.rutgers.edu
The binding of proteins to polyelectrolyte surfaces has received considerable attention in recent years because it has been used
widely in microencapsulation of food ingredients, enzymes, cells, pharmaceuticals, and immobilization of enzymes and
antibodies for the biosensor applications. Despite the widespread industrial applications and some fascinating biological
implications, the self-assembly of protein on polyelectrolyte surfaces is still an intriguing and important topic of investigation.
There are significant gaps in the understanding of how polyelectrolytes and proteins interact to form specific nano- or
microstructures, especial at the liquid/solid interfaces. In this talk, the formation of the self-assembled protein domains within
the protein/polysaccharide complexes has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), while the adsorption of
protein on polysaccharide surface or the adsorption of polysaccharide on protein surface has been investigated by quartz crystal
microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), AFM, contact angle, and ATR/grazing angle FTIR. A new numerical
approach to directly analyze the intermolecular interaction forces between proteins and polysaccharides obtained from
chemical force microscopy is also developed.

AGFD 34 Milk protein nanotubes: Formation, structure and stability of a -lactalbumin nanotubes for application in
food and non-food systems
C. G. de Kruif, Van’t Hoff Laboratory, Debye Institute, Utrecht University, 3584CH, Utrecht, Netherlands, DeKruif@nizo.nl
The milk protein a-lactalbumin can self-assemble into nanotubes, after the molecule has been partially hydrolysed by a serine
protease. These nanotube structures potentially lend themselves for new food structures, dairy derived viscosifiers and as a
vehicle for transport of sensitive ingredients. The nanotubes have a regular helical structure. The self-assembly only occurs in
presence of an appropriate divalent cat-ion such as calcium or manganese. We used a multidisciplinary approach to study
various aspects such as: the formation conditions, the mechanism and kinetics of self-assembly and disassembly, the structure
and properties of the nanotubes. From AFM, SAXS and EM measurements, we obtained values for the outer diameter: 21 nm;
and the inner diameter: 8 nm. AFM revealed the right-handed helical structure of the tube wall. By performing nano-
indentations with AFM we determined mechanical properties of the tubes. The tubes were shown to be relatively resilient upon
small deformations; the elastic modulus is of the order of 0.1 GPa, and the nanotube could be broken at a specific spot. Light
scattering showed that disassembly could be easily induced, which is of relevance for controlled release applications. We could
also make stable tubes by cross linking, which would be a requisite for several other applications. During preparation the
nanotubes show a weak tendency to associate and form reversible network structures. For non-food applications it would be
desirable to make the nanotube dispersions free flowing. We will report on the progress of this research.

AGFD 35 Design and function of protein based micro-rods and microspheres
erik van der Linden, Agrotechnology and Food Sceinces/Food Physics group, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 2,
Wageningen 6703 HD, Netherlands, Fax: 00-31-317-483609, erik.vanderlinden@wur.nl
Proteins can associate into various object morphologies. One particular interest is in designing a rod like morphology, to
achieve low weight fraction gels. Circumstances will be described under which a variety of proteins form rods, up to micron
size. The paramters include salt concentration, pH, and flow condition. Gel properties of systems containing such rods are
described in terms of their microscopic properties, and be applied to gelatin gels. Another particular interest involves isotropic
fractal objects, made by proteins and by emulsion droplets. Microstructural features of gels containing such objects as
determined by DWS will be addressed.
AGFD 36 Polyphenols in common beverages enrich lower density lipoproteins and increase their oxidative resistance in
vivo after human consumption of a single serving
Joe A. Vinson, Jinhee Jang, Jihong Yang, Yousef Dabbagh, and Xiquan Liang, Department of Chemistry, University of
Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510, Fax: 570-941-7510, vinson@scranton.edu
Consumption of phenols and polyphenols from fruits and vegetables has been shown to decrease the risk of heart disease. The
oxidation of LDL+VLDL is an initiating step in atherosclerosis and may be a possible beneficial mechanism. The results
examining LDL oxidation after polyphenol-containing beverage consumption are mixed. Some studies show a decrease in LDL
oxidizability and others do not, using the same beverage. It is our hypothesis that the polyphenols are weakly bound to LDL
and some ultracentrifugation isolations result in oxidation of LDL and/or loss of polyphenols. We have utilized a more
inexpensive, benign and quicker isolation of LDL+VLDL by affinity column. Using a single subject we have now shown that
grape juice, dealcoholized red wine, red wine, prune juice, coffee, black tea and green tea but not orange juice given at a single
dose of 200 ml caused significant increase in lag time 2 hours post-consumption compared to before consumption. Thus
beverage polyphenols provide in vivo antioxidant protection to atherogenic lipoproteins.

AGFD 37 Cranberry phytochemicals: In vitro evidence for anticancer activity
Catherine C. Neto1 , Anne M. Liberty1 , Jon W. Amoroso1 , Erik Domingues1 , Peter E. Hart 2 , and Robert A. R. Hurta3 . (1)
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts -Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Rd., North Dartmouth,
MA 02747, Fax: 508-999-9167, cneto@umassd.edu, (2) Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts -Dartmouth, (3)
Department of Biology, University of Prince Edward Island
The goal of our collaborative studies is to determine the influence of cranberry phytochemicals on colon, breast and prostate
cancer development. Tissue-culture models and molecular methods were used to assess effects on cancer-related processes and
mechanisms of action. Several cranberry phytochemicals were observed to inhibit the growth of breast, colon, prostate and
other tumor cell lines. In HT-29 and HCT 116 colon tumor models, ursolic acid, quercetin glycosides and proanthocyanidins
from cranberry fruit inhibited tumor colony formation in a dose-dependent manner. The active cranberry proanthocyanidins are
primarily oligomers of 3-6 epicatechin units with A-type linkages. Polyphenolic extracts of cranberry fruit and juice induced an
increase in apoptosis in MCF-7 breast tumor cells without increasing baseline apoptosis in normal breast cells. Experiments
using a DU-145 model of prostate cancer indicate that whole cranberry extract and some constituents of the fruit may inhibit
prostate tumor metastasis by decreasing expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our studies suggest that
cranberry phytochemicals may function to limit carcinogenesis through a variety of mechanisms.

AGFD 38 Blueberry skins lower plasma and liver cholesterol and triglycerides in hypercholesterolemic hamsters
Agnes M. Rimando, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Natural Products Utilization Research Unit,
P.O. Box 8048, University, MS 38677, Fax: 662-915-1035, arimando@msa-oxford.ars.usda.gov, Wallace H. Yokoyama,
Western Regional Research Center, USDA, Akshay Patny, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Mississippi,
Mitchell A. Avery, Medicinal Chemistry, University of Mississippi, and Cassia S Mizuno, Agricultural Research Service, U.S
Department of Agriculture, University Ave, University, MS 38677, Fax: 662-915-1035, cmizuno@olemiss.edu
Hamsters fed with a diet that induces hypercholesterolemia fortified with lyophilized, whole skins of rabitteye blueberries
(Vaccinium ashei var. Tifblue) at 7.6% of the diet showed lower levels of plasma triglycerides (TGs), VLDL- and LDL-
cholesterol, liver TGs, free and total cholesterol (39%, 44%, 19%, 18%, 30% and 37% decrease, respectively) compared to
hamsters fed the control diet. These lipid levels were lower than those determined in hamsters fed the PPARa; agonist and
clinically used lipid-lowering drug, ciprofibrate, at 25 mg/kg of the diet. Ciprofibrate-fed hypercholesterolemic hamsters had
14%, 6%, 2%, 16%, and 17% decrease in plasma TGs, VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol, liver free and total cholesterol,
respectively, compared to the control animals; while the liver TGs were slightly elevated (0.5 % increase). Hamsters fed the
blueberry skin-fortified feed also had higher fecal fat excretion (60%) relative to control animals, while the animals on
ciprofibrate-fortified feed had 21% fecal fat excretion. Ethanol extract of the whole skins as well as the extracted skins showed
similar lipid lowering effects as the whole skins. Analysis of the skins showed it had 67.41±0.57% (dry weight basis) total
dietary fiber. The skins also had phenolic constituents known to have hypolipidemic properties: catechin, epicatechin,
pterostilbene and resveratrol. Resveratrol and pterostilbene have been reported to activate PPARa. Docking of resveratrol,
pterostilbene and other natural stilbene analogs was performed in PPARa ligand-binding domain. The proposed binding pose
of these compounds in PPARa was similar. These compounds appeared to be oriented in the front pocket of PPARa towards
AF2 helix. The stilbenes also showed hydrogen-bonding interactions with Ser280 and Phe351. Considering similar binding
poses, the PPARa activation by the stilbenes could not be justified alone by docking studies. Physical properties such as cLogP
may play a role in determining the differential bioactivity of this structurally similar series of compounds.

AGFD 39 Developments of aroma and aroma precursor in Pinot Noir grapes and their contribution to wine aroma
determined by stir bar sorptive extraction
Michael C. Qian and Yu Fang, Department of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State University, 100 Wiegand Hall,
Corvallis, OR 97331, Fax: 541-737-1877, michael.qian@oregonstate.edu
Effect of grape maturity on aroma-active compounds in Pinot noir wine was investigated using stir bar sorptive extraction-gas
chromatograph-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). The aroma and aroma precursors were studied during growing seasons in
three years. The free aroma compounds were directly analyzed in grape juice, and the aroma precursors were analyzed after
enzyme and mild acid hydrolysis. The results showed that free C6 alcohols and aldehydes sharply increased in the early stage,
and decreased in the late stage. Major free monoterpenes increased during the grape development but stopped at late stage. The
bound C13-norisoprenoids as well as other compounds dramatically increased during grape development. Statistical analysis
showed that grape maturity significantly affected the aroma composition of the final wine. The concentrations of some esters
consistently decreased with grape maturity, while C13 norisoprenoids and monoterpenes increased with grape maturation. The
chemical analysis correlated well with sensory analysis that late maturity wine had more berry, dried fruit, more complex
aroma.

AGFD 40 Bioassay-guided isolation of anti mycobacterial compounds from Strychnos mitsherlichii and Clavija procera,
two ethnomedicinal Peruvian plants
José C. Aponte 1 , Rosario E. Rojas 2 , Luz Caviedes 3 , Robert H. Gilman4 , César Sarasara 5 , Walter H. Lewis 6 , Abraham J.
Vaisberg 3 , and Gerald B. Hammond 7 . (1) Chemistry Deparment, University of Louisville, 2320 S. Brook St., Louisville, KY
40292, Fax: 502-852-3899, jcapon01@louisville.edu, (2) Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas, Universidad Peruana
Cayetano Heredia, (3) Departamento de Microbiología y Laboratorios de Investigación y Desarrollo, Universidad Peruana
Cayetano Heredia, (4) Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, (5) Confederacion de Nacionalidades Amazónicas del Perú, (6)
Department of Biology, Washington University, (7) Department of Chemistry, University of Louisville
Nature is the ultimate source of chemical diversity. Synthetic libraries of organic compounds using combinatorial chemistry
have yet to reach the ingenuity and complexity of natural products after millions of years of evolution and nature's trial and
error experiments. Tuberculosis (TB) is a systemic disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Nowadays, TB is the most
frequent cause of mortality in developing countries caused by a single infective agent. In patients older than 5 years, this
disease causes more deaths than AIDS, malaria, diarrhea, leprosy together. As part of our international (Peru-U.S.A.) and
multidisciplinary plant-based drug discovery program, we conducted antimycobacterial bioassay-guided fractionations of two
Peruvian medicinal plants, Strychnos mitsherlichii (Loganiaceae) and Clavija procera (Theophrastaceae). The latter belongs
the rare Theophrastaceae family. This search led to the isolation of their bioactive constituents bisnordihydrotoxiferine and
aegicerin, respectively. Using the TEMA assay, the alkaloid bisnordihydrotoxiferine showed a MIC of 6.25 µg/mL against
MDR-MTB and 12.5 µg/mL against H37 Rv strain. Under the same assay, the oleanane triterpenoid aegicerin, showed a MIC
ranged between 1.6-3.1 µg/mL against MDR-MTB strains and 3.1 µg/mL against H37 Rv strain. The cytotoxicity against VERO
cells (GI50 ) of these compounds was found as 2.4 µg/mL for the alkaloid and >40 µg/mL for the triterpenoid.

AGFD 41 Bioactivity-guided isolation of in vitro quinone reductase (QR) inducing agents from soybean (Glycine max
ssp.)
Bradley Bolling, Food Science, University of Wisconsin, 1605 Linden Drive, Babcock Hall, Madison, WI 53706,
bwbolling@wisc.edu, and Kirk L. Parkin, Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin
Soyflour extracts were fractionated using conventional partitioning and chromatography techniques and screened for in vitro
QR induction in murine hepa1c1c7 cells. Constituents of fractionated extracts with QR-inducing activity were identified using
MS, GC/MS, and NMR analysis. Crude ethanolic extracts were found to be the most potent compared to hexane, ethyl acetate,
methanol, and water extracts. Individual isoflavone glycosides were isolated as QR inducers, but were not as potent as their
aglycone forms. Genistein had a CD (concentration required to double QR) value of 42 µM, whereas daidzein was less potent
with a CD value of 470 µM. Normal and reverse phase chromatography yielded unique fractions more potent than the
isoflavone-containing fractions. Among these fractions were monoacylglycerols, benofurans, ethyl p-hydroxybenoic acid, 4-
hydroxycinnamic acid ethyl ester, and ferulic acid ethyl ester. Ferulic acid ethyl ester was found to be the most potent of the
isolates with a CD value of 3.4 µM.

AGFD 42 2'-Epi-orobanchol and solanacol, two unique germination stimulants for root parasitic weeds produced by
tobacco plants
Xiaonan Xie 1 , Dai Kusumoto1 , Yasutomo Takeuchi1 , Koichi Yoneyama1 , and Yoichi Yamada2 . (1) Weed Science Center,
Utsunomiya University, 350 Mine-machi, Utsunomiya 321-8505, Japan, Fax: +81-28-649-5155, yoneyama@cc.utsunomiya-
u.ac.jp, (2) Faculty of Education, Utsunomiya University
Germination stimulants for root parasites Orobanche (broomrapes) produced by tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Coker 319)
were purified and characterized. The root exudates of tobacco contained at least 6 different stimulants and LC/MS/MS analyses
revealed that 4 of them were strigolactones; a tetradehydro-strigol isomer, dehydro-strigol isomer, and two strigol isomers. The
two isomers of strigol were identified as (+)-orobanchol and its 2'-epimer by the comparison of NMR and GC-MS data with
synthetic standards. The structure of the tetradehydro-strigol isomer, the most major stimulant of this tobacco cultivar, was
determined as 4-? -hydroxy -5,8-dimethyl-GR24, and named solanacol. 2'-Epi-orobanchol and solanacol are structurally unique
and the first natural strigolactones having a 2'-epi stereochemistry and a benzene ring, respectively.
AGFD 43 Innovative modified gum acacia: A potential emulsifier for beverage emulsions
Nabil Naouli, Research and Development Innovation group, TIC Gums, 4609 Richlynn Drive, Belcamp, MD 21017, Fax: 410
273 6469, nnaouli@ticgums.com, R. Scott Riefler, Research and development, TIC Gums, and Gregory Andon, CEO, Tic
Gums
Novel modified Gum acacia— Ticamulsion® A-2010--is a natural gum that has been altered chemically to behave as an
emulsifier in the stabilization of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. Stabilization of citrus O/W beverage emulsions with modified
gum acacia, modified food starch, and gum acacia were investigated and compared. Measurements of emulsion particle size
distribution, creaming and ringing demonstrated that emulsions formulated with modified gum acacia had many advantages:
(1) lower surface and interfacial tension (40 mN/m at 10 wt% gum concentration); (2) fine emulsion droplets (98 % of the oil
droplets have a mean diameter less than 1 ìm); (3) less dose level (8-10 wt% gum concentration) to produce stable cloudy O/W
emulsions (20 vol% oil); (4) acceptable turbidity and opacity for diluted beverage cloud emulsions. New modified gum acacia
is effective in stabilizing low-pH emulsions of a commercial flavor oil (containing a weighting agent) over a storage period of
several months, with no visible creaming or phase separation when mixed with coloring agents (5 wt%), either before or after
extensive emulsion dilution. Ticamulsion® A-2010 is a potential emulsifier for beverage and cloud emulsions.

AGFD 44 Comparison between Raman and near -infrared spectroscopic measurement of glucose and urea in bovine
blood ultrafiltrate
Min Ren, Department of Chemistry, Optical Science and Technology Center, Iowa City, IA 52241, and Mark A. Arnold,
Department of Chemistry and Optical Science and Technology Center, University of Iowa
Raman spectroscopy and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been proposed for the noninvasive clinical measurement of
diabetes. An indirect configuration is to collect ultrafiltrate samples from the body and determine glucose concentration. Blood
samples were obtained from ten cows from a local abattoir and passed through a KrosFlo hollow fiber ultrafiltration module
coupled with a Materflex peristaltic pump. Standard solutions were prepared with randomized concentrations of glucose, urea
and triacetin in blood ultrafiltrate. NIR spectra were collected over the combination spectral region of 4000–5000 cm-1 with
Nicolet Nexus 670 Fourier transform spectrometer. Raman spectra were collected with a HoloLab 5000R Raman spectrometer
over the spectral range of 3450–100 cm-1. Results indicate similar outstanding calibration performance for measuring glucose
and urea concentrations from Raman and NIR spectra. Furthermore, a pure component selectivity analysis confirms the
selectivity of calibration models generated from both types of spectra.

AGFD 45 Studies on phytosterols in bamboo shoot using UPLC-APCI-MS
Baiyi Lu, Xiaoqin Wu, and Ying Zhang, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Kaixuan road 268,
Hangzhou 310029, China, Fax: 086-571-86049803, bylu@zju.edu.cn
Aim: Phytosterols recently have received increased attention with biological activities. Therefore, comprehensive and accurate
data on phytosterol content of various bamboo shoots are essential to facilitate the dietary recommendations and
comprehensive utilization of bamboo shoots. Method: The samples of 4 species (Pleioblastus amarus, Phyllostachys pubescens,
Dendrocalamus latiflorus and Phyllostachys praecox), 2 parts (shoot body and shoot shell) and 3 harvest seasons (winter,
spring and summer) of Phyllostachys pubescens have been collected and analyzed using a novel ultra-performance liquid
chromatographic atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer method. Results: The results showed that the
predominant sterols in bamboo shoots are ? -sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, ergosterol and cholesterol; the total sterol
contents ranged from 112.4 to 279.6 mg/100g.dry wt in 4 species, the order was Phyllostachys pubescens > Pleioblastus
amarus > Phyllostachys praecox > Dendrocalamus latiflorus; the total sterol contents in shoot of Phyllostachys pubescens were
226.2, 279.6 and 195.3 mg/100g.dry wt for winter, spring and summer, respectively. Otherwise, the total sterol contents in
shoot shell (321.8 mg/100g.dry wt) of Phyllostachys pubescens was much higher than that in shoot body (253.6 mg/100g.dry
wt), and which increased from bottom to top in shoot body. Conclusion: Bamboo shoot is a kind of sterol-rich health food and
the representative compounds are ? -sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, ergosterol and cholesterol. The sterol content in
bamboo shoots changes significantly with species, part and harvest season. The spring shoot shell of Phyllostachys pubescens
is potentially resources of dietary phytosterol, which is generated largely as a kind of industrial waste in bamboo shoot
processing industry.

AGFD 46 Molecular packing in glassy carbohydrates: Implications for encapsulation and biostabilization
Job Ubbink 1 , Duncan Kilburn 2 , Johanna Claude1 , Sam Townrow2 , and Ashraf Alam2 . (1) Nestle Research Center, Vers-chez-
les-Blanc, Lausanne 26 CH-1000, Switzerland, johan.ubbink@rdls.nestle.com, (2) H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University
of Bristol
Free volume is an important concept in condensed matter physics as it is related to molecular organization, phase transitions
and diffusion of guest molecules. It is therefore surprising that, apart from a seminal paper addressing the macroscopic
behavior of starch matrices, the free volume concept is ignored in the study of the carbohydrates. We introduce Positron
Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) to directly probe the free volume at the molecular level in both amorphous and
crystalline carbohydrate matrices. We present three different cases: 1. The effect of water on the molecular structure of glassy
carbohydrate matrices and the glass transition; 2. The impact of low-molecular weight carbohydrates on the molecular packing
of carbohydrate polymers and the implications for the encapsulation of active ingredients in foods and pharmaceutics; 3. The
organization of water in crystalline trehalose dihydrate and its role in the phase transitions of trehalose of importance for
anhydrobiosis and biostabilization.

AGFD 47 Design of multilayered biopolymer interfacial films for enhanced emulsion stability and for controlled
release: A theoretical study
Rammile Ettelaie, Eric Dickinson, and Anna Akinshina, Procter Department of Food Science, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2
9JT, United Kingdom, Fax: +44 113 343 2982, r.ettelaie@food.leeds.ac.uk
Based on the use of self consistent field calculations, the current study theoretically explores the possible structures that can
arise in mixed protein + polysaccharide layers. By adopting relatively simple models of these bio-polymers, in which the
monomeric segments of the chains are divided into a few representatives groups (e.g. polar, charged, hydrophobic, etc), we
investigate the role of the architecture, strength of interactions and environmental factors on the structure of such mixed films
at interfaces. The nature of colloidal interactions mediated between emulsion droplets by different mixed layers, and the
consequent emulsion stability, is also considered. We show that while the interaction of all segments of polysaccharide with
protein molecules leads to a uniform mixed layer, more localised interactions form films with more distinct multi-layered
morphology. The imp lication of different film structures on the transport of molecules in and out of emulsion droplets will also
briefly be discussed.

AGFD 48 Assembly and disassembly of biopolyelectrolyte multilayers and their potential for the encapsulation and
controlled release of active ingredients from foods
Roger Parker, Jonathan Moffat, Tim Noel, and Steve G. Ring, Structuring foods for health, Institute of Food Research, Colney
Lane, Norwich NR9 3JG, United Kingdom, roger.parker@bbsrc.ac.uk, steve.ring@bbsrc.ac.uk
The assembly of multilayers using layer-by-layer deposition of oppositely charged biopolyelectrolytes has the potential to form
novel barriers with applications in controlled delivery in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Multilayer assembly was
studied using a range of techniques, including surface plasmon resonance, FTIR-ATR and a quartz crystal microbalance, to
give information on the mass of the deposited layers, their chemical characteristics and hydration. The polyanions examined
included pectin and alginate, while chitosan, poly-L-lysine and, at pH's below their pI, globular proteins were the cationic
components. Multilayer formation occurred at pH's when both anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes carried a charge. The
hydration of the structures was sensitive to variations in pH and ionic strength, resulting in environmentally responsive
behaviour. Disassembly could be triggered by change in pH, or pH history, resulting in an initial weakening of attractive
interactions and subsequent solubilisation of the components.

AGFD 49 Transport mechanisms in the micellar solubilization of emulsion droplets
Stephanie R. Dungan, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis,
Department of Food Science and Technology, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, Fax: 530-752-4759,
srdungan@ucdavis.edu
Surfactant micelles are able to substantially enhance the solubility in water of oils and other hydrophobic solutes, in a process
known as solubilization. As a result, micelles can have a large influence on the rate of release of oils from oil-in -water
emulsion droplets. However, debate continues as to the nature of the transport mechanisms affecting solubilization kinetics. In
our recent experiments, we performed solubilization experiments using alkane-in-water emulsions that were fractionated to be
nearly monodisperse. Their narrow size distribution allowed for the first time to observe, using static light scattering, the
progressive decrease in average droplet size due to solubilization, and to analyze the rate of this decrease using a population
balance approach. By exploring the influence of emulsion, micelle, solute and aqueous solution properties on solubilization
kinetics, we gain insight into the contributions of interfacial mechanisms perating at the surface of the droplet and of the
micelle.

AGFD 50 Real time monitoring of interactions occurring in oil-in-water emulsions: Diffusing wave and ultrasonic
spectroscopy
Marcela Alexander, Jinru Liu, and Milena Corredig, Food Science Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1,
Canada, Fax: 519 824 6631, maalexan@uoguelph.ca, mcorredi@uoguelph.ca
To design optimal bulk properties of emulsions (for example controlled stability, or microstructure) it is important to
understand the dynamics of the reactions occurring during the life span of the product. Although the theoretical framework for
the interpretation of the results has yet to be fully developed, diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) and ultrasonic spectroscopy
(US) have shown great potential for linking molecular interactions with changes in the bulk properties such as flocculation or
aggregation. These non-invasive techniques have been applied to the study of the interactions of emulsion droplets with
polysaccharides and clearly have identified the dynamic changes occurring in situ without disruption. With DWS we can obtain
information on size, spatial correlation and movement of the droplets. With US the velocity or attenuation of a sound wave
propagating through the sample can be observed while bulk changes occur to the sample (i.e. gelation, phase separation).
AGFD 51 Characterization of encapsulated ingredients
Neal K. Vail and James D. Oxley, Microencapsulation and Controlled Release, Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra
Road, San Antonio, TX 78238, Fax: 210-522-4565, nvail@swri.org
Encapsulation is a process that profoundly changes the properties of an active ingredient and forms the basis for how the
product will perform in its final application. Therefore, it is very important to carefully quantify the various properties of
encapsulated products, ranging from the active ingredient payload composition and particle size distribution to specialized
properties, such as colloid or thermal stability. This talk will discuss a variety of analytical methods, from common
compositional analyses to specialized physical property analyses, and their relation to the performance of the encapsulated
ingredient in the product formulation. Each characterization method will be discussed with respect to the relationship of the
measured property to the product performance, experimental consideration for the analysis, and interpretation of the results.

AGFD 52 Development of hypoallergenic fermented soybean products
Young Soo Song 1 , Juana Frias 2 , and Elvira de Mejia 1 . (1) Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, 228
ERML, 1201 W Gregory Dr, Urbana, IL 61801, Fax: 217-244-3196, yssong@uiuc.edu, (2) Institute of Industrial
Fermentations, Madrid, Spain
The objective was to develop and validate an immunochemical method for the detection and quantification of the major human
allergenic soy proteins and to study the reduction in allergenicity after fermentation. ELISA and Western blot were used to
quantify IgE, HPLC to characterize peptides and a piglet model for efficacy of fermentation. Miso products had lower
allergenicity (1.21 ng IgE/mg protein) than tofu-aged products (2.37 ng IgE/mg). Meat analogues and cheese averaged 2.09
and 5.73 ng IgE/mg respectively and soymilk presented 6.12 ng IgE/mg. Hydrolyzed and fermented ingredients showed
negligible values if proteins were <2 to <20 kDa. Allergenicity was reduced 61-79% in Lactobacillus fermented products.
Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus oryzae were less effective. Saccharomyces cereviseae decreased the most allergenicity and L.
plantarum and B. lactis produced less hydrophobic peptides than non-fermented samples. Fermentation can decrease soy
allergenicity and there is potential of developing nutritious and tasty hypoallergenic soy products.

AGFD 53 Anticancer potential and mechanisms of lunasin and soy protein hydrolysates
Wenyi Wang and Elvira de Mejia, Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, 228 ERML, 1201 W Gregory
Dr, Urbana, IL 61801, Fax: 217-265-0925, wwang11@uiuc.edu
The objective of this study was to evaluate the anticancer potential of soy hydrolysates and to elucidate the mechanisms of
lunasin on leukemia cells. Simulated gastrointestinal hydrolysis increased topoisomerases inhibitory activities and cytotoxicity
of soy proteins by releasing more hydrophilic, small bioactive peptides (< 3 kDa). Three novel topoisomerase inhibitory soy
peptides were isolated by immunoprecipitation and identified by LC MS/MS with PEAKS software. Their interaction energies
(-160 ~ -400 kcal/mol) with topoisomerase were determined by computer modeling. Soy protein hydrolysate treatment (5
mg/mL) led to p21 overexpression,G2 cell cycle arrest (30% increase in G2 cells), and therefore cell death of L1210 cells
(80%). Lunasin enriched flour caused cytotoxicity (IC50 : 0.34 mg/ml) to L1210 cells through inducing G2 cell cycle arrest
(20.1%)and apoptosis (39.7%) at 1 mg/ml. This is the first report on the effect of lunasin on cytotoxicity of leukemia cells
through caspase induction pathways.

AGFD 54 Evaluation mechanism of resistance by Fusarium to the manzamine alkaloids
Noer Kasanah1 , Abbas Gholipour Shilabin 1 , Lorelei A. Lucas 1 , David E. Wedge2 , and Mark T. Hamann1 . (1) Department of
Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, nkasanah@olemiss.edu, (2) Natural
Product Utilization Unit, ARS
Fusarium spp. are a common soil saprophyte and plant pathogen. The genus is also reported to be the cause of opportunistic
infections in human immunocompromised patients. Due to the limited number of antifungal agents available to combat
Fusarium spp., efforts are underway to discover new, safe and targeted pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals . We investigated
the in vitro activity of marine alkaloids, the manzamines, against Fusarium solani, F. oxysporium and F. proliferatum by
employing bioassays one-dimensional direct-bioautography, dilution and plate susceptibility and microtiter broth. In addition
to those assays we examined the growth analysis, microscopic analysis and metabolism of these compounds. Our results
indicated that Fusarium spp. tested are naturally resistant to the manzamine alkaloids. One important mechanism of resistance
is due to the capability of Fusarium spp. to transform manzamine alkaloids via oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, dehydration,
and a retro Pictet-Spengler reactions.

AGFD 55 Ursolic acid and proanthocyanidins from cranberry(Vaccinium macrocarpon) inhibit colony formation and
proliferation in HCT-116 and HT-29 colon and MCF-7 breast tumor cells
Anne M. Liberty1 , Peter E. Hart 2 , and Catherine C. Neto 1 . (1) Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of
Massachusetts - Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Road, North Darmouth, MI 02747, aliberty@hotmail.com, (2) Department
Biology, University of Massachusetts - Dartmouth
Cranberry fruit of Early Black cultivar was fractionated chromatographically and fractions were analyzed for flavonoid
content. The effects of the flavonoid fractions and ursolic acid, an abundant triterpenoid in cranberry peel, were assessed in two
models of colon cancer and one model of breast cancer. Clonogenic soft agar assays were used to determine the effect of these
compounds on tumor colony formation in HCT-116, HT-29 and MCF-7 cells. MTT and trypan blue assays were performed to
assess their ability to inhibit tumor cell proliferation. TUNEL assays were performed to assess apoptotic response to the
cranberry compounds. The proanthocyanidins inhibited tumor colony formation in HCT -116 and HT-29 cells in a dose-
dependent manner, with greater effect on the HCT-116 cell line. Ursolic acid strongly inhibited tumor colony formation in both
colon cell lines. These compounds also decreased proliferation in all three tumor cell lines with the HCT -116 cell line most
strongly affected.

AGFD 56 Enhancing the availability of whole-grain wheat antioxidants through post-harvest treatments and improving
processing conditions
Jeffrey Moore and Liangli(Lucy) Yu, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Maryland, 0112 Skinner Bldg,
College Park, MD 20742, Fax: 301-314-3313, moorej27@umd.edu
Improving the antioxidant properties of wheat is one potential strategy to improve its health promoting properties. The first part
of this research developed a high-throughput fluorometric hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (HOSC) assay, the first
validated with electron spin resonance to generate pure hydroxyl radicals. The second part of this research developed both
enzymatic and fermentation post-harvest solid-state treatments which were able to significantly improve the extractable and
potentially bioavailable antioxidant properties of wheat bran including up to 450% increase extractable antioxidant properties
and release of 50% of insoluble bound ferulic acid. The final part of this research evaluated the processing effects of bran
particle size, fermentation, and baking on wheat antioxidant properties using a pizza crust model, and found baking to have the
most significant effect. This research demonstrates the potential of solid-state enzyme and fermentation post-harvest
treatments, and optimized processing conditions to improve the antioxidant properties of whole-wheat.

AGFD 57 Scavenging of reactive carbonyl species by dietary compounds
Di Tan, Department of Food Science, Ruitgers University, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, Fax: 7329326776,
td2835@hotmail.com
Methylglyoxal (MG) is one of the reactive carbonyl species which are implicated to many disease complications. It is
generated in Maillard reaction as that it exists in most food stuffs and beverages. However, complete elimination of MG may
not be desirable because of its important role in flavor generation. Searching the potential scavenging agents of MG is critical
to control the level of MG in food or in vivo. In our study, dipeptides and tripeptides were chosen to investigate their MG
trapping efficiency and mechanisms. When dipeptides and tripeptide were incubated with MG under physiological conditions,
we observed the differences of trapping efficiency among Gly -Phe (16.19%), Gly-Gly (12.29%), and Gly-Leu (5.75%) which
are believed due to the nucleophilic properties the C-terminal amino acids provide. Much higher scavenging efficiency
(>53.42%) of Gly -Cys and triglycine may indicate a very different mechanism behind.

AGFD 58 A survey of the alpha-mangostin content of commercial mangosteen beverages
Wayne G Geilman1 , Bing-nan Zhou2 , and Brett J. West2 . (1) Pure Fruit Technologies, 737 East 1180 South, American Fork,
UT 84003, wayne_geilman@purefruittechnologies.com, (2) Research and Development, Morinda Inc
A survey of beverages containing Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) pericarp and pericarp extracts was made to determine the
range of xanthone concentrations, as influenced by formulation and processing effects. HPLC analysis of Mango·xan®
mangosteen juice revealed a concentration of 266 µg alpha-mangostin/mL, indicating that xanthones from the pericarp are
retained during processing. Several other commercial mangosteen juices contained alpha-mangostin in the range of 18 to 238
µg/mL. However, we could not detect any alpha-mangostin in one particular brand. Additionally, we found that alpha-
mangostin concentrations correlate well with oxygen radical absorbance capacity (r2=0.84).

AGFD 59 Garcinia mangostana liquid dietary suppplement-Mango.xan®: Its anti-inflammatory effects
Afa Kehaati Palu1 , Wayne G. Geilman2 , and Brett J. West1 . (1) Research & Development, Morinda, Inc, 737 East 1180 South,
American Fork, UT 84003, afap@tni.com, (2) Research & Development, Pure Fruit Technologies LLC
Liquid dietary supplements are in high demand because of potential health benefits. The Garcinia mangostana L fruit,
commonly known as mangosteen, is a popular ingredient in liquid dietary supplements. The majority of the mangosteen liquid
dietary supplements lack scientific research performed on finished products to substantiate the effect of mangostins on
inflammation, a claim that is frequently used in marketing literature. To this end, we investigated the effects of a liquid dietary
supplement Mango.xan® (MX) on COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes that are known to be involved in pain, inflammation and other
human pathologies. Three different concentrations (1%, 2.5% and 5%) of MX were evaluated against COX-2 and 5-LOX
enzymes. We found that Mango.xan® inhibition of COX-2 enzymes is: 1% MX has 97% inhibition, 2.5% MX has 97%
inhibition and 5% MX has 94% inhibition of COX-2 enzymes. Mango.xan® inhibition of 5-LOX enzymes is concentration-
dependant: 1% MX has 98% inhibition, 2.5% MX has 100% inhibition and 5% MX has 100% inhibition of 5-LOX enzymes.
The inhibitory effects of the liquid dietary supplement Mango.xan® on COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes are indicators of its anti-
inflammatory and pain reducing activities and may help ameliorate other pathologies related to both COX-2 and 5-LOX
enzyme activities. These results warrant further investigation into the potential protective effects of Mango.xan® on
neuropathology which has been shown by others to have high COX-2/5-LOX enzyme expression.
AGFD 60 Long term feeding trial with grapefruit flavonoids
Edward G. Miller1 , Michael H. Wasson 1 , Samuel E. Taylor1 , Robert D. Spears 1 , Guddadarangavvanahally K. Jayaprakasha2 ,
and Bhimanagouda S. Patil2 . (1) Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, 3302 Gaston Avenue, Dallas, TX 75246,
Fax: 214-828-8951, emiller@bcd.tamhsc.edu, (2) Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Texas A&M University
Naringin and naringenin have been shown to inhibit the development of carcinogen-induced tumors. In this study, naringin and
naringenin were tested for potential toxicity. Eight pregnant rats were separated into 2 groups. Group 1 was fed the AIN93G
diet. Group 2 was fed the same diet supplemented with a 0.1% blend of naringin and naringenin. At weaning, 33 pups per
group were selected and placed on their mother's diet. Two months later 10 female rats (5/group) were bred to males in the
same group. Blood samples were collected from the remaining animals. At weaning, the pups were sacrificed and autopsied.
Multiple statistical differences were found in the blood chemistries for the male rats. Weight gain and food intake for the male
rats in group 2 was significantly reduced. Similar differences in weight were not found for the pups sacrificed at the end of the
experiment. USDA grant (CSRESS-2004-34402-14768).

AGFD 61 Isolation and identification of flavonol glycosides in American cranberry fruit using HPLC and GC-MS
Yuegang Zuo, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Rd,
North Dartmouth, MA 02747, Fax: 508-999-9167, yzuo@umassd.edu, H. Chen, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,
University of Massachusetts - Dartmouth, and Yiwei Deng, Department of Natural Sciences, University of Michigan-Dearborn
Flavonoids are one of the most important natural pigments and widely distributed in vegetables, berries and fruits. Interest in
separation and determination of flavonoid and other phenolic compounds in plant has been increasing during the past decades
because flavonoids and phenolic acids have definitive anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective effects on human. In this research
work, two flavonol glycosides, quercetin galactoside and quercetin arabinoside, have been identified in American cranberry
fruit, as a complementary investigation of our previous study. The analysis processes included separation, hydrolysis and
structure elucidation of flavonol glycosides. The separation of flavonol glycosides was carried out by solvent extraction, thin -
layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After hydrolysis of the obtained flavonol
glycosides, flavonol aglycones and sugars were identified by HPLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS),
respectively.

AGFD 62 Distribution of catechins, epicatechins, and methylxanthines in green tea available in regular and
decaffeinated form
Suvash Kafley1 , Martin G. Ondrus1 , and Cynthia Rohrer2 . (1) Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Stout,
Menomonie, WI 54751, Fax: 715-232-1452, kafleys@uwstout.edu, (2) Department of Food and Nutrition, University of
Wisconsin-Stout
Methylxanthines, catechins, and epicatechins were determined in commercially available regular and decaffeinated green teas.
All analytes were measured using a reversed-phase, gradient HPLC separation with multi-wavelength photodiode-array
detection. While decaffeination produces a beverage containing less than 1/5 of the caffeine (2 to 10 mg/serving) in a
comparable regular green tea (25 to 50 mg/serving), the total polyphenol content was found to change to a lesser degree.
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, ranged from 30 to 110 mg per serving. Although most
decaffeinated teas had a lower EGCG content than their caffeinated counterpart, one brand had a higher EGCG and total
polyphenol content in the decaffeinated product.

AGFD 63 Effect of extraction parameters on polyphenols in caffeinated and decaffeinated green tea
Sujatha Goud Gudala1 , Martin G. Ondrus1 , and Cynthia Rohrer2 . (1) Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-
Stout, Menomonie, WI 54751, Fax: 715-232-1452, gudalas@uwstout.edu, (2) Department of Food and Nutrition, University of
Wisconsin-Stout
The extraction efficiency of methylxanthines, catechins, and epicatechins was determined in regular and decaffeinated green
teas. Samples were prepared by varying the temperature of the water and the time that the tea leaves remained in contact with
the water. Epigallocatechin gallate, (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epicatechin (EC), and caffeine all increased in
concentration with increasing time at constant temperature. Analyte concentrations approached a constant level as the
temperature approached 100° C and the extraction time reached 4 or more minutes. EGCG is the antioxidant that was found to
be present at a higher concentration in green tea than any of the other catechins and epicatechins investigated. Its concentration
may serve as a good indicator of extraction efficiency. All analytes were measured using a reversed-phase, gradient HPLC
separation with multi-wavelength photodiode-array detection.

AGFD 64 Effects of shelf-life on phytonutrients in beer beverages
Cynthia Rohrer and Sandy Majoni, Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI
54751, rohrerc@uwstout.edu
The health benefits of beer phytonutrients, such as reduction in coronary heart disease, are reported but little information is
available on changes in phytonutrients under household refrigerated storage. The objective of this study was to determine the
phytonutrient concentration in non-alcoholic beer beverages and one alcoholic beer during 60-day storage. Phytonutrient
concentration was evaluated as the total polyphenol content and the flavonoid content [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin].
Results found a significant increase (p < 0.05) in total polyphenol content in all beer beverages except one non-alcoholic beer.
Overall, O'Doul's non-alcoholic beer had the greatest total polyphenol (505 mg/L) and (+)-catechin content (0.52 mg/L) than
other non-alcoholic beverages. This increase during storage indicates that consuming stored beer beverages after two months
will allow health benefits to still be attained. Therefore, this study suggests that stored beer does not reduce phytonutrients;
therefore, consumers may still attain health benefits from consuming stored non-alcoholic beer.

AGFD 65 Quantitative combination effects between sulforaphane and 3,3'-diindolylmethane on proliferation of human
colon cancer cells in vitro
Gerlinde Pappa, Helmut Bartsch, and Clarissa Gerhauser, Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research
Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg, Germany, Fax: +49 6221 42 3359, c.gerhauser@dkfz.de
Isothiocyanates and indoles derived from cruciferous vegetables possess growth-inhibiting and apoptosis -inducing activities in
cancer cell lines in vitro. Isothiocyanates like sulforaphane (SFN) are cytotoxic, whereas indoles including indole-3-carbinol or
its condensation product 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) are acting by cytostatic mechanisms in human colon cancer cell lines. In
the present study, we have investigated the impact of defined combinations of SFN and DIM on cell proliferation, apoptosis
induction and cell cycle progression in cultured 40-16 colon carcinoma cells. Our results indicate that cytotoxic concentrations
of SFN:DIM combinations (40 µM total concentration) affect cell proliferation synergistically. At low concentrations which
are physiologically more relevant, the combined broccoli compounds showed antagonistic interactions in terms of cell growth
inhibition. Cell cycle analyses at total concentrations between 10 and 25 µM confirmed antagonism at low, and additive effects
at higher doses. These data stress the need for elucidating mechanistic interactions for better predicting beneficial health effects
of bioactive food components.

AGFD 66 Methylothiostilbenes as inhibitors of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 activities
Renata Mikstacka1 , Wanda Baer-Dubowska 1 , Marcin Wieczorek2 , and Stanislaw Sobiak2 . (1) Department of Pharmaceutical
Biochemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Swiecickiego 4, 60-780 Poznan, Poland, rmikstac@amp.edu.pl, (2)
Department of Chemical Technology of Drugs, Poznan University of Medical Sciences
Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural stilbene derivative occurring in grapes, peanuts and red wine. Its
chemopreventive action has been established in studies on animal models. Recently, numerous classes of compounds with
stilbene backbone have been investigated for their biological activity with regard to cancer prevention; eg, resveratrol methyl
ethers appeared to be specific and potent inhibitors of cytochromes P450 family 1 involved in the activation of procarcinogens.
In our studies, a series of 4-methylothiostilbene derivatives differing in a number and position of additional methoxy groups
have been synthesized. Their inhibitory potency towards human recombinant cytochromes P450: CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and
CYP1B1 have been studied and compared with the effect of corresponding resveratrol methyl ethers. Among compounds
tested, 2-methoxy -4'-methylothiostilbene and 3-methoxy -4'-methylothiostilbene demonstrated very potent and selective
inhibitory effect on CYP1B1 activity with IC50 equal 0.3 and 0.5 µM, respectively.

AGFD 67 Varietal differences in phenolic content and antioxidant activity of asparagus
Esra Cakir1 , Vaughn Sweet1 , Juming Tang2 , and Joe R. Powers 1 . (1) Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition,
Washington State University, PO Box 646376, Pullman, WA 99164-6376, Fax: 509-335-4815, esra_cakir@wsu.edu, (2)
Department of Biological System Engineering, Washington State University
Varietal differences in polyphenolic composition and associated antioxidant activities of asparagus were investigated. Nine
varieties of asparagus were evaluated for total phenolic content (TPH), total anthocyanin content (ACY), rutin content, and
total antioxidant activity. TPH of varieties ranged from 29.09 to 35.16 mg rutin equivalent/g dwb, while rutin content varied
from 12.09 to 16.09 mg/g dwb measured by colorimetric AlCl3 assay. A significant correlation was found between TPH and
rutin content (R2;0.77, p<0.05). Guelph Millenium contained the highest TPH and rutin, while Purple Passion had the lowest.
Total antioxidant capacity of asparagus varieties ranged from 46.95 to 66.30 and 56.9 to 74.9µmol TEAC/g dwb for their
ABTS and DPPH scavenging activities, relatively. Purple Passion contained the highest ACY. The phenolic profiles of
asparagus varieties were investigated by HLPC-DAD. Rutin and chlorogenic acid were found to be the major phenolics in all
varieties. Purple Passion showed a unique peak. An online HPLC-DPPH method was also used to determine radical scavenging
compounds. These results provide information about asparagus varieties having greater potential health benefits.

AGFD 68 Phenolic conte nt and inhibitory activity of aldose reductase of medicinal plant extracts from several genera
Jannette Gavillán-Suárez1 , Magaly A. Ramírez-Vicéns1 , Mary Chely Quiñones 1 , and Yisel Rivera 2 . (1) Department of
Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico at Cayey, 205 Antonio R. Barceló Ave., Cayey, PR 00736, jgavillan@cayey.upr.edu, (2)
Medical Sciences Campus, Department of Microbiology, University of Puerto Rico
Tapeinochilus ananassae, Rhoeo spatacea, Costus sp. leaves and flowers and Syzygium jambos fruit have been reported by
ethnobotanical practitioners as traditional remedies for the treatment of diabetes. Diabetic complications have been related to
the activity of the enzyme aldose reductase (AR) and to low concentration of antioxidants. In order to study the efficacy and
synergistic activity of methanolic and dichloromethane extracts of these species, their phenolic content and capacity to inhibit
in vitro bovine lens aldose reductase activity were examined. Phenol content of the extracts was determined spectrometrically
according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as quercetin equivalents (QE). Fluorescence of the NADP-imidazole
product formed during the AR reduction of glyceraldehyde in the presence of extracts was measured at ? emission 460 nm.
Syzygium jambos extract is a potent AR inhibitor (95% at 0.1 mg/mL). All extracts showed to be a source of phenolic
compounds (QE > 325.10 ± 16.23 µM)

AGFD 69 Effects of nitrogen application on the antioxidant properties of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)
Phuong M. Nguyen1 , Daniel R. Taub2 , and Emily D. Niemeyer1 . (1) Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,
Southwestern University, 1001 E. University Ave., Georgetown, TX 78626, Fax: 512-863-1696, nguyenp@southwestern.edu,
(2) Department of Biology, Southwestern University
Many herbs and spices have been shown to contain high levels of phenolic compounds with potent antioxidant properties.
Because eating a phenolic-rich diet is associated with numerous health benefits, we have examined how varying nitrogen
application during the plant growth cycle can affect the expression of phenolic compounds in one of the most common culinary
herbs, basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Nitrogen treatments were administered through either a slow-releasing fertilizer or a
controlled nutrient solution and basil plants were harvested after one month of growth. The Folin-Ciocalteu method was then
used to determine the total phenolic content in all basil samples. Anthocyanin levels were quantified in purple basil cultivars
using a colorimetric assay against a cyanidin-3-glucoside standard. Antioxidant activities were determined using the DPPH
(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay. This presentation will compare how total phenolics,
anthocyanins, and antioxidant activities change as a function of applied nitrogen for two basil cultivars (Sweet Thai, Dark
Opal).

AGFD 70 Selective analysis of 4-hydroxyproline and proline in gelatin hydrolysates using LC-IPAD
Jason Russell and Miles Koppang, Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark Street, Vermillion,
SD 57069
A new method was explored for detecting 4-hydroxyproline and proline in collagenous proteins. The secondary amino acid 4-
hydroxyproline is very specific to collagenous protein and, therefore, may be used to estimate the amount of collagenous
protein (gelatin) in a particular substance (foods, pharmaceuticals, etc.). Gelatin hydrolysates were analyzed for secondary
amino acid content using liquid chromatography followed by integrated pulsed amperometric detection (LC-IPAD). An
extraction scheme was developed to isolate secondary amino acids by derivatizing the primary amino acids with o-
phthalaldehyde (OPA) followed by solid phase extraction. The removal of primary amino acids greatly simplified the
chromatography allowing for the selective detection of secondary amino acids and accurate estimation of collagenous protein.
Ratios of 4-hydroxyproline to proline were determined for a variety of collagenous proteins and varied depending on the source
of protein. These ratios may aid in determining the raw material source of the collagenous protein.

AGFD 71 Chemical characteristics and anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharide fractions from Monostroma
latissium
Wenjun Mao, Huijuan Zhang, and Hongyan Li, Marine Drugs and Foods Institute, Ocean University of China, 5 Yushan
Road, Qingdao 266003, China, wenjunmqd@hotmail.com
Study on the relationship between chemical characterization and biological activity of polysaccharides is important to develop
a potential drug. Many studies indicated that the primary structure, composition, conformation, intrinsic viscosity, and
solubility of polysaccharides have great influence on their biological activities. The polysaccharides of seaweed cell wall
mucilage are known to be good sources of naturally occurring heparinoids, and have anticoagulant activity. So far, there are
fewer reports on anticoagulants from green algae than from brown and red algae. In this study, several polysaccharide fractions
were isolated from Monostroma latissium by anion exchange column chromatography. The chemical characteristics of the
polysaccharides and their anticoagulant activity were investigated. The relationships between chemical characteristics and
anticoagulant activity from Monostroma latissium will be presented.

AGFD 72 Polysaccharides from marine green seaweed Ulva pertusa and their characteristics
Wenjun Mao and Xiaoxue Zang, Marine Drugs and Foods Institute, Ocean University of China, 5 Yushan Road, Qingdao
266003, China, wenjunmqd@hotmail.com
Ulva pertusa is consumed by local inhabitants as a marine vegetable and has been utilized for medical purposes for centuries in
China. In this work, four kinds of sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva pertusa were obtained by sequential extraction with cold
and hot water, and purification was performed using anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The
chemical characteristics of the polysaccharides were investigated by various chemical and spectroscopic methods. The results
demonstrated that the sulfated polysaccharides consisted of high amount of rhamnose residue, with lower amount of xylose,
and trace amount of glucose and galactose residue. The sulfate ester content was determined to be 12.37-23.67 %, and uronic
acid content was 12.45-36.44%. The molecular weight of the sulfated polysaccharides was estimated to be 310-578 kDa. The
anticoagulant property of the sulfated polysaccharides was evaluated.
AGFD 73 Physicochemical properties of partially hydrolyzed waxy rice starches
Jae-Sung Shin 1 , Sang Ho Yoo2 , Chong-Tai Kim3 , Cheon-Seok Park1 , and Moo-Yeol Baik1 . (1) Department of Food Science
and Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seochun, Yongin 446-701, South Korea, Fax: 82-31-204-8116,
mooyeol@khu.ac.kr, (2) Department of Food Science and Technology, Sejong University, (3) Biosystems Engineering Team,
Korean Food Research Institute
Physicochemical properties of partially hydrolyzed waxy rice starches with various alpha-amylases were investigated to reduce
processing-time of Yukwa (Korean traditional puffed rice snack). Four commercial alpha-amylases (Fungamyl, Termamyl,
Liquozyme, Kleis tase) were used in this work. Waxy rice starches (20% solid content) were treated with same unit of four
alpha-amylases at 40 o C and pH 6.0 for 1 hour. Partially hydrolyzed waxy rice starches showed higher swelling power and
solubility than native waxy rice starch. Pasting temperature and peak viscosity of partially hydrolyzed waxy rice starches were
lower than those of native starch. DSC thermal transitions of partially hydrolyzed waxy rice starches shifted to higher
temperature than native waxy rice starch possibly due to hydrolysis of amo rphous region and some double helical structure. X-
ray diffraction patterns of both native and partially hydrolyzed waxy rice starches were typical A -type pattern indicating that
alpha-amylase cannot disrupt the crystalline structure in this conditions.

AGFD 74 Correlation between gluten protein composition and rheological properties
Guoqin Liu1 , Lin Li 1 , Bing Li 2 , Qiyu Lu 1 , Ling Chen2 , and Lihua Han1 . (1) Zhengzhou Grain College, Henan University of
Technology, Zhengzhou 450052, China, Fax: 86-371-65695502, liuguoqin@haut.edu.cn, hnut2005@163.com, (2) College of
Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, 381# Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou
510640, China, Fax: 86-20-87111971, lcbingli@scut.edu.cn
This research investigated the relationship between mixing time and rheological properties for three different wheat flour
dough systems: bread-flour dough, all-purpose flour dough and cake-flour dough. The results showed that the bread-flour
dough and all-purpose flour dough required a longer Mixograph mixing time (4–5 min) than cake-flour dough (2–3 min). The
bread-flour dough exhibited higher storage modulus (G') and lower tand values at all frequencies compared to all-purpose flour
dough and cake-flour dough in small strain rheological measurements. The relaxation behavior of gluten and its subtractions,
i.e. gliadin, soluble glutenin and gel protein was measured. Results showed that gel protein and glutenin had higher G' and
longer relaxation time compared with gliadin, indicating that the molecular weight (MW) of gel and glutenin was larger than
that of gliadin. (Financial support from NSFC 20436020 & GDNSF 05200617)

AGFD 75 Effect of content of wet gluten of wheat flour on rheological properties
Lin Li 1 , Guoqin Liu1 , Bing Li 2 , Qiyu Lu 1 , and Siyuan Guo2 . (1) Zhengzhou Grain College, Henan University of Technology,
Zhengzhou 450052, China, Fax: 86-371-65693325, hnut2005@163.com, liuguoqin@haut.edu.cn, (2) College of Light Industry
and Food Science, South China University of Technology, 381# Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640, China,
Fax: 86-20-87111971, lcbingli@scut.edu.cn
The effect of wet gluten content on rheological properties of gluten was investigated employing dynamic state method and
static state method using a RS-600 Rheostress. The experiments were carried out with three different wheat flours having wet
gluten content of 35.6%, 33.2% and 22.9%, respectively. The results showed that a decrease in wet gluten content caused a
reduction in the viscoelasticity and the critical stress value of gluten during the stress sweep, and the Yong's modulus during
frequency sweep. There were larger deformation and longer recovery times with the lower wet gluten content during creep and
recovery experiments. It was concluded that wet gluten content has a positive correlation with the viscoelasticity, the critical
stress value and the Yong's modulus. On the contrary, wet gluten content has a negative correlation with extent of deformation
and recovery time.

AGFD 76 Effects of pressing procedure and storage conditions on the rheology and microstructure of Queso Blanco
Michael H. Tunick, Diane L. Van Hekken, and Peter H. Cooke, Dairy Processing & Products Research Unit, USDA -ARS,
Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, Fax: 215-233-6795,
Michael.Tunick@ars.usda.gov
Queso Blanco, a popular Hispanic-style cheese, was pressed using two methods and then stored under different conditions to
determine if its rheological characteristics, and thus its consumer acceptance, would be affected. Texture profile analysis,
torsion testing, and small amplitude oscillatory shear analyses indicated that pressing procedure (vertical press or compression
molder), length of storage (up to 12 wk), temperature of storage (4 or 10ºC), and temperature abuse (repeatedly allowing the
cheese to reach 20ºC) did not appreciably change the fracture, elastic, or viscous properties of the cheese. Electron microscopy
showed that the microstructure of all of the cheeses consisted of a mesh of discrete curd particles and fat globules. Although
the globules aggregated over time, the rheology of the cheese was unaffected by pressing method or by temperature. Queso
Blanco may be stored for up to 3 mo under less than ideal conditions without influencing the rheology, and therefore the
quality, of the product.
AGFD 77 Effect of ultrasound on the stability of casein in pasteurized milk
Bing Li, Wenwen Xiong, Lin Li, and Ling Chen, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of
Technology, 381# Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640, China, Fax: 86-20-87111971, lcbingli@scut.edu.cn,
felinli@scut.edu.cn
Pasteurized milk was treated using an ultrasonic processor. Changes in the sensory, physicochemical properties and
microorganism count of pasteurized milk after ultrasonic treatment were evaluated. There was no change in the sensory and
physicochemical properties, while the total bacteria count decreased by five fold. Change in the stability of casein of the
pasteurized milk was also studied. It was shown that after ultrasonic treatment the turbidity and pH of pasteurized milk
decreased, the surface hydrophobicity of casein micelles decreased, the average diameter of casein micelles decreased from
349.3 nm to 235.1 nm, the concentration of calcium ions decreased by 1.62x104 mol/L, while the Zeta potential increased from
24 mV to 28 mV. There was no change in the amount of total casein. Therefore, it could be concluded that the stability of
casein was improved after ultrasonic treatment and ultrasound is an effective preservation technology for improving the shelf
life of pasteurized milk and its quality.

AGFD 78 Effect of microwave radiation on the physicochemical properties of maize starches
Zhigang Luo, South China University of Technology, Light and Chemical Industry Institute, Carbohydrate Lab, Wu Shan,
Guangzhou 510640, China, zhgluo@scut.edu.cn
Maize starches were treated by microwave radiation at a moisture content of 30%. The results showed that the surface was
porous and a concavity could be clearly observed at the center of the starches. The swelling power and solubility, syneresis and
the enthalpy of gelatinization decreased on this treatment. Microwave treatment increased the gelatinization transition
temperatures and the gelatinization temperature range of starches . The rise in pasting temperature and the drop in viscosity of
maize starches were observed after microwave irradiation. However, the viscosity patterns remained unchanged. The foregoing
data showed associations involving starch chains (amylose–amylose and amylose-amylopectin ) in the amorphous and
crystalline regions of the granule resulted in the formation of new crystallites of different stabilities and lead to more ordered
crystalline array.

AGFD 79 Effect of roasting temperature and time on physicochemical characteristics of roasted soybean powder
J. H. Eo 1 , M. Park1 , F. H. Hsieh2 , and J. B. Eun1 . (1) Department of Food Science and Technology, Chonnam National
University, 300 Yongbong-dong Buk-gu, Gwangju, South Korea, Fax: +82-62-530-2149, jbeun@chonnam.ac.kr, (2)
Department of Biological Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia
The effect of roasting temperature and time on physicochemical characteristics of roasted soybean powder (RSP) was
investigated. Moisture content of the RSP had a range of 6.2 to 6.3% and fat content varied from 20.4 to 22.5%. The L* value
decreased as roasting time and temperature increased, but the a* value increased. The b* value increased as roasting time
increased at the roasting temperature of 190 and 200°C. The amino acid content was not affected by roasting time and
temperature. The major fatty acids, linoleic, linolenic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acid were detected in RSP. The major
isoflavones, daidzin, genistin, and daidzein, increased in level as roasting time and temperature increased. The level of
genistein increased at 210°C of roasting for 8 min but decreased after 8 min. Additional research work, such as flavor analysis
and sensory evaluation, is needed to further characterize the functional food properties and to provide the optimum
manufacturing conditions for RSP.

AGFD 80 Tensile strength and sorption characteristics of stearic acid       -cysteine-soy protein isolate blend films
Lin Li 1 , Guoqin Liu1 , Bing Li 2 , Qiyu Lu 1 , Ling Chen2 , and Guoxing Huang2 . (1) Zhengzhou Grain College, Henan University
of Technology, Zhengzhou 450052, China, Fax: 86-371-65693325, hnut2005@163.com, liuguoqin@haut.edu.cn, (2) College
of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, 381# Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou
510640, China, Fax: 86-20-87111971, lcbingli@scut.edu.cn
Stearic acid-cysteine-soy protein isolate (SPI) blend films were prepared and their tensile strength (TS), percent elongation and
sorption properties were determined after conditioning the blend film specimens at 25ºC and 50% relative humidity for 2 days
using Texture Analyzer. Moisture sorption characteristics of the SPI films at 25°C were studied for water activities ranging
from 0.10-0.90. Results indicated that the TS value and sorption characteristics of the SPI films changed with ratio of stearic
acid to cysteine. TS values of SPI films with ratio of 40:60 (w/w) was 2 times higher than that of the original SPI films, and the
films exhibited the optimum sorption rate. The moisture absorption and sorption isotherm data of the SPI films were well fitted
to Peleg's equation and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model. Constants of equations were determined by non-linear
regression analysis and showed the highest R2 and lowest REMS.

AGFD 81 Encapsulation of MCT oil in modified starches by spray drying
Hidefumi Yoshii, Masafumi Yasuda, Hisako Tobe, Tze Loon Neoh, and Takeshi Furuta, Department of Biotechnology,
Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama Minami, 680-8552 Tottori, Japan, Fax: +81-857-31-0881, foodeng.yoshii@bio.tottori-
u.ac.jp
Middle-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil has been used since the 1950's in the diet of patients suffering from malabsorbtion
disorders. One of the unique properties of MCT oil is that it is less atherogenic compared to other fats and oils. The objective
of this study was to find the optimum conditions to encapsulate MCT oil with modified starches by spray drying. The MCT oil
used was from Riken Vitamin Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. The three wall materials (N-Creamer, Purity Gum and Flow Max) are
modified starches from National Starch & Chemical Japan (Tokyo, Japan). The effects of emulsion size and powder size on the
encapsulation of MCT oil in the spray-dried powder was investigated in various conditions. The encapsulation yield correlated
inversely with the ratio of average emulsion size to average powder size whereas the amount of surface oil on spray-dried
powders was independent of this ratio.

AGFD 82 Kinetics of molecular encapsulation of 1-methylcyclopropene into a -cyclodextrin
Tze Loon Neoh, Kousuke Yamauchi, Hidefumi Yoshii, and Takeshi Furuta, Department of Biotechnology, Tottori University,
4-101 Koyama Minami, 680-8552 Tottori, Japan, Fax: +81-857-31-0881, neoh@bio.tottori-u.ac.jp
1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a colorless gas at STP, is an ethylene inhibitor which has recently been reported for its
satisfactory efficiency in delaying the ripening of fruits, vegetables and floriculture crops. Although 1-MCP is being
commercialized in the form of inclusion complex with a -cyclodextrin (a -CD), the encapsulation kinetics and release
characteristic of this particular inclusion complex has not yet been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the
encapsulation kinetics of 1-MCP gas into a -CD. Parameters, namely, initial headspace concentration of 1-MCP in the
encapsulation system, temperature, concentration of a-CD solution and stirring speed were studied for their effects on
encapsulation kinetics. Initial headspace concentration of 1-MCP was found to have negligible effect on encapsulation kinetics
whereas the effects of concentration of a-CD solution and stirring speed were observable. The storage stability of the inclusion
complex was also studied under controlled temperature and humidity storage conditions.

AGFD 83 Pyrolysis of agricultural waste over nanoporous materials from zeolites
Myongjin Yu, Seoung Koo Ahn, Seo Il Chang, Ja Yong Koo, Jai Young Lee, and Young-Kwon Park, Department of
Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, 90, Jeonnog-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-743, South Korea, Fax: 82-2-
2244-2245, catalica@uos.ac.kr
Biomass has received considerable attention both as a source of energy and as an organic chemical feedstock. The energy
potential of biomass has increasingly become recognized as a means to help meet world energy demand. The utilization of
biomass and other alternative fuel sources, rather than existing fossil fuels, would offer more environmentally acceptable
processes for energy production and will aid in conserving the limited supplies of fossil fuels. Pyrolysis of biomass is one of
the most promising tools to provide alternative energy sources. However, pyrolytic oils are not always completely volatile and
contain high levels of oxygen, this being the major factor responsible for the high viscosity and corrosiveness. The upgrading
of pyrolitic oils is a necessary process and involves the removal of oxygen by catalyst such as ZSM-5, Y zeolite. We developed
new nanostructured (or mesostuructrued) zeolite and applied it as an catalyst. In this study, nanostructured (or
mesostuructrued) zeolite with Si/Al ratio of 75 were synthesized. The synthesized materials were characterized using various
analytical methods such as XRD, BET surface area, ICP, MAS NMR, FT-IR, and ammonia temperature programmed
desorption (NH3-TPD). The materials ex     hibit a crystalline structure of MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieves and zeolite beta
with surface area about 786 m2/g. Catalytic pyrolysis of agricultural waste was carried out using fluidized bed reactor. The
products contained a liquid fraction, char and gas. The upgraded oil was analyzed by GC-MS, FT-IR, and elemental analysis
etc. The results indicated that more stable oil was produced by transforming oxygen over nanostructured zeolite into H2O, CO
and CO2. This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (2005-08002-0050-1).

AGFD 84 Microalgae culture for wastewater treatment and biodiesel production
Fei Yu, Qingxue Kong, Paul Chen, and Roger Ruan, Department of Bioproducts and Biosystem Engineering, University of
Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Ave, Saint Paul, MN 55108, Fax: 6126243005, yuxxx069@umn.edu
As many states mandate biodiesel in diesel, biodiesel demand will increase steadily. Currently soybean oil is the main
feedstock for biodiesel production. In order to increase biodiesel production, we must seek diverse feedstock. Many algae
species are very high in oil content in addition to carbohydrate and protein. Because their fast turn around in growth and
harvest, it is suggested that high oil content algae species could produce oil as much as 1000 times of soybean on a same size
land. Furthermore, growing algae on wastewater helps clean the wastewater. The objective of this study is to collect and screen
high-oil-content microalgae species suitable for growing in the Minnesota region for oil production purpose. We are
developing algal media which are suitable for fast growth; evaluating effects of algae species, temperature, pressure, and
phosphate ion tolerances, and nutrient on the growth rates and proximate chemical composition for each species; and
investigating the biodiesel production by selected microalgae.

AGFD 85 Phytotoxicity of trichothecenes using an Arabidopsis detached leaf assay
Susan P. McCormick, Anne E. Desjardins, and Michael Appell, Mycotoxin Research, USDA-ARS, National Center for
Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. University St., Peoria, IL 61603, mccormsp@ncaur.usda.gov
Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid epoxide mycotoxins produced by Fusarium and other fungi. Although some Fusarium
trichothecenes are virulence factors in plant disease, the phytotoxicities of many trichothecenes have not been investigated.
Results of previous studies, using a limited group of trichothecenes, suggest that trichothecenes with a C-3 acetyl group are less
toxic than those with a C-3 hydroxyl group. In order to confirm this finding and to determine if additional structural features
might influence phytotoxicity, detached leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana were treated with solutions of twenty-four
trichothecenes that differed in oxygenation and acetylation and the ED50s were determined. The results confirm that in some,
but not all, cases the C-3 acetyl group reduces phytotoxicity, and that other structural features may be important.

AGFD 86 Subterranean termite (Reticulitermes speratus) and common cutworm (Spodoptera litura) antifeedants in
tropical Asia Resak
Masanori Morimoto1 , Hiromi Fukumoto2 , Yusuke Fukuda3 , Takashi Kitayama 2 , and Koichiro Komai2 . (1) USDA ARS,
Natural Products Utilization Research Unit, P.O. Box 8048, University, MS 38677, masanori@nara.kindai.ac.jp, (2) Kinki
University, Graduate School of Agriculture, (3) Kinki University, School of Agriculture
The aim of this project is to search for pest repellent leads from bark wastes produced by lumbering industry. Methanol
extracts were prepared from 18 woody plants and evaluated for antifeedant activity by choice paper disk bioassays against
subterranean termite workers (Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe)). Methanol extract of Resak (Vatica species) showed the
strongest antifeedant activity of all samples tested; therefore, this extract was purified using bioassay-directed fractionation
leading to the isolation and identification of the bridged stilbenoid trimers, vaticanol A, vaticanol E, vaticanol G and the
tetramer, vaticanol B. All isolated compounds showed antifeedant activity against R. speratus. Their insect antifeedant activity
was similar to that of their respective monomer, resveratrol. In addition, the effectiveness of isolated compounds on the feeding
behavior of the serious green crop pest, common cutworm (Spodoptera litura F.), will be discussed.

AGFD 87 Migration and diffusion of common antioxidant additives from and through food contact polymers
Wendy M. Heiserman, Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Building 091, College Park, MD
20742, wendyh@umd.edu, William Limm, Division of Chemistry Research and Environmental Review, Food and Drug
Administration, Timothy H. Begley, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and
Robert A. Walker, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland College Park
Antioxidant additives are necessary for the production of stable polymers used in food packaging. In collaboration with the
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), we have embarked on a broad survey of antioxidant migration and
surface activity. Extractions of antioxidant additives from polymer films using food mimic liquids, such as iso-octane and
ethanol show that different polymers retain Irgafos 168 longer than Irganox 1076. For example polypropylene releases Irganox
1076 faster than low density polyethylene. These results may be understood partly on the basis of simple diffusion
considerations. However, differences in the relative migration rates of the two additives from the same polymer point to
additive specific interactions with the polymer host that are not accounted for by existing models. To explore these interactions
we have begun to quantify the migration rates of different chlorine containing isomers (1,1,1-tetrachloroethane versus 1,1,2-
tetrachloroethane and 1,1-dichloroethylene versus 1,2-dichloroethylene) through thin polymer films.

AGFD 88 Mineral contents in seed coat and canning quality of selected cultivars of dark red kidney beans (Phaseolus
vulgaris L.)
Alfred K Anderson, Department of Family Sciences, College For Women, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5959, 13060 Safat,
Kuwait, Fax: +965 251-3929, aanderson@cfw.kuniv.edu, and XIAOJUN JEFFREY WU, Nutrition and Food Science
Department, Utah State University
This study investigated the various mineral components in seed coat of the kidney bean and how they might relate to bean
canning quality among different cultivars. Three different dark red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars(cvs. 85, 453
and Nickols) were studied to investigate the correlations of the mineral contents in the seed coat and seed coat splits in the
canned beans. In the canned product, highly significant differences (P = 0.01) in percentage of split seed coats were observed
among the three cultivars studied. Canned cultivar 85 significantly showed fewer seed coat splits than the other two cultivars.
Significant negative correlations were observed between the percentage of seed coat splits and sodium (r = - 0.89, P = 0.01),
calcium (r = - 0.74 P= 0.01) and iron (r = - 0.79, P = 0.05) contents in the seed coat. This study suggested that the mineral
content of the seed coat of kidney beans may play important roles in the integrity of the seed coat during thermal processing.

AGFD 89 Changes of physicochemical characteristics and volatile flavor compounds of Jinyangju, a Korean traditional
rice wine sterilized at different temperatures
J. B. Eun1 , T. Y. Jin 1 , and S. H. Choi2 . (1) Department of Food Science and Technology, Chonnam National University, 300
Yongbong-dong Buk-gu, Gwangju, South Korea, Fax: +82-62-530-2149, jbeun@chonnam.ac.kr, (2) Department of Food
Science and Nutrition, Dongeui University
Jinyangju is one of the Korean traditional rice wines, which makes from glutinous rice in the Southwest area of South Korea.
The physicochemical characteristics and volatile flavor compounds of Jinyangju sterilized at different temperature was
investigated during storage. The pH, total acidity, total sugar content, and alcohol contents were not affected by sterilization.
There were also not changed color values with application of sterilization. Among the volatile flavor compounds, ethyl acetate,
2-methyl propanol, iso amyl alcohol, 2-methyl butanol, 1-pentanol, phenylethyl alcohol, and hydroxyl phenylethyl alcohol
were the most important aroma-active compounds identified in Jinyangju. There were no significant differences aroma
compounds among the 4 treatments. Results show that sterilization did not affect both in terms of physicochemical
characteristics and volatile flavor compounds of Jinyangju.
AGFD 90 Stability of fat soluble vitamins in commercial vitamin tablets during storage
Ji-Hye Kim1 , Sang Ho Yoo2 , Cheon-Seok Park1 , and Moo-Yeol Baik1 . (1) Department of Food Science and Biotechnology,
Kyung Hee University, Seochun 1, Yongin 446-701, South Korea, Fax: 82-31-204-8116, mooyeol@khu.ac.kr, (2) Department
of Food Science and Technology, Sejong University
Effects of temperature and relative humidity on fat soluble vitamin contents in commercial vitamin tablets were investigated.
Two types of vitamin tablets were stored for 24 weeks in two ways; 1) stored at 25, 35, 45o C with cap at 100% relative
humidity, 2) stored at various relative humidity without cap at 25o C. Fat soluble vitamin contents were determined using
HPLC. When stored with cap, all measured vitamins were relatively stable and degraded slowly during storage suggesting that
fat soluble vitamins were not highly dependent on temperature in this case. When stored without cap, vitamins A acetate and E
acetate were gradually degraded during storage and their degradation rates were increased with increasing relative humidity.
However, vitamin E degraded relatively slowly and its degradation rate was not highly dependent on relative humidity. This
indicates that fat soluble vitamins substituted with hydrophilic group were more sensitive to moisture than unsubsituted one.

AGFD 91 NMR state diagram application study: Maillard reaction in model storage systems around transition point
temperature
Jinsheng Zhang1 , Roger Ruan2 , Xiangyang Lin 1 , Paul Chen2 , and Fei Yu2 . (1) MOE Key Laboratory of food science, Nanchang
University, MOE Key Laboratory of food science, Nanchang, China, Fax: 6126243005, yuxxx069@umn.edu, (2) Department
of Bioproducts and Biosystem Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Ave, Saint Paul, MN 55108, Fax:
6126243005, yuxxx069@umn.edu
Effects of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) state diagram and transition point (Tp) temperature on Maillard reaction rate
between lysine and glucose in a non-crystallizing trehalose-sucrose-water matrices were studied. A trend of Tp temperatures
change in the NMR state diagram were observed in the model matrices with different moisture and sugar contents. A relative
higher Tp temperature was observed in the low moisture sugar matrix and a relative slow reactive velocity was observed in the
identical matrix during storage at the same time. There were obvious reactive velocity differences on the temperatures above
and below the Tp temperatures by detecting the rates of reactant consumption in the matrices for the Maillard reaction during
storage at different temperatures. Different reactive velocities were observed in the samples having different sugar contents
with same moisture during storage under an identical temperature. It is concluded that NMR state diagram and Tp temperature
is available in accessing the better storage temperature and an ingredient design is helpful for the extension of food shelf-life by
decreasing the relative chemical reactive velocity during storage, since the NMR state diagram Tp temperatures were
influenced by the sugar contents and moisture.

AGFD 92 Non-destructive detection of deep muscle bruising in salmon by near infrared spectroscopy
Anna G. Cavinato1 , Meaghan M Hammers 1 , David M. Mayes 2 , Mengshi Lin 3 , and Barbara A. Rasco3 . (1) Department of
Chemistry and Biochemistry, Eastern Oregon University, One University Boulevard, La Grande, OR 97850, Fax: 541-962-
3873, anna.cavinato@eou.edu, (2) DSquared Development Inc, (3) Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition,
Washington State University
Bruising is an important quality defect in salmon due to the fact that it reduces their market value. Bruising is difficult to detect
before a fish is filleted. We report a new non-destructive measurement technique based on visible and short wavelength near
infrared spectroscopy (SW-NIR: 600 – 1100 nm). Bruise detection is based on distinct absorbance bands from
deoxyhemoglobin, the primary pigment in blood. Deoxyhemoglobin has a prominent absorption band at approximately 760
nm. In this study spectra were acquired non-destructively through the skin and scales in diffuse reflectance mode. Digital
images of bruised and nonbruised regions of fish were captured after the fish samples were filleted for reference purposes.
Spectra were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy
(SIMCA). Preliminary results indicate that it is possible to differentiate bruised from non bruised samples and that ultimately
visible and SW-NIR could be used to control the bruise defect of fish products during processing, thereby improving product
consistency and quality.

AGFD 93 Nonlethal detection of bacterial kidney disease in Pacific salmon by near infrared spectroscopy
Anna G. Cavinato1 , Tara L. Boethin 1 , Meaghan M Hammers 1 , Kyle Troutman1 , Timothy Hoffnagle 2 , and Anne Greenlee3 . (1)
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Eastern Oregon University, One University Boulevard, La Grande, OR 97850,
Fax: 541-962-3873, anna.cavinato@eou.edu, (2) Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, (3) Oregon Health Sciences
University
There are no reliable nonlethal sampling techniques for Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD), a major health problem of cultured
salmonids. The disease is caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs) a gram-positive diplobacillus that produces chronic,
systemic infection characterized by granulomatous lesions in the kidney and other organs. Internally, the kidney is usually most
affected, becoming swollen with gray or white lesions. BKD is commonly diagnosed through invasive or lethal techniques
applied to fresh or frozen tissues or blood plasma from infected fish. We are currently developing a nonlethal screening
detection method based on near infrared spectroscopy. Near infrared spectra were acquired by placing a fiber optic probe in
direct contact with skin and scales of the fish. The spectroscopic information was correlated to the BKD status of each fish, as
determined by visual examination of gross kidney morphology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) test.
Categorization of fish according to their health status was achieved using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Soft
Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). These data support our hypothesis that s pecific changes in body
composition between healthy fish and those with BKD may allow for development of a nonlethal screening method that
recognizes presence of BKD in salmonids before development of external clinical signs.

AGFD 94 Reduction of parasites and diseases in honeybees
Edwin J Geels, Amanda Korver, and Sara Hanenberg, Chemistry, Dordt College, 498 4th. Ave. N.E, Sioux Center, IA
51250, geels@dordt.edu
Over 30 years the varroa mite has spread from its host bee apis -cerana in Indonesia to the common honeybee throughout the
world. The mites feed on the body fluids of both adult bees and larvae which weakens the bees but also transmits viral
infections causing deformed bees which are more susceptible to destructive bacterial infections like deadly American
Foulbrood. We have had success in raising small cell bee colonies with almost no mites without the use of chemicals by using
the natural cell size of 4.9mm. The numbers of mites in our hives was extremely low. We have also experimented with the use
of the potentially important supplement copper gluconate to improve bee health and reduce mite populations. The development
of methods of analysis of copper in honey, wax and bees is discussed. Prior to earlier research the use of copper had
unexpected results in our developing beehive colonies.

AGFD 95 Ab initio study of acetylated derivatives of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol
Michael Appell, Susan P. McCormick, and Anne E. Desjardins, Mycotoxin Research, USDA-ARS, National Center for
Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604, Fax: 309-681-6689, appellm@ncaur.usda.gov
Mycotoxin contamination of agricultural commodities not only negatively impacts the agricultural industry, but poses health
risks to humans and animals. Deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) and nivalenol are two frequently occurring trichothecene
contaminants, a class of sesquiterpene mycotoxins. Biological activities of naturally occurring acetylated derivatives of
deoxynivalenol and nivalenol depend on the extent and site of acetylation. To gain insight into the role of structure in these
complicated structure-activity relationships, a conformational analysis has been carried out on C-3 and C-15 acetylated
derivatives of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol. Calculations were performed using ab initio MP2 methods and the B3LYP
density functional at the 6-31+G* level. An analytical hessian program calculated the harmonic vibration frequencies, zero
point energy, enthalpy, and entropy. Results from the structural analysis will be compared with reported activities of these
mycotoxins in plant and animal systems.

AGFD 96 HPLC Determination of chlorate metabolism in ruminal fluid
Ross C. Beier1 , Michael E. Hume 1 , R. C. Anderson2 , Christy E. Oliver3 , Todd R. Callaway1 , Thomas S. Edrington1 , and David
J. Nisbet1 . (1) USDA, ARS, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, 2881 F & B Road, College Station, TX 77845-
4988, Fax: 979-260-9332, RCBeier@ffsru.tamu.edu, (2) Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, USDA-Agricultural
Research Service, (3) Department of Animal and Range Sciences, North Dakota State University
Salmonella and Escherichia coli are two bacteria that are important causes of human and animal disease worldwide. Chlorate is
converted within the cell to chlorite, which is lethal to these bacteria. An HPLC method was developed to follow chlorate
metabolism in ruminal fluid. Chlorate was measured in ruminal fluid using a standard curve from 25 to 150 ppm, and the
detectable concentration of chlorate was more rapidly lowered (P < 0.01) under anaerobic compared to aerobic conditions.
Addition of formate decreased chlorate concentrations; however, formate also moderated the bactericidal effect of chlorate
against E. coli. Chlorate alone or supplemented with the reductants lactate or glycerol were bactericidal in anaerobic
incubations, but the reductants did not increase the killing of E. coli at 24 h. Alternatively, the reductants may be useful when
reducing equivalents are limiting as found in waste holding reservoirs or composting systems required for intense animal
production.

AGFD 97 Development of a method for the determination of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) in edible oils by
graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS)
Raymond Boisvert, Nathalie Boivin, and Angela Santagati, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 960 Carling Ave, C.E.F., Bldg
22, Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6, Canada, Fax: 613-759-7060, boisvertr@inspection.gc.ca, nboivin@inspection.gc.ca
The quality of edible oils is affected by the presence of certain metals, such as Cu, Fe and Ni which act as catalysts in the
oxidation of oils. Noticeable effects have been measured for levels as low as 30 and 5 µg/kg for Fe and Cu, respectively.
Several methods for the determination of the above metal by GFAAS were reviewed and steps were combined to develop a
method for the analysis of Cu, Fe and Ni in olive oils and other edible oils. One particularity of the method requires that
standards and samples must be prepared using a dilution oil( near-metal-free oil). Through out our work, near-metal-free
sunflower oil, has been used to prepare standards and samples. Conostan oil standards for the metals of interest were used to
determine the GFAAS operating parameters. Calibration range are from 0-100 µg/kg. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of
quantification (LOQ) were estimated from replicate measurements of the dilution oil blank. Estimated LOD/LOQ are 0.1/0.5,
2/7 and 0.1/0.5 µg/kg for Cu, Fe and Ni respectively. Recently analysed check samples, olive oil mixtures, along with other
edible oil from the market were selected to test our method. Results are comparable to those obtained by other laboratories.
Analysis of the near-metal-free sunflower oil showed approximately the same low levels of contamination (5, 11 and 0.8 µg/kg
for Cu, Fe and Ni respectively) before and after a clean-up step. That extra step may be eliminated in the future since standards
and samples intensities are also corrected for dilution oil contamination prior to final calculation. This method will be validated
for other edible oils and will be used to support Agency's mandate.

AGFD 98 Recognition and inhibition of B. cereus spores in milk and juice using glycoconjugates
                 ,
Paul Bobryshev Department of Biology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University, Little Rock, AR
72204, Fax: 870-5340586, pvbobryshev@ualr.edu
The Bacillus species cause many food spoilages and food-borne illnesses. Recent advances in glycomics reveal the potential
use of carbohydrate-bearing polymers for recognition and inhibition of Bacillus spores. The aim of this study is two-fold A) to
elucidate whether glycoconjugates affect inhibition of B. cereus spores, B) to analyze glycoconjugates inhibition effects in milk
and juice. We employed modified filters, achieved spore inhibition, performed scanning electron microscopy, and counted
colony forming units (CFU). Our results reveal that glycoconjugates inhibit spore viability. Glycoconjugates modified filters
decreased B. cereus spores in studied media and increased the amount of retained spores. CFU data is indicative of inhibiting
efficacy of used glycoconjugates. This study provides a model for recognition and inhibition of bacterial spores in human and
animal food supplies, and contributes to extend shelf life of food products.

AGFD 99 Isolation and physicochemical characterization of EU rubber from Eucommia ulmoides leaves
Yinquan Su1 , Jinnain Peng1 , Qishi Sun1 , Jie Yue1 , Nakazawa Yoshihisa2 , and Runcang Sun1 . (1) College of Forestry,
Northwest Agricultural and Forestry University, Yangling 712100, China, Fax: 0086-29-87032266, suying@public.xa.sn.cn,
(2) Hitachi Zosen Corporation, 565-0871, Japan
The contents of rubber extracted from leaves of clones of Eucommia ulmoides, were determined by gravimetric method, and
the molecular-weight and molecular-weight distribution were determined by GPC. The results revealed that G3, X18, L11, and
L49 clones have higher concentrations of rubber (more than 4.0%). It was found that the rubber content in the clones with high
rubber concentrations was generally lowest in June, and highest in October, except for the G3 clone, while the trend of the
molecular-weight and molecular-weight distribution was contrary to that of the content. The molecular-weight distribution of
the rubber showed a typical bimodal distribution. The higher molecular-weight fractions and the lower molecular-weight
fractions were almost equal in June, whereas in August and October, the lower molecular-weight fractions were much larger
than the higher molecular-weight fractions.

AGFD 100 Studies and development of a new method for effective extraction of the alkaloids from Lotus stem
Qi-Li Feng 1 , Da -Qun Liu 2 , and Feng Lv 1 . (1) The Key Laboratory of Food Science of MOE, Nanchang University, Nanchang
330047, China, fengqili@yahoo.com.cn, (2) Department of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University
Lotus stem is a natural product with multiple health care functions, and has been used as Chinese medicinal herb for centuries.
The alkaloids, including lotusine, isolotusine and galuteolin, are believed to be some of the active ingredients. Various
treatments of Lotus stem was investigated to minimize the loss of the alkaloids in the residual raw materials. Different solvents
or mixed solvents were used to extract the treated Lotus stem, and optimal conditions were identified to get the alkaloids out in
maximum yields. Details of the studies will be presented.

AGFD 101 GC/MS analysis of the chemical constituents of mint volatile oil in the county of Shangri-La, Yunnan
province
Yuhong Yu Sr., Department of Pharmachology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology 1999-16#,
Beijing 100081, China, yyh72@bit.edu.cn, and Zhichen Guo Sr., Depatment of Pharmachology, Beijing Institute of
Technology
Mint plant was collected in Shangri-La county of Di Qing Tibetan Autonomous Zhou in Yunnan Province in the summer of
2005. Volatile oil was obtained using steam distillation at a yield of 0.3%. The volatile oil was analyzed using GC-MS.
Seventy-seven compounds were found in this volatile oil, and the chemical structure of 69 compounds was confirmed. The
compounds at high concentrations were: carvone (60.69%), germacrene D (3.40%), neodihydrocarveol (2.65%),
carveol(2.07%), d-limonene (1.98%), a -cadinol (1.56%), caryophyllene (1.49%), a -bourbonene (1.35%), eucalyptol (1.30),
phytol (1.12%). Compared with volatile oils of mints from other parts of the nation, there are noticeable differences in the oil
content and the components, as well as the proportion of components in the volatile oil.

AGFD 102 Detection of glutathione/glutahione-S-transferase interaction by surface plasmon resonance with BSA-
modified chip
Lihua Chen, College of chemistry and molecular engineer, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042,
China, lihuachen@qust.edu.cn
Over the last two decades, surface plasmon resonance has attracted great attention. The utilization of a reference surface can
dramatically improve the quality of the binding data by correcting artifacts. The key to designing a reference channel is to
eliminate the nonspecific binding (NSB). Two methods have been employed to address this. One is to modify the reference
channel with a noninteracting protein at the same immobilization conditions to ensure similar environment between two flow
cells. Another is to choose the hydrophilic surface. However, those are not always effective. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was
incorporated with an alkanethiol-modified chip, then glutathione (GSH) was immobilized on the BSA surface only in
experimental channel; the inactive BSA surface was considered as the reference channel. NSB was investigated as a poineer
experiment. The data showed that the BSA-modified chip was effective not only in binding the target proteins but also in
suppressing NSB of proteins. Finally, the influence of the linker-length between BSA and GSH and the conjugation orientation
of GSH on GSH/GST interaction were studied. The results demonstrated that over 6 Å can make GSH stick out from BSA
surface and the thiol group of GSH was the best located position.

AGFD 103 Detection of potato virus by microarray and RT labeling method
Nongyue He, State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, 210096 Nanjing, China, Fax: 86-25-83790885,
nyhe1958@163.com, Yu Gu, Nanjing University of Traditional Medicine, Jishuang Chen, Laboratory of microbial molecular
biology, Zhejiang University, and Song Li, Hunan Key Laboratory of Green Packaging and Application of Biological
Nanotechnology, Zhuzhou Institute of Technology, Wenhua Lu, Zhuzhou 412008, China, Fax: 86-733-2182097,
solisong@163.com
This research is on a new method to detect potato virus initially. The method combines oligonucleotide microarray technique
and fluorescence labeling technique by reverse transcriptase (RT). In this work, the specific oligonucleotide probes were
designed and an oligonucleotide microarray was fabricated, which can detect familiar potato virus. The RNA samples extracted
from infected potatoes were labeled by reverse transcriptase, multiplex RT labeling was tried. After optimizing the protocols,
the fabricated gene-chip can detect four kinds of virus at one time. Although the sensitivity is not enough high, this labeling
method needs only one-step reaction. So it is a simpler, more rapid and cheaper way to detect plant virus which have rich
copies, and can be applied to detect unknown virus infecting plant samples.

AGFD 104 Protein engineering of Sulfolobus solfataricus maltooligosyltrehalose synthase to alter its selectivity
Tsuei-Yun Fang 1 , Wen-Chi Tseng2 , Ching-Hsing Pan1 , and Yao-Te Chung1 . (1) Department of Food Science, National
Taiwan Ocean University, 2 Pei-Ning Rd., Keelung 202, Taiwan, tyfang@mail.ntou.edu.tw, (2) Department of Chemical
Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
Maltooligosyltrehalose synthase (MTSase) is one of the key enzymes involved in trehalose production from starch and
catalyzes an intramolecular transglycosylation reaction by converting the a-1,4- to a -1,1-glucosidic linkage. Mutations at
residues F206, F207 and F405, were done to change the selectivity of the enzyme because changes of selectivity may reduce
the side-hydrolysis reaction of releasing glucose and thus increase trehalose production from starch. Compared with wild-type
MTSase, F405Y and F405M MTSases had decreased ratios of the initial rate of glucose formation to that of trehalose
formation in starch digestion at 75°C when wild-type and mutant MTSases were, respectively, used with isoamylase and
maltooligosyltrehalose trehalohydrolase (MTHase). The highest trehalose yield from starch digestion was by the mutant
MTSase having the lowest initial rate of glucose formation to trehalose formation and this predicted high trehalose yield better
than the ratio of catalytic efficiency for hydrolysis to that for transglycosylation.

AGFD 105 Detection of potato spindle tuber viroid using RNA hybridization chips
Nongyue He, State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, 210096 Nanjing, China, Fax: 86-25-83790885,
nyhe1958@163.com, Yu Gu, Nanjing University of Traditional Medicine, Jishuang Chen, Laboratory of microbial molecular
biology, Zhejiang University, and Song Li, Hunan Key Laboratory of Green Packaging and Application of Biological
Nanotechnology, Zhuzhou Institute of Technology, Wenhua Lu, Zhuzhou 412008, China, Fax: 86-733-2182097,
solisong@163.com
A new method to detect plant viroid was reported: RNA glass slide hybridization. This method combined dot blot hybridization
technique and cDNA microarray technique. A number of RNA samples extracted from new leaves of potatoes were spotted
onto a silanated glass slide directly and then the hybridization was performed on the slide with Cy5-labeled probe of Potato
Spindle Tuber Viroid (PSTVd) which was prepared by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analyzing the results of
hybridization, one could ascertain which sample is infected by PSTVd. Factors affecting the results were investigated and
optimized, and then this approach was used to test the potato samples with PSTVd -specific probes. The obtained results were
in good accordance with those from the reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT -PCR) approach and the samples are proved to be
PSTVd by cloning and sequencing.

AGFD 106 Assessment of hydrogen bonds between maltooligosyltrehalose synthase and pentamaltose by computer
simulation and site directed mutagenesis
Wen-Chi Tseng 1 , Tseui-Yun Fang2 , and Chia -Ray Lin 2 . (1) Deaprtment of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University
of Science and Technology, 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, Fax: 886-2-27336644, tsengwc@ch.ntust.edu.tw, (2)
Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University
Hydrogen bond plays an important role in the mechanisms of enzymatic catalysis. Maltooligosyltrehalose synthase (MTSase)
is one of the key enzymes involving in the production of trehalose from starch and mainly responsible for converting an a-1,4
glycosidic linkage to the a-1,1 linkage. Computer simulations using Autodock and NAMD were employed to examine the
hydrogen bindings between a maltopentose molecule constructed by MOPAC and the molecular model of the enzyme crystal
structure. The simulation results showed three residues located between subsite -2 and -4 form hydrogen bonds with the
enzyme. In order to further confirm the results of computer simulation, site directed mutagenesis was used to demolish the
hydrogen bonds by altering the residues to alanine. The kinetic studies on the mutant MTSases using maltopentose as substrate
showed significantly lowered catalytic efficiencies and significant changes in ?(? G), suggesting that those residues are
hydrogen bonds with the substrate.

AGFD 107 Kinetic model of ultrasound-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction
Deng-lin Luo Sr., Ying Nie III, and Jin-ying Guo Sr., College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and
Technology, Tianjing Road, Luoyang 471003, China, Fax: 086-379-64282342, luodenglin@sohu.com
Based on transfer theory and principle of mass balance, the kinetic model of ultrasound-assisted supercritical CO2 extraction
was built. The prediction results of the model fitted the experimental results well, and it can actually reflect the influence of
ultrasound on supercritical CO2 extraction. The model can prove that ultrasound can improve both the diffusion coefficient and
maximum yield of supercritical CO2 extraction.

AGFD 108 Mechanism of ultrasound-assisted extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide reverse microemulsions
Deng-lin Luo Sr.1 , Ying Nie III1 , and Tai-qiu Qiu Sr.2 . (1) College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science
and Technology, Tianjing Road, Luoyang 471003, China, Fax: 086-379-64282342, luodenglin@sohu.com, (2) College of
Light Chemistry and Food Science, South China University of Technology
Effect of ultrasound on supercritical CO2 reverse microemulsions extraction (SCRME) was investigated. The experimental
results show that ultrasound can enhance mass transfer of SCRME. On the other hand, ultrasound can also destroy the micellar
structure when the power density is above a certain value. The effect of ultrasound on SCRME is a combination of the two
effects. The mechanism of ultrasound-assisted SCRME is attributed to mechanical fluctuating and thermal effects of
ultrasound. The mechanical fluctuating effect of ultrasound can enhance mass transfer both in solid and on solid-reverse
microemulsions interface and affect the phase balance of solute in reverse microemulsions. The thermal effect of ultrasound
can increase the maximum amount of water in microemulsions and dissolves more material due to the temperature of reverse
microemulsions system.

AGFD 109 Synthesis of medium chain triglycerides utilizing camphor seed oil
Deng-lin Luo Sr. and Ying Nie III, College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology,
Tianjing Road, Luoyang 471003, China, Fax: 086-379-64282342, luodenglin@sohu.com
The synthesis of medium chain triglyceride (MCT) using oil from wild camphor seeds was performed. Medium chain methyl
esters were synthesized by alcoholysis of the oil of camphor seeds with methanol. The fractionation conditions of medium
chain methyl ester were explored. The mol ratio of methyl ester to glycerin, temperature, time, and catalyst concentration
affecting MCT synthesis were studied. On the basis of single factor experiments, orthogonal experiments and the orange
analysis data on optimum conditions were obtained. At the optimum conditions of the mol ratio of methyl ester to glycerin
3.9:1, temperature 195 0 C, time 5 h, and catalyst concentration 0.8 %, the degree of alcoholysis of MCT was up to 84.6 %.

AGFD 110 Study on purification and stability of the pigment from fructus rhodomyrti
Huang Ruqiang Sr., Deng Qian Jr., Deng Weiling Jr., and Lin Chunhong Jr., College of Life Science, South China
Normal University, Zhongshan West Road, Gu angzhou 510631, China, hruqiang@scnu.edu.cn, feefe_lin@hotmail.com,
ling82520022@yahoo.com.cn, remember17@163.com
Fructus rhodomyrti is the fruit of the Rhodomytus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk., and is a traditional Chinese medicine material with
anti-hepatitis property. According to reports, it contains flavonoid glycosides, phenols, amino acids, organic acids and
carbohydrates. The plant grows on knolls, wilderness and distributes in Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Taiwan, Yunnan,
Guizhou, China. In this work, water was employed to extract the pigment from fructus rhodomyrti, and purification of the
pigment by macroporous resins was studied under various conditions. Results showed that S8 was the best macroporous resin
to use for the purification of the pigment. The optimal eluting solvent was 2%HCl and 70% ethanol, and the optimum process
conditions were that the eluting rate was 2ml/min at 55°C. Under the optimum process conditions, we purified the pigment
from fructus rhodomyrti, and obtained a purple pigment. The stability of the purple pigment was studied, and it was found that
the purple pigment had good stability not only in wide range of pH value but also to 3 metal ions (Fe2+,Cu2+,Zn2+).

AGFD 111 Preservation of idli batter: A hurdle approach
P Nisha, Bajaj-CBFP Consumer Education and Testing Centre, S.N.D.T. Women’s University, Sir. Vithaldas Vidhyavihar,
Juhu, Mumbai 400049, India, bp.nisha@yahoo.com, Laxmi Ananthanarayan, Food Engineering & Technology Department,
Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Mumbai, and R. W. Sabnis, Squire, Sanders & Dempsey LLP
Idli is a cereal-legume based fermented snack food of South India which is popular all over the country. It is a steamed pudding
made from a thick fermented batter of rice and black gram splits. The product is famous for its characteristic spongy structure,
desirable sour taste and good aroma. However, its preparation time is lengthy, quality is not consistent when prepared in
different households and idli made from instant pre-mixes available in the market lacks in characteristic flavor and texture.
Attempts were made to preserve idli batter by hurdle technology, using preservatives and temperature as two hurdles. Chemical
preservatives (potassium metabisulphate, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in the limits permitted by Prevention of Food
adulteration Act, India, biochemical preservative (Nisin, a microbial polypeptide) and the combination of these two at
temperatures of 28–30°C (room temperature storage), 4–8°C (refrigerated storage) and -18°C (frozen storage). The batter
preparation was optimized before the preservation studies. The optimally prepared batter preserved with various preservatives
were analysed in terms of acidity, pH and microbial count. The idli made from the stored preserved batter was analysed in
terms of bulk density, texture, color and sensory analysis. A combination of 7.5 ppm Nisin and 2000 ppm K-Sorbate could
preserve idli batter for 10 days at room temperature, 30 days at refrigerated storage and 45 days at frozen storage.

AGFD 112 Synthesis of a new dendritic oligosaccharide with alkyl spacer
Takashi Yoshida, Applied Chemistry Department, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Japan, Fax: +81-
157-26-9388, yoshida@chem.kitami-it.ac.jp
A new dendritic polylysine linked with oligosaccharide through an alkyl spacer having a peptide bond (1) was synthesized by a
core lysine dendrimer generation 3 and cellobiose derivative. The oligosaccharide was connected to the lysine dendrimer G3
through the C12 spacer having a peptide bond. That is, acetylcellobiose was reacted with the Z-protected aminohexanol,
followed by the deprotection and then by the peptide condensation with adipic acid to give the acetyl cellobiose with the C12
spacer having a carboxyl group at the end of the spacer. The carboxylic acid was condensed with the amino group of the lysine
dendrimer G3, which was obtained by the stepwise condensation of di-Boc-lysine from tris(2-ethylamino)amine, to give the
glycodendrimer 1 after deacetylation. -cyclodextrin.βOther oligosaccharides used are lactose and maltoheptaose from All
linkages were connected with peptide group and the glycodendrimer obtained kept the structure of oligosaccharide residue.
Thus, the glycodendrimer had vital affinities and was relatively stable both under alkaline and weak acidic conditions. After
sulfation of the hydroxyl group in the oligosaccharide residue, the biological activities such as anti-HIV and blood
anticoagulant activities were investigated. Results will be presented.


AGFD 113 Crystal and molecular structures of organophosphorus pesticides
Gabriel B. Hall and Russell G. Baughman, Department of Chemistry, Truman State University, Division of Science,
Kirksville, MO 63501, Fax: 660-785-4045
The crystal and three-dimensional structures of three organophosphorus compounds were determined by X-ray diffraction. The
organophosphorus pesticide of primary interest is 2-(di-ethoxy -thiophosphoryloxy)-7-methyl-pyrazole[1,5-á]pyrimidine-6-
carboxylic acid ethyl ester (also known as Pyrazophos and Afugan®) C14H20N3O5PS, a systemic fungicide. Pyrazophos
exhibits 2 rotamers per asymmetric unit, and a carbonyl---ring g system interaction between the carbonyl oxygen and the ring
center. This interaction occurs along the b-axis and is present in only one of the rotamers. Also of note is a discrepancy
between the observed placement of a ring methyl position and the placement as seen in the current literature. O-2,6-dichloro-p -
Tolyl O,O-dimethylphosphorothioate (also known as Tolclofos-Methyl) C9H11Cl2O3PS, was also determined during the
program, and of interest in this compound is libration about the central phosphorus atom resulting in partial occupancies of the
two methoxy groups. Structural similarities to Tolclophos-Methyl are noted in the OP insecticide Dicapthon (O,O-dimethyl-O-
(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)phosphorothioate, C8H9ClNO5PS).

AGFD 114 USDA nanotechnology research and development for improving food quality and value
Hongda Chen, USDA/CSREES, 1400 Independence Ave. SW, MS 2220, Washington, DC 20250-2220, Fax: 202-401-5179,
hchen@csrees.usda.gov
Nanoscale science and nanotechnology are based new ability to image, measure, model, control and manipulate matter at
dimension of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where novel phenomena enable new applications. This exceptional capability has
been leading us to a vast array of new technologies that will impact virtually every aspect of science and technology, industry,
economy, the environment, and human lives. USDA strives to bring the new cutting edge science to address the critical
challenges facing US agriculture and food systems. This paper will present an overview of nanotechnology for improving food
quality and value under the support of USDA/CSREES. Examples of current research projects will illustrate various potential
applications of nanotechnology to improve food quality and value.

AGFD 115 Novel ingredient delivery systems using nanosome technology
Wolfgang Haehnlein, Aquanova, Birkenweg 8-10, Darmstadt, Germany, wolfgang.haehnlein@aquanova.de
Using its proprietary Nanosome technology AQUANOVA develops and manufactures novel formulations of food and
cosmetic ingredients, nutrients and pharmaceutical ac-tives with superior properties providing new application opportunities.
The technology renders fat soluble substances water soluble and vice versa. This of-fers new product and application
opportunities such as
• Dietary supplements with enhanced bio-availability/absorption, hence efficacy • Addition of fat soluble ingredients to clear
beverages • Application of water soluble food/cosmetic antioxidants in oils and fats/creams • More efficient, pH-independent
food preservatives • And more
The new delivery forms (solubilisates) consist of Product Micelles, versatile carrier systems at the nano level, which are
responsible for the unique properties of the AQ-UANOA products.

AGFD 116 Modulating lipid delivery in food emulsions
Peter J. Wilde 1 , M. J. Ridout2 , Alan R. Mackie 2 , Martin S. J. Wickham2 , and Richard M. Faulks 2 . (1) Institute of Food
Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich. NR4 7UA, United Kingdom, Fax: +44 (0)1603 507723,
peter.wilde@bbsrc.ac.uk, (2) Institute of Food Research
Delivering lipids in a controlled manner is one method of modulating dietary fat intake. Rationally designed emulsion
microstructures can be exploited to reduce dietary lipid intake either directly (reduced fat foods), or indirectly by modifying the
body's response to the food structure. A critical factor is acceptability, therefore the organoleptic properties must be similar to
the full fat counterpart. There are three novel approaches that we are currently investigating: The first is to enhance the sensory
perception of fat content of emulsions by manipulating the properties of individual lipid droplets; The second is to physically
reduce the fat content in the individual lipid droplets, and finally we will describe an approach where we aim to design
interfaces which can alter the rate (but not extent) of lipid digestion in order to suppress appetite. We will describe the micro-
and nano-structures we are formu lating to achieve these objectives.

AGFD 117 Formation of single surfactant microemulsions
Henri L. Rosano, Chemistry, City College of the City University of New York, 138th Street and Convent Avenue, New York,
NY 10031, Fax: 212-650-6107, Rosano@sci.ccny.cuny.edu, Nabil Naouli, Research and Development Innovation group, TIC
Gums, John L. Cavallo, Symrise, and Gerhard E. Krammer, Flavor Innovation Team, Symrise GmbH & Co. KG
A series of microemulsions, both W/O and O/W, based on non-ionic surfactants of the form (NP(EO)n), were prepared using
the titration method. Mixing a constant weight of surfactant with a constant volume of the dispersed phase and an initial
volume of continuous phase produces an emulsion, which is titrated to clarity with another surfactant (cosurfactant). Plotting
(a) the volume of cosurfactant necessary to transform an emulsion into a microemulsion containing a fixed volume of dispersed
phase and constant weight of surfactant versus (b) different initial continuous-phase volumes yields a straight line.
Extrapolating from experimentally determined values for the cosurfactant volume to the value corresponding to a zero-volume
continuous phase allows the determination of the surfactant molar composition and the average number of ethylene oxides
(EO) per nonylphenol adsorbed at the interface. Using a surfactant with the experimentally determined number of ethylene
oxides yields a single-surfactant microemulsion. Measurement of surfactant(s) transmittance in the oil and water phases
demonstrates that microemulsification occurs when the surfactants interfacial film is equally soluble in the two phases. Surface
pressure measurements (? ) reveal that oil penetration impedes formation of O/W microemulsions with n-tetradecane or n-
hexadecane as dispersed phase.

AGFD 118 Lipid structures as delivery vehicles in foods
Paul R. Smith, YKI Institute for Surface Chemistry, Box 5607, SE 114 86 Stockholm, Sweden, Fax: 46-8-208998,
paul.smith@surfchem.kth.se
Lipids are important components of many food systems. They can provide structure and texture as well as being an important
reservoir for many flavour and nutritional ingredients. Indeed many vitamins and other flavours are lipid soluble. Lipid crystals
are important large-scale structures that contribute to much structuring and formation.
However as well as just acting as a reservoir for desirable chemicals specific lipids can be formed into different small-scale
structures. These structures can be made by control over the surface, colloid and physical chemistry of a system. These can
have a variety of applications, for example to provide a more rapidly functional system, to incorporate ingredients and to
provide novel structures. There are many different kinds of structure that are available,
Understanding and control of the phase diagram of monoglycerides has enabled many different useful structures to be
manufactured and applied in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food applications.
By understanding and use of the phase diagram transformations many nano structures can be created. These can be used in
order to incorporate ingredients. For example mutually incompatible chemicals can be included in different nano-walled cells
of a structure such as a cubic one.
Also the use of colloid and nanotechnology allows for the creation of different components that can be used in order to deliver
ingredients to a system. One such type of ingredient is the Solid Lipid Nanoparticle. These can be used to deliver hydrophobic
components in a water dispersion.
Thus the use of chemical technology and study of application in other fields can produce many different structures that can be
important in food products. In this presentation the manufacture and properties of the different structures will be considered
along with their application in food products.

AGFD 119 Benefits of a soy lecithin based nanotechnology for the animal and human food industry
Scott E. Peters and Charles H. Brain, Ingredient Innovations International, 146 South Bever Street, Wooster, OH 44691, Fax:
330-262-4443, speters@3i-ingredients.com
The pharmaceutical industry has embraced nanotechnology to improve drug solubility and increase drug uptake. This
nanotechnology can also be adapted to the animal and human food industry, delivering many of the same benefits. One such
technology uses soy lecithin as the main structural ingredient in the formation of aqueous nanodispersions that carry high loads
of water-insoluble actives. These actives include water-insoluble nutraceuticals, fat-soluble vitamins, and flavors. The
encapsulated actives disperse easily into water-based foods, showing improved stability, and increased bioavailability. Recent
analyses have shown that nanodispersions help protect actives against oxidation and pH extremes. Research with newly
weaned calves has shown that nutrients encapsulated in nanodispersions reduce morbidity and delay the progression of
respiratory disease. A different study has shown a seven-fold increase in intestinal cell uptake of CoQ10 in nanodispersions
versus traditional powder formulations. This soy lecithin based technology and additional research will be discussed.

AGFD 120 Complex coacervate core micelles as potential carriers of functional ingredients
Willem Norde , Laboratory for Physical & Colloid Science, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 6, Wageningen 6703HB,
Netherlands, Willem.Norde@wur.nl
Complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) are self-assembling colloids formed when a positively charged polymer (polycation)
complexes with a negatively charged polymer (polyanion). The micelles are stabilized by an uncharged hydrophilic polymer
that is covalently linked to one or to both of the charged polymers. The resulting structure of a C3M consists of a dense core of
the polycation-polyanion complex surrounded by a corona of the hydrophilic neutral polymer chains. The core of a C3M,
having a diameter of typically a few tens of nanometers, may be used to accommodate functional ingredients, i.e., drugs,
nutraceuticals, DNA fragments, enzymes, etcetera. There, they may be protected from external (e.g. enzymatic or
immunogenic) attack. For instance, we have recently shown that proteins can actively participate as one of the charged building
blocks to form the core of the micelle. Moreover, by coupling specific receptor molecules (such as streptavidin,
immunoglobulins, DNA fragments, ….) to the corona, the C3Ms may be addressed to a desired location by biological
recognition interactions. Thus, C3Ms have great potential as carriers for controlled targeting and delivery of functional
ingredients.

AGFD 121 Nano- and microparticles from globular proteins: Applications to controlled release of food ingredients
Muriel Subirade , Lingyun Chen, and Christian Mercier, Department of Food sciences and nutrition, Laval University,
Pavillon Comtois, Quebec, QC G1K 7P4, Canada, Fax: 418-656-3353, muriel.subirade@aln.ulaval.ca
Food Proteins are widely used in formulated foods, partly because of their nutritional value, but especially for their functional
properties, which include gelling, foaming and emulsification and underlie many food sensory attributes. Among these
functional properties, the network forming ability of protein and the ability to adsorb spontaneously to interfaces to stabilize
polyphasic systems offer the possibility of developing GRAS biocompatible carriers for oral administration of sensitive
nutraceuticals in a wide variety of foods. After a brief glance of the potential of food protein-based matrices to serve as carriers
for the controlled release of functional food components, this presentation will focus on recent progress in the design,
preparation and evaluation of soya protein-based microparticles and their potential as delivery systems.

AGFD 122 Nano, microencapsulation of bioactive macromolecules for controlled release delivery (Nanoshells and clay
nanotubules)
Yuri M. Lvov, Institute for Micromanufacturing, Louisiana Tech University, 911 Hergot Ave, Ruston, LA 71272, Fax:
(318)257-5104, ylvov@latech.edu
Polyelectrolyte microcapsules: Layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of molecularly organized films was developed with linear
polyions, nanoparticles, dye and proteins. An LbL-assembly of polyelectrolyte shells on microcores of bioactive molecules
allows controlled diffusion of the encapsulated materials. In a similar approach, an assembly of 20-50 nm thick organized
polymer shells on drug microcrystals (Furosemide, Dexamethasone, Nifedipine, Ibuprofen, Insulin) allowed their sustained
release. LbL produced nanoshells on food microparticle increased their colloidal stability. Clay Nanotubules: 50-m diameter
and 700 nm length halloysite tubules have 15 nm diameter lumens. We loaded these nanotubules with different bioactive
molecules and reached their sustained controllable release over 5-100 hours.

AGFD 123 Nanoencapsulation systems based on milk proteins and phospholipids
Harjinder Singh, Riddet Centre, Massey University, Tennent Drive, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand, Fax: 64-6-
3505655, H.Singh@massey.ac.nz
In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in developing high performance delivery vehicles for encapsulation and
protection of biologically active substances of food origin. Nano-particles may seem attractive as delivery vehicles. Milk
contains several components that can be utilized to make nano-particles for encapsulation and delivery of bioactive
compounds. Phospholipid-rich fractions, extracted from fat globule membranes, can be used to form liposomes. Due to their
high sphingomyelin content, these liposomes have some unique stability and entrapment characteristics. Caseins in milk are
essentially natural nano-particles, designed to deliver essential nutrients, in particular calcium. Similarly, whey proteins,
particularly â-lactoglobulin, have been designed by nature to bind and transport hydrophobic molecules. The ability of milk
proteins to interact strongly with charged polysaccharides opens up further possibilities for making novel hybrid nano-particles.
Our work on the properties of nano-particles formed by interactions of caseinate with gum arabic or chitosan will be discussed.
AGFD 124 Controlled self-organization of zein nanostructures for encapsulation of active food ingredients
Qin Wang, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, 382-D AESB, 1304 West Pennsylvania
Avenue, qinwang@uiuc.edu, and Graciela W. Padua, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of
Illinois, 382-D AESB, 1304 W. Pennsylvania Ave., Fax: 217-333-9329, gwpadua@uiuc.edu
Proteins are a class of biopolymers that because of their chemical make up may acquire distinct spatial conformations and
show varied functionalities in response to their environment. Temperature, pH, ionic strength, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic
character of the medium affect the 3D structure of individual proteins and the way they interact and associate with each other.
Zein, the alcohol soluble protein of corn, has amphiphilic properties. It can adsorb fatty acids and produce nanoscale periodic
structures. For example, lamellar structures were detected by x-ray diffraction, zein “tubes” were observed by AFM, and long
rod-like structures were observed by SEM. Their presence may be explained in terms of the formation of lyotropic liquid
crystalline phases. Previous research suggested zein-fatty acid/alcohol-water systems have a bicontinuous structure where
liquid interpenetrates a soft solid network of zein-fatty acid curved sheets. Our goal is to produce nanostructures of controlled
geometry, useful in the development of encapsulation systems. By controlling the experimental conditions affecting liquid
crystal phases organization and transformations, we can expect to generate a host of nanoscale layered, interpenetrating, and
vesicle structures of controlled composition and geometry. We expect such structured materials to be useful in the
encapsulation and controlled release of bioactive food ingredients.

AGFD 125 Green nanocomposites films for food encapsulation
Amar K. Mohanty, School of Packaging, Michigan State University, 130 Packaging Building, East Lansing, MI 48824, Fax:
517-353-3899, mohantya@msu.edu
The higher as well unstable price of petroleum, the growing environmental concern, and need of national security are some of
the driving forces in looking towards green plastics and materials. Green polymeric materials in conjunction with
nanotechnology are expected to create major breakthrough in the plastic-based packaging industries. New material
development is now transitioning from petroleum    -based hydrocarbon chemistry to the biomass-derived carbohydrate
chemistry. Green polymers like poly(lactic acid), PLA; polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHAs; soy protein-based plastics, and starch-
based plastics show immense opportunities to green the packaging industries. The blending of brittle PLA/PHAs with tough
biodegradable polymer targets to the development of biobased films for packaging applications. The organo-clay reinforcement
of green polymers can develop biobased materials with superior mechanical, thermal and barrier performance. A nano
structure-controlled technology based on modified hyperbranched polymers improved the elongation at break of PLA
significantly. Chemistry plays a vital role and thus presents several opportunities and challenges, such as effective chemical
modification of clay, use of novel coupling agents, and polymer matrix modification. Besides chemistry; effective process
engineering and structure-property co-relationships also play vital roles in finding sustainable development of such new
materials. This presentation will highlight the opportunities of green nanocomposites films in food encapsulation.

AGFD 126 Materials for encapsulation of food ingredients: Understanding the properties to find practical solutions
C. MeCrae, B. Guthrie, J. Heigis, G. Mondro, and W. Shieh, Cargill R&D Centre Europe, Vilvoorde, Belgium,
catharina_mccrae@cargill.com
The food industry is continuously developing new materials and formulations for the efficient encapsulation of food
ingredients making them easier to handle and providing added functionality in foods and beverages. The material(s) that can be
used include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, gums and cellulose and the choice depends on factors such as the nature of the
core material, the expected requirements, for instance, oxidation and process stability and controlled flavour release, the
process of encapsulation, labeling concerns and economics. Each type of material has its advantages and disadvantages and
complex structural designs may be required for optimal functionality. To help in the selection of the optimum system, this
paper reviews the properties that make materials applicable for encapsulation of food ingredients in terms of the basic chemical
and/or physical underlying principles. The emphasis will be on carbohydrates as encapsulating agents.

AGFD 127 Micellar cubic structures, QL, and micellosomes for improved solubilization and bioavailability on
nutraceuticals
Nissim Garti, Casali Institute of Applied Chemistry, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel, and Rivka Efrat, Casali Institute of
Applied Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Polar lipid molecules such as glycerol monooleate (GMO) and polar solvent (usually water) can spontaneously organize in
high order at the long-range distances while in the short-range, at atomic distances, they are disordered.
Liquid crystalline mesophases with a long-range order in one dimension are lamellar phases (La ) while those showing two
dimensional long-range order are known as hexagonal phases (HI and H2 for normal and reverse hexagonal) and those with
three dimension long-range orders are lyotropic cubic phase (C). Hydrophobic effect with a variety of intra - and intermolecular
interactions, in combination with a number of geometric packing constraints, are responsible for the degree of order.
Addition of guest molecules (solubilizates) to the liquid crystals can alter the structure according to specific molecular
interaction between the GMO and the guest compound that contributes to the surface area species.
In our recent studied we have discovered that ternary blends of GMO, water and cosolvent can form unique structures. The
focus of this presentation is on a new mesophase that was formed as a result of phase transformations. The new structure was
eluted from lamellar, cubic, and hex agonal isotropic liquid phases in ternary systems. The new phase, termed by us the QL
mesophase, is very unique since it is transparent liquid phase with long-range order. The QL phase was studied by small-angle
X-ray scattering (SAXS), cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), self-diffusion NMR, DSC and conductivity
methods. The unique rheological properties of a system totally fluid and yet non Newtonian will be discussed in view of the
suggested structure of micellar discontinuous cubic phase.
Microstructure data as well as solubilization data of several nutraceuticals molecules and their bioavailability advantages will
be presented.

AGFD 128 Solubilization and crystallization kinetics of lipophilic materials into nm-size O/W emulsion
Kiyotaka Sato, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8528, Japan,
kyosato@hiroshima -u.ac.jp
Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion is an advanced delivery tool of lipophilic food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic materials. The O/W
emulsion droplets are expected to reveal controlled release, targeting, high bioavailability and stability against chemical
damaging of functional materials embedded in them. In order to make the O/W emulsion droplets more functional and stable in
practical uses, various physicochemical studies are needed; e.g., increased solubilization, controlled release rate, stabilization
of emulsion at elevated (sterilization) and chilled (storage) temperatures, and increased bioavailability at intestines. In
particular, high attention has been paid to highly solubilize lipophilic materials in the O/W emulsion droplets in order to
increase loading efficiency in the emulsion. The present study reports experimental results of the rate and extent of
solubilization and crystallization of lipophilic molecules solubilized in the nm -size emulsion. Long-chain fatty acids having
melting points far above room temperature were chosen as the model lipophilic materials. The O/W emulsion droplets with
average droplet diameters of 120 ~ 220 nm were prepared by homogenizing distilled water and salad oil with hydrophilic
polyglycerine fatty acid monoesters using high-pressure homogenizer. It was found that the rate and extent of the solubilized
materials increased as the quantity of emulsion droplets increased, the diameter of emulsion droplets decreased, the
temperature of solubilization increased, and the melting points of the fatty acids decreased. The crystallization temperatures of
the fatty acids, which were characterized by synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and thermal methods, were considerably
lowered in the emulsion than in bulk oil. The present study therefore showed that the nano-size emulsion exhibited more
solubilizable and less crystallizable properties of the lipophilic materials.

AGFD 129 BioS witch: A release-on-demand delivery system
Hans Boumans, Innovative Ingredients and Products, TNO Quality of Life, P.O. Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, Netherlands, Fax:
+31-30-6944295, hans.boumans@tno.nl
TNO has developed a technology, named BioSwitch consisting of charged, cross-linked biopolymers in which active
compounds are bound, that responds to an external stimulus by releasing the active compound. The external stimulus may be a
change in temperature, pH, concentration of certain metabolites, etc. As a result, the released compound is active only at the
time when, and at the place where it is required.
Several applications of BioSwitch will be illustrated. These will include: Active antimicrobial food packaging, delivery of
nutraceuticals and disinfection of contact lenses.
The efficacy of BioSwitch as a delivery system for nutraceuticals has been evaluated using TNO's in vitro gastrointestinal
model TIM. The computer regulated gastrointestinal model TIM accurately simulates digestion processes and mimics the
body's peristaltic movements. It allows sampling at different stages of digestion, thereby allowing us to study the integrity of
nutraceuticals during passage through the gastrointestinal tract.


AGFD 130 Enhancing stability and bioavailability of polyphenols using nanoemulsions
Xiaoyong Wang, Yu-wen Wang, and Qingrong Huang, Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, 65 Dudley Road,
New Brunswick, NJ 08901, xwang@aesop.rutgers.edu
The health promotion properties of polyphenols have attracted a lot of attention in recent years because of their biological and
pharmacological effects including antioxidative, anticancer, and chronic disease prevention properties in numerous animal,
human, and in vivo studies. One of the major challenges of polyphenols is their poor stabilities and weak bioavailabilities.
Nanoemulsions are a class of extremely small emulsion droplets usually in the range of 50-200 nm much smaller than the sizes
(from 1 to 100 mm) of normal emulsions. Nanoemulsions offers advantages of excellent stability to encapsulate active
compounds due to their small droplet sizes and high kinetic stability. The present project is to improve stability and
bioavailability of polyphenols including epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and curcumin. High-pressure homogenized
nanoemulsions formed by various amounts of water, oil, and emulsifier are prepared and measured their microstructure, size,
and viscosity using an inverted optical microscope, particle size analyzer, and viscometer, respectively. The pH, thermal, and
long-term stabilities of EGCG and curcumin in nanoemulsions are evaluated by HPLC analysis. The anti-inflammation
functions of nanoemulsion-encapsulated polyphenols are tested on mice.
AGFD 131 Enhancement of microcapsule barrier properties
James D. Oxley and Neal K. Vail, Microencapsulation and Controlled Release, Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra
Road, San Antonio, TX 78254, Fax: 210-522-4565, james.oxley@swri.org
Encapsulation is a popular method used to reduce oxidation and degradation of active ingredients during product processing
and storage. The oxidation of active ingredients, including omega-3 fatty acids and carotenoids, leads to losses in product
potency, increased manufacturing costs, and the evolution of undesirable oxidation byproducts. Most common encapsulation
methods, such as complex coacervation and interfacial polymerization, provide incomplete oxidation protection due to
limitations of the shell material oxygen transfer rates. This talk focuses on the development of new nanocomposite shell
material systems and their performance as oxygen barriers for sensitive active ingredients. The combination of polymers and
nanocomposites has led to several advances in barrier and performance properties for films and coatings. The transferal of this
polymer-nanocomposite technology to encapsulation will be discussed, including examples of nanocomposite encapsulation
shell systems and their oxygen barrier performance.

AGFD 132 Microencapsulation using coacervation for delivery of omega-3 oils into foods
Colin J. Barrow, Yu -lai Jin, Jonathan Curtis, and Sylvie Cloutier, Research and Development, Ocean Nutrition Canada Ltd,
101 Research Drive, Dartmouth, NS B2Y 4T6, Canada, cbarrow@ocean-nutrition.com
The health benefits of EPA and DHA from fish oil for cardiovascular disease, brain and retinal development, and inflammatory
mediated diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and depression are well established. Consumption of fish and fish oil is low in
Western countries and many food companies are attempting to create value-added products by fortification of staple foods with
fish oil. Because EPA and DHA are oxidatively unstable, food fortification requires the use of a stabilization technology that
enables the sensory shelf life of the food to remain unchanged. Microencapsulation using complex coacervation is the most
commercially successful methods for producing a stabilized fish oil powdered food ingredient. After microencapsulation, fish
oil can be formulated into food products such as bread, yogurt and orange juice so that no fishy flavor is observed for the shelf
life of the food product.

AGFD 133 Delivering flavor: From the molecular to the sensory level
Andrew John Taylor , Rob ST. Linforth, and Joanne Hort, Division of Food Sciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton
Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD, United Kingdom, andy.taylor@nottingham.ac.uk
Methods for measuring flavour release from foods have been developed over the last 10 years in several laboratories. This has
led to knowledge on how flavour is released fro m different food and beverage systems and how flavour release relates to the
perception of flavour. This knowledge incorporates principles of physical chemistry and an understanding of food structure
from the molecular, through the nano and micro- levels.
The current focus of our research is to use this knowledge to design foods so they deliver the flavour compounds to the taste
buds and to the olfactory receptors (in the mouth and nose respectively) at the desired rate and to the expected intensity. The
importance of other food properties like viscosity and texture are also recognised.
The presentation will describe recent work which has investigated the delivery of flavours from complex systems and how an
integrated approach can help elucidate the origins of flavour in real food systems.

AGFD 134 Citrus and vegetable oil microemulsions
Nabil Naouli, Research and Development Innovation group, TIC Gums, 4609 Richlynn Drive, Belcamp, MD 21017, Fax: 410
273 6469, nnaouli@ticgums.com, and Henri L. Rosano, Chemistry, City College of the City University of New York
Microemulsion is a thermodynamically stable homogeneous mixture of a lipophilic phase (“oil”) and an aqueous phase
(“water”), stabilized by a surfactant and in some cases by a cosurfactant as well. W/O and O/W food-grade microemulsions
were prepared using citrus or vegetable oil and GRAS (generally recognized as safe) ingredients. The method of preparation
involved determination of (1) the precise HLB of the flavored or vegetable oil at the water/oil interface; (2) the optimum length
of the hydrophobic chain of the emulsifier that will allow the bending of the interface; and (3) the minimum amount of
emulsifier required for a given volume of the dispersed phase to impede the formation of macrocrystal structure. These results
suggest that the structure of the interfacial sheath plays a key role towards microemulsion formation and stability. These
transparent systems, characterized by dispersed-phase droplets measuring 10-40 nm in diameter make excellent hosts for guest
molecules.

AGFD 135 Capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for controlled release of drugs, proteins, nutrients, and flavor
chemicals
Victor S-Y. Lin, Department of Chemistry and U.S. DOE Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, 0755 Gilman Hall, Iowa
State University, Ames, IA 50011, Fax: 515-294-0105, vsylin@iastate.edu
We have developed a series of mesoporous silica nanosphere (MSN) materials for stimuli-responsive controlled release
delivery. We have demonstrated that pharmaceutical drugs, proteins, nutrients, and flavor chemicals could be encapsulated
inside the mesopores of MSN by capping the openings of the mesopores with various chemically removable caps to block the
molecules of interest from leaching out. We studied the stimuli-responsive release profiles of these capped-MSN systems by
using various non-toxic chemicals as release triggers. Furthermore, the uptake mechanism, and biocompatibility of the capped-
MSN system with various cell types, such as neural glia (astrocytes), human cervical cancer (HeLa ), and Chinese hamster
ovarian (CHO) cells were investigated. We envision that these MSNs can serve as a universal carrier for site- and cell type-
specific delivery applications.

AGFD 136 Delivering flavorings via spray chilling
John M. Finney, AVEKA Inc, 2045 Wooddale Drive, Woodbury, MN 55125, finn0066@umn.edu, and Gary A Reineccius,
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, 1334 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108, Fax: 612-625-
5272, greinecc@umn.edu
The influence of flavor carrier (ethanol, spray dried, and two hydrogenated fats) on the retention of a series of added ethyl
esters during baking of cake batter is reported. The esters were added to two molten hydrogenated fats (mp 52 & 64C), ethanol
or prepared in spray dried form. The molten fats were permitted to solidify and then ground in a hammer mill with solid CO2
to produce a powder. The spray dried esters were prepared using N-lok® as the carrier. Flavor retention was measured after
baking by gas chromatography, headspace analysis. Nearly all of the ethyl acetate and ethyl butyrate were lost during baking
irrespective of the flavor delivery system. There were no significant differences in retention between flavor delivery systems
for the larger molecular weight esters (C6 and C8, retentions of ca. 50 and 90%, respectively). In effect, all flavor delivery
systems were equivalent.

AGFD 137 Approaches to encapsulation of active food ingredients in spray drying
Anna Millqvist Fureby , YKI Institute for Surface Chemistry, PO Box 5607, 114 86 Stockholm, Sweden, Fax: +46-8-20 89
98, anna.fureby@surfchem.kth.se
To make the most of expensive and sensitive ingredients in foods as well as pharmaceuticals, it is important the stability is high
and that release of the active component occurs with a desired profile in the product. Spray-drying can be used for
encapsulation and powder generation in one step by utilizing different phenomena that occur during drying. Dry emulsions are
a classic way to supply encapsulated flavors and oxidation sensitive oils. By control of formulation and processing, improved
stability and release profiles can be obtained. A recently developed concept is the application of aqueous two-phase systems for
drying and encapsulation of water-soluble materials and probiotic bacteria. During spray-drying, surface-active components
interact with the droplet surface, and will coat the powder surface according to their adsorption efficiency. Through
understanding of these events, formulation and drying conditions can be designed for optimum coating and encapsulation.

AGFD 138 Shelf-life oxidation study of coacervated orange oil
Deborah J Paetznick and Gary A Reineccius, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, 1334
Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108, Fax: 612-625-5272, dpaetzni@umn.edu
Abstract text not available.

AGFD 139 Circular dichroism, a powerful tool for definition of the absolute configuration of proanthocyanidins
Daneel Ferreira, Department of Pharmacognosy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, Fax: 662 915 6975,
dferreir@olemiss.edu
Circular Dichroism represents a powerful method for defining the absolute configuration of flavonoids in general and
proanthocyanidins in particular. We will demonstrate the utilization of electronic CD to define the absolute configuration of the
monomeric constituent units of proanthocyanidins, of 4-arylflavan-3-ols as models for proanthocyanidins, and of
proanthocyanidins, by application of relevant empirical rules. The applicability of these empirical rules will be evaluated in
terms of theoretically calculated CD spectra.

AGFD 140 Polymethoxylated flavone analysis of citrus products using direct injection and in-line trace enrichment
Wilbur W. Widmer, Citrus & Subtropical Products Laboratory, USDA/ARS/SAA, 600 Avenue S Northwest, Winter Haven,
FL 33881, Fax: 863-299-8678, wwidmer@citrus.usda.gov
Polymethoxylatedflavones (PMFs) are extracted from citrus juice for analysis by liquid chromatography using solvents or solid
phase extraction and concentration. Citrus peel and waste stream extracts normally do not need concentration because of higher
PMF concentrations present, but solid phase extraction for sample clean-up imp roves analysis. An extraction protocol and
analysis with in-line sample clean-up and trace enrichment with an automated switching valve was developed to facilitate
analysis. The method can be used with citrus juice, wet or dry peel and citrus processing waste. Juice preparation consists of
simply diluting samples to contain 20% acetonitrile (v/v) while samples containing high solids are extracted by sonication at an
appropriate dilution in 20% acetonitrile. Clean-up and trace enrichment are accomplished using a C18 pre-column and
acetonitrile:water (19:81) to eliminate polar components. A valve is then switched and using gradient elution, 9 PMFs are
separated in a total time of 25 minutes.
AGFD 141 Polyphenols in Mate tea depend on cultivation and preparation conditions
Caleb Heck and Elvira de Mejia, Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, 228 ERML, 1201 W Gregory Dr,
Urbana, IL 61801, Fax: 217-244-3196, heck@uiuc.edu
Polyphenols in tea have been associated with several health benefits. Mate tea bioactivity is related to its phenolic constituents;
however, the exact composition and concentrations have not been readily determined. The objective was to identify and
quantify polyphenols in Mate tea grown under different conditions and prepared using the North American and South
American styles. Folin -Ciocalteu was used to quantify total polyphenols using chlorogenic acid (CH) as standard and ORAC
(trolox equivalents, TE) with fluorescein for antioxidant capacity. Phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC-MS. Total
polyphenol content of tea prepared with 10, 30, 50 and 100 g dry leaves (DL)/L showed 2.0, 5.9, 7.5, 15.3 mg CH/ml, while
the extraction efficacy decreased (200.7, 197.8, 149.7, 152.7 mg/g DL). Mate tea contained caffeoyl derivatives and presented
high antioxidant capacity (1238 ± 55 mmol TE/g DL). Polyphenols in Mate tea depend on cultivation conditions and method of
preparation, and may lead to development of better nutraceutical products

AGFD 142 Recent development in application of polyphenols in polymer materials
Qing Shen, Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, Donghua University, 1882 West Yan An Road, Shanghai
200051, China, sqing@dhu.edu.cn, and Li-Hua Zhang, State Key Lab. for Modification of Chemical Fiber and Polymer
Materials, Donghua University
The plant polyphenols is possible for condensation reaction with the aldehyde, and using the hydrogen bond to interact with
other polymer materials to produce different polymer blends. Based on literatures and recent studues in our group, this paper
reviewed the application of the plant polyphenols in polymer materials related to different novel products and mechanism.

AGFD 143 Polyphenols in white tea and their stability during storage
Elvira de Mejia and Hsiao Chen Lin, Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, 1201 W. Gregory Dr, Urbana,
IL 61801, Fax: 217-265-0925, edemejia@uiuc.edu
White tea, a type of unfermented tea, has high nutraceutical potential. The objective was to compare total and specific
polyphenol content, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of white teas. These parameters were measured using Folin
Ciocalteu, DPPH and Salmonella typhimurium, TA 100 microsuspension assay, respectively. Total polyphenol content ranged
from 1.4-2.4 mg equivalent (eq.) gallic acid (GA)/ml, flavonols content (19 ± 1 to 59 ± 9 mg/ml eq. quercetin), tartaric esters (8
± 2 to 20 ± 3 mg/ml eq. caffeic acid) and flavonoids (7-23 mg/ml eq. rutin). The highest total polyphenol content was obtained
after extracting tea for 6 min at 90ºC. White tea presented high antioxidant capacity (34-38 mM Trolox eq/g instant tea) and
antimutagenicity (23-52%). Total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity did not change after 60 days of storage for both
powder and liquid teas. This research provides nutraceutical information of white tea for consumers and the food industry

AGFD 144 Influence of sample preparation on assay of functional phenolic phytochemicals
Devanand L. Luthria, Food Composition Laboratory, USDA, Bldg. 161, BARC (E), 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville,
MD 20705, Fax: 301-504-8314, luthriad@ba.ars.usda.gov
Phenolics are one of the most diverse groups of phytochemicals that are ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom.
Phenolic phytochemicals are known to exhibit a wide range of health protective effects. Approximately 8000 different
phenolics compounds have been isolated from natural resources. Structural diversity, solubility, and interaction with the matrix
impose a significant challenge in extraction and analysis of phenolic phytochemicals in foods and dietary supplements. This
presentation will summarize our previous and current research results on the influence of extraction techniques and conditions
on assay of phenolic compounds. Comparison of current (pressurized liquid extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction) and
classical extraction approaches (Soxhlet, stirring, vortexing, wrist, and rotary shakers) on assay of phenolic phytochemicals
from different matrices will be presented. Influence of delipidation, extraction temperature, time, number of cycles, solid-to-
solvent ratio, and pressure on assay of phenolic compounds will also be presentated. This presentation will conclude with a
systematic outline to optimize procedures for extraction of phytochemicals from different food matrices. Accurate quantitation
of phytochemicals will allow researchers to accurately determine the dietary intake levels and safety guidelines for potentially
bioactive compounds necessary to achieve the desired health-beneficial effects. Supported by the ARS/USDA, and Dionex,
Inc., USA.

AGFD 145 Analysis of phenolics and glucosinolates in broccoli seeds and sprouts
Mark Berhow1 , Gulab N. Jham2 , Steven F. Vaughn1 , Brent Tisserat1 , and Sandra M. Duval3 . (1) USDA, ARS, National Center
for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. University St, Peoria, IL 61604, Fax: 309-681-6686,
Berhowma@ncaur.usda.gov, (2) Dep. de Dep. de Química, Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV), Vicosa, MG 36570, Brazil,
gulab@ufv.br, (3) USDA, ARS, NCAUR
Plants from the crucifer family (Brassicaceae) have been touted for their health-enhancing effects when incorporated into diets
of both humans and animals. Recently, a great deal of research attention has been focused on the glucosinolates, due to their
high positive activity of their hydrolysis products in a variety of cancer-related bioassays. However, the seeds and sprouts of
the crucifer plants also contain a number of interesting phenolic compounds that may also have key biological activities both
for the plant and for the animals that consume them. Compounds isolated from seeds and sprouts from a variety of crucifer-
related species including broccoli show that some of these phenolic compounds are present in concentrations similar to those of
the glucosinolates, and may have implications in the use of sprouts as a health-supplements.

AGFD 146 In vivo studies of the anti-inflammatory actions of citrus polymethoxylated flavones
John A. Manthey, Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, SAA, 600 Avenue S,
NW, Winter Haven, FL 33881-2118, Fax: 941-299-8678, jmanthey@citrus.usda.gov
Previous in vitro studies have shown that citrus polymethoxylated flavones are inhibitors the phosphodiesterase-4 of LPS-
stimulated cultured human monocytes, and that this inhibition leads to the inhibition of the production of certain
proinflammatory cytokine proteins by the stimulated monocytes. Recent studies now show that the polymethoxylated flavone,
3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), administered by intraperitoneal (ip) injection, was active against the production of
the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in LPS-challenged mice. A second study has now shown that this inhibition does not
occur following oral administration of HMF. Likewise, HMF, administered ip in rats, was a potent inhibitor of inflammation in
the carrageenan/paw edema assay, but lacked inhibitory activity when administered orally. Oral adminstration of HMF in mice
produced measureable levels of HMF metabolites, mainly glucuronides, whereas ip injection also produced measureable levels
of the free, unmodified HMF in the blood serum. These results suggest the anti-inflammatory actions of HMF may be due to
the original compound, but are lost with conjugation with glucuronic acids.

AGFD 147 Separation techniques impact proanthocyanidin bioactivity and degree of polymerization
Jessica L. Alwerdt1 , David Seigler2 , Elvira DeMejia 1 , GG. Yousef3 , and Mary Ann Lila 4 . (1) Division of Nutritional Sciences,
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 1115 PSL-MC 634, 1201 Dorner Drive, Urbana, IL 61801, alwert@uiuc.edu, (2)
Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, (3) Department of Natural Resources and
Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, (4) Dept Natural Resources & Environmental Sciences,
University of Illinois
Proanthocyanidins are increasingly associated with human health benefits. Our objective was to expand on previous work on
the influence of vacuum (VC) or open column (OC) liquid chromatography using Toyopearl (T) or Sephadex (S) on bioactivity
and composition of wild blueberry proanthocyanidin subfractions, optimizing the conditions for high bioactivity, degree of
polymerization and mass recovery. Bioactivity was assessed with DNA human topoisomerase II (topoII), and structural
composition by acid thiolysis (average degree of polymerization, DP) and HPLC-MS. The parent fraction topoII IC50 was 3.38
ng/mL with a DP 25.5. OC-T with 8 subfractions resulted in the highest mass recovery (60.8%) and eluted a 50% aqueous
acetone subfraction with 96.7% topoII inhibition, 9.0 DP and 50.6% of the total mass. Aqueous acetone (50% and 75%) on
OC-S produced four novel subfractions with high DP values (29.0 - 43.5) that retained bioactivity. The optimal
subfractionation method in terms of retained bioactivity, polymeric compound separation and mass distribution was Sephadex
open column.

AGFD 148 Induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases by allelochemicals ameliorates xenobiotic toxicity in
Helicoverpa zea
                                                                       4
Zhimou Wen1 , Ren Sen Zeng2 , Guodong Niu 3 , May R. Berenbaum , and Mary A. Schuler1 . (1) Department of Cell and
Developmental Biology, University of Illinois, 162 Edward R. Madigan Laboratory, 1201 W. Gregory Dr, Urbana, IL 61801,
Fax: 217-244-1336, zwen@life.uiuc.edu, (2) Department of Entomology, University of Illinois, (3) 2Department of
Entomology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, (4) Department of Entomology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Virtually all plant species produce a diversity of secondary plant compounds or allelochemicals. Some of these chemicals are
known to modulate the activities of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) by acting either as P450 inducers and/or
inhibitors. In the same way that plant allelochemicals consumed in the human diet alter the bioavailability and therefore the
efficacy of certain drugs by modulating drug-metabolizing P450 activities, modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing P450s in
herbivorous insects by host plant allelochemicals have the potential to affect xenobiotic toxicity. We show here that
consumption of plant allelochemicals such as coumarin and flavonoids can ameliorate the toxicity of mycotoxins and
insecticides to H. zea and the toxicity reduction is due to the induction of P450s that metabolize these xenobiotics.

AGFD 149 Antimicrobial activity of an apple extract
John J. Willie, Bioderm Technologies, Inc, 4 Lina Lane, East Ampton, NJ 08060, jjwillie@aol.com
ApplephenonSH, (APSH) is a commercially available apple extract enriched for polyphenols (NikkaWhiskey,(Tokyo, JP).
Produced from unripe apples, it has ten times more polyphenols than ripe apples. The typical analysis of APSH is 6-8% (+)-
catechin, 13-15% ( -)-epicatecechin, and about 80% total procyanidins. Other components are phloridzin and chlorogenic acid.
The latter two are more prevalent in the unenriched Applephenon (standard grade). Among claims for its use are as an
antioxidant, a hypotensive agent, an antimutagenic agent, an antiallergic agent, an anticariogenic agent and certain
physiological activities including an ACE-inhibiting activity, a hyaluronidase-inhibiting activity and an GTPase-inhibiting
activity. Currently, the main application of AP is as nutritional supplement. A cosmetic application is claimed to restrain
allergic diseases, control melanin production and absorb ultraviolet rays in the UVA and UVB ranges. The antibacterial
activity of 1% AP was compared with 1% Hydroxytyrosol (Hydrox). Both were effective in killing 5-logs of S. epidermis. The
MBC was 0.063%. Commercially available Applephenon SH has potent antibacterial activity against underarm-derived
Staphylococcus epidermis, bactericidal activity against the gram-negative P. aeruginosa bacterium, and antimycotic activity
against a strain of Saccharomyces budding yeast cell.

AGFD 150 Manipulating the lipid resorcinol pathway to enhance plant allelopathy
Franck E. Dayan1 , Daniel Cook2 , Scott R. Baerson3 , Zhiqiang Pan4 , Agnes Rimando5 , and Stephen O. Duke 1 . (1) Natural
Products Utilization Research Unit, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, P.O. Box 8048, University, MS 38677, Fax: (662)
915-1035, fdayan@olemiss.edu, (2) Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS, (3) Natural Products Utilization
Research Unit, USDA, ARS, (4) USDA, ARS, Natural Products Utilization Research Unit, (5) Natutal Products Untilization
Research Unit, USDA, ARS
Allelopathy, the ability of a plant to repress the growth of another plant by releasing phytotoxins into its surroundings, can
potentially be used to reduce synthetic herbicide input in agronomic cultural systems. While most crops have little allelopathic
activity, some monocotyledonous species such as rice, wheat, rye and sorghum, produce bioactive phenolic lipids (i.e.,
resorcinols and quinones) that have been associated with pathogen resistance and allelopathic traits. Phenolic lipids results
from of the convergence of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway for the synthesis of the aliphatic tail and the activity of Type-III
polyketide synthases (PKS) for the formation of the phenolic ring. These unusual PKSs can utilize long chain fatty acyl-CoAs
as starter units and catalyze the sequencial condensation of acetyl units that are derived from malonyl-CoA. The linear
tetraketide intermediate is typically cyclized via a C2 to C7 aldol intramolecular cyclization resulting in orsellinic acid-type
rings, though the intramolecular C1 to C6 Claisen condensation resulting in phloracetophenone-type ring can also occur. Genes
putatively involved in the ring formation of these unusual amphiphilic resorcinols in rice and sorghum have been identified and
characterized. These enzymes are somewhat promiscuous and accept starter units with carbon chains ranging between 10 to 16
carbons. Manipulation of the expression of these genes may lead to the generation of new crops with enhanced allelopathic
potential that could be grown with reduced reliance on synthetic herbicides.

AGFD 151 Phenolic bioavailability: Roles of gut microbes
Suzanne Hendrich, Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, 220 MacKay, Ames, IA 50011-1123, Fax:
515-294-6193, shendric@iastate.edu
Bioavailability of dietary phenolics involves gut microbes. From human fecal incubations, structure/activity relationships were
identified: 5,7,4'-OH flavonoids were more rapidly degraded than were other flavonoids. Mouse and hamster cecal phenolic
disappearances rates were similar to human fecal phenolic disappearance rates. From in vitro fecal phenolic disappearance rates
and fecal microbial genomic analysis, phenolic-degrading microbial DNA sequences and species were identified (e.g.,
Bacteroides uniformis). When human microbial DNA sequences were compared across a range of gut transit times (GTT), a
specific microbia l sequence was associated with GTT > 110 h. Humans with slow GTT apparently absorb less isoflavones, one
class of dietary phenolics. For caffeic acid derivatives, fecal samples from 6 of 20 human subjects were able to form caffeic
acid, an absorbable form of this class of compounds. Thus, gut microbes metabolize and degrade phenolics and perhaps alter
their absorption rates, affecting the uptake and health effects of these compounds.

AGFD 152 Activity of plant phenolics functioning as sources of insect resistance in plants
Patrick F. Dowd, Crop BioProtection Research Unit, USDA-ARS, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research,
1815 N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604, Fax: 309-681-6686, dowdpf@ncaur.usda.gov, Richard O. Musser, Department of
Biological Sciences, Western Illinois University, and Eric T Johnson, Crop Bioprotection Research Unit, USDA-ARS
A variety of plant phenolic compounds are important in protecting plants from insects (as well as plant pathogens). Plants
employing these molecules as resistance sources range from the tropical to the boreal and from the highly poisonous to the
culinary delectable. Major classes of phenolic compounds involved in insect resistance include phenolic acids, flavonoids and
hydroxamic acids. Many are thought to exert "oxidative stress" on insects. They may occur at levels sufficient to promote
resistance (constitutive) or may be synthesized de novo or at higher levels after induction of biosynthetic enzymes by insect
feeding. Volatile aromatic compounds can act as attractants for parasites or predators of pest insects. Phenolic compounds can
act as substrates of enzymes such as peroxidases that convert them to the actual resistance molecules. Molecular biology tools
can be utilized to further understand how these compounds can be formed and function, such as through gene introductions and
by the study of enzymes involved in biosynthesis through array analysis.

AGFD 153 Feruloylated vegetables oils: Synthesis and applications of UV-absorbing/antioxidative lipids
David L. Compton and Joseph A. Laszlo, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, 1815 N.
University St., Peoria, IL 61604, comptond@ncaur.usda.gov
In an effort to produced higher value uses for vegetable oils we have developed an environmentally “green” process to
transesterify soybean oil with the phenylpropanoid, ferulic acid. Ferulic acid is a natural plant component that absorbs light
within the UVB and UVA regions (290 to 370 nm) and possesses an antioxidative efficacy similar to tocopherol. The packed
bed synthesis involved passing a solution of ferulic acid ethyl ester in soybean oil over an enzyme bed of Novozym 435
(Candida antartica lipase B immobilized on an acrylic resin) at 60 °C. The pilot plant scale synthesis resulted in a 60%
transesterification of the ferulic acid ethyl ester in 168 h. The enzyme bed was shown to loose 15% activity over the course of
eight weeks but was restored to near full activity after two volume washes with soybean oil. Applications and
commercialization of the patented feruloylated lipids will be discussed.

AGFD 154 Phenolics from purple carrots have higher radical scavenging activity
GK. Jayaprakash, Jeevitha B. Patil, and Bhimanagouda Patil, VFIC, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M
University, 2119, TAMU, College Station, TX 77843, Fax: 979-862-4522, b-patil@tamu.edu
Plant foods are rich sources of a variety of health maintaining properties, and these bioactive compounds have been found to
possess hypolipidemic, antiplatelet, antitumor, antioxidant, and immune-stimulating properties. In recent years, particular
attention has been given to a specific class of antioxidant phytochemicals, the polyphenols. Purple carrots developed at the
Vegetable and Fruits Center by Leonard Pike, were extracted with five different solvents and freeze dried. Radical scavenging
activity of the dried extracts was measured using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-
ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation assay. Acetone and water extracts were found to have the most
active and the least radical scavenging activity at 160 ppm. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of the all the extracts were
assayed using ORAC method and expressed as trolox equivalents. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts based on ORAC
assay is in accordance with the amount of phenolics pigments / vitamins present in each fraction and may provide a good
source of antioxidants. This project is based upon work supported by the USDA-CSREES through the Vegetable and Fruit
Improvement Center under Agreement USDA # 2005-34402-14401.

AGFD 155 Transgenic phenolic production in corn silks moderately enhances insect resistance
Eric T Johnson1 , Mark Berhow2 , and Patrick F. Dowd 1 . (1) Crop Bioprotection Research Unit, USDA-ARS, 1815 N.
University St., Peoria, IL 61604, johnet@ncaur.usda.gov, (2) USDA, ARS, National Center for Agricultural Utilization
Research
Some phenolic compounds produced in corn silks, such as maysin, can promote resistance to caterpillar pests. We evaluated
transgenic maize engineered to express a maize cDNA (p1) controlled by a putative silk specific promoter for secondary
metabolite production and corn earworm resistance. Transgene expression did not enhance silk color, but 56% of newly
emerged silks and 57% of mature silks displayed browning when cut, which indicated the presence of p1-produced secondary
metabolites that are substrates of silk peroxidases. Maysin levels were highest in newly emerged browning silks and declined
as the tissue matured. Insect resistance of transgenic silks, regardless of a visible browning reaction, was highest at emergence
and declined with maturity. In addition, mean survivor weights of corn earworm larvae fed mature browning silks were
significantly lower than weights of those fed mature non-browning silks. Some transgenic kernels browned upon drying,
suggesting the promoter may not be silk specific.

AGFD 156 Exogenous carbon applications enhances the simultaneous occurrence of growth, morphogenesis and
rosmarinic acid levels in spearmint plantlets in vitro
Brent Tisserat, Mark Berhow, and Steven F. Vaughn, USDA, ARS, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research,
1815 N. University St, Peoria, IL 61604, Fax: 309-681-6686, tisserbh@ncaur.usda.gov, Berhowma@ncaur.usda.gov
The caffeoyl ester rosmarinic acid (RA) synthesized in the phenylpropanoid pathway exhibits several proven medicinal
properties. RA is constitutively expressed in spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) plantlets grown in vitro and its content can be
manipulated by nutritional and physical treatments. Carbon applications (atmospherically or nutritionally) readily increase RA
yields in vitro. For example, spearmint plantlets grown under 10,000 ?L CO2 L-1 exhibited a 5-fold increase in RA levels over
untreated controls. Similarly, applications of high sugar levels applied to the media dramatically increased RA levels also.
Enhanced carbon environments allows for enhanced plantlet growth (fresh weight), morphogenetic responses (leaves, roots and
shoots) and secondary metabolis m (RA).




                                                    Session Break
 If you are reading this you are obviously not concentrating on the AGFD technical sessions - so why
 not take a break? Might be time to balance all that science with some art. Visit one of Chicago’s cultural
 jewels - the Art Institute of Chicago. The international collection contains impressive samples of
 contemporary and ancient paintings, sculptures, textiles, architecture and decorative arts. In no time at
 all you’ll be amazing your friends with pithy esthetic insights. For more info go to www.artic.edu and then
 check it out for yourself. It’s located in Grant Park on Michigan Avenue, between Monroe and Adam
 Streets. Open daily, late on Thursday.
                        AGFD TECHNICAL PROGRAM AUTHOR/PAPER INDEX
Agarwal R. 13           Choi S. H. 89           Geilman W. G. 59        Kong Q. 84            McCormick S. P. 95
Ahn S. K. 83            Chung Y -T. 104         Gerhauser C. 23         Koo J. Y. 83          McPherson A. 16
Akinshina A. 47         Chunhong L. 110         Gerhauser C. 65         Koppang M. 70         MeCrae C. 126
Alam A. 46              Claude J. 46            Gilman R. H. 40         Korver A. 94          Mercier C. 121
Alexander M. 50         Cloutier S. 132         Greenlee A. 93          Krammer G. E. 117     Mesecar A. D. 27
Alwerdt J. L. 147       Compton D. L. 153       Gu Y. 103               Kusumoto D. 42        Mikstacka R. 25
Amoroso J. W. 37        Conklin J. R. 18        Gu Y. 105               Lai R -H. 29          Mikstacka R. 66
Ananthanarayan L. 111   Conklin J. R. 20        Gudala S. G. 63         Lambert J. D. 26      Miller E. G. 60
Anderson A. K. 88       Cook D. 150             Guo J -Y. 107           Laszlo J. A. 153      Millqvist Fureby A. 137
Anderson R. C. 96       Cooke P. H. 76          Guo S. 75               Lee J. Y. 83          Mizuno C. S. 38
Andon G. 43             Corredig M. 50          Guo Z. 101              Lewis W. H. 40        Moffat J. 48
Anklin C. 30            Cross H. S. 10          Guthrie B. 126          Li B. 74              Mohanty A. K. 125
Aponte J. C. 40         Curtis J. 132           Haehnlein W. 115        Li B. 75              Mondro G. 126
Appell M. 85            Dabbagh Y. 36           Hall G. B. 113          Li B. 77              Moore J. 56
Appell M. 95            Dayan F. E. 150         Hamann M. T. 30         Li B. 80              Morimoto M. 86
Arnold M. A. 44         de Kruif C. G. 34       Hamann M. T. 54         Li H. 71              Mukhtar H. 7
Avery M. A. 38          de Mejia E. 52          Hammers M. M. 92        Li L. 74              Musser R. O. 152
Baer-Dubowska W. 25     de Mejia E. 53          Hammers M. M. 93        Li L. 75              Naouli N. 43
Baer-Dubowska W. 66     de Mejia E. 141         Hammond G. B. 40        Li L. 77              Naouli N. 117
Baerson S. R. 150       de Mejia E. 143         Han L. 74               Li L. 80              Naouli N. 134
Baik M -Y. 73           DeMejia E. 147          Hanenberg S. 94         Li S. 103             Nazare J -A. 4
Baik M -Y. 90           Deng Y. 61              Harfmann R. 20          Li S. 105             Neoh T. L. 81
Barrow C. J. 132        Deshmukh B. 20          Hart P. E. 37           Liang X. 36           Neoh T. L. 82
Bartsch H. 23           Desjardins A. E. 85     Hart P. E. 55           Liberty A. M. 37      Neto C. C. 37
Bartsch H. 65           Desjardins A. E. 95     He N. 103               Liberty A. M. 55      Neto C. C. 55
Baughman R. G. 113      Dickinson E. 47         He N. 105               Lila M. A. 147        Newmark H. 9
Becker H. 23            Dietrich H. 23          Heck C. 141             Limm W. 87            Nguyen P. M. 69
Begley T. H. 87         DinkovaKostova AT 28    Heigis J. 126           Lin C -R. 106         Nie Y. 107
Behall K. M. 5          Domingues E. 37         Heiserman W. M. 87      Lin H. C. 143         Nie Y. 108
Beier R. C. 96          Dowd P. F. 152          Hendrich S. 151         Lin M. 92             Nie Y. 109
Berenbaum M. R. 148     Dowd P. F. 155          Hill R. 30              Lin V. S -Y. 135      Niemeyer E. D. 69
Berhow M. 145           Dressman J. 2           Hoffnagle T. 93         Lin X. 91             Nisbet D. J. 96
Berhow M. 155           Dubin P. L. 32          Hong Y -J. 15           Linforth R. S. 133    Nisha P. 111
Berhow M. 156           Duke S. O. 150          Hort J. 21              Lis D. 16             Niu G. 148
Bheemreddy R. M. 29     Dungan S. R. 49         Hort J. 133             Liu D -Q. 100         Noel T. 48
Blumenthal H. 21        Duval S. M. 145         Hsieh F. H. 79          Liu G. 74             Norde W. 120
Bobryshev P. 98         Edrington T. S. 96      Huang G. 80             Liu G. 75             Oliver C. E. 96
Boethin T. L. 93        Edwards-Stuart R. 21    Huang Q. 33             Liu G. 80             Ondrus M. G. 62
Boisvert R. 97          Efrat R. 127            Huang Q. 130            Liu J. 50             Ondrus M. G. 63
Boivin N. 97            Eggler A. L. 27         Hume M. E. 96           Liu R. H. 24          Oxley J. D. 51
Bolling B. 41           Eo J. H. 79             Hurta R. A. R. 37       Lu B. 45              Oxley J. D. 131
Boumans H. 129          Ettelaie R. 47          Jang J. 36              Lu Q. 74              Padua G. W. 124
Brain C. H. 119         Eun J. B. 79            Jayaprakash G. 154      Lu Q. 75              Paetznick D. J. 138
Cakir E. 67             Eun J. B. 89            Jayaprakasha G. K. 60   Lu Q. 80              Palu A. K. 59
Calamini B. 27          Fang T -Y. 104          Jeffery E. H. 29        Lucas L. A. 54        Pan C -H. 104
Callaway T. R. 96       Fang T -Y. 106          Jenkins D. J. 1         Luo D -L. 107         Pan L. 23
Cavallo J. L. 117       Fang Y. 39              Jenkins D. J. 6         Luo D -L. 108         Pan Z. 150
Caviedes L. 40          Faulks R. M. 116        Jham G. N. 145          Luo D -L. 109         Pappa G. 65
Cavinato A. G. 92       Feng Q -L. 100          Jin T. Y. 89            Luo Z. 78             Park C -S. 73
Cavinato A. G. 93       Ferreira D. 139         Jin Y -L. 132           Luthria D. L. 144     Park C -S. 90
Chang S. I. 83          Finney J. M. 136        Johnson E. T. 152       Lv F. 100             Park M. 79
Chen H. 61              Frank N. 23             Johnson E. T. 155       Lvov Y. M. 122        Park Y -K. 83
Chen H. 114             Freiburger L. M. 4      Kafley S. 62            Lynch S. K. 15        Parker R. 48
Chen J. 103             Frias J. 52             Kasanah N. 54           Lynch S. K. 20        Parkin K. L. 41
Chen J. 105             Fukuda Y. 86            Katiyar S. K. 11        Mackie A. R. 116      Patil B. 154
Chen L. 74              Fukumoto H. 86          Kendall C. W. 1         Majoni S. 64          Patil B. S. 60
Chen L. 77              Furuta T. 81            Kendall C. W. 6         Maki K. C. 3          Patil J. B. 154
Chen L. 80              Furuta T. 82            Kilburn D. 46           Manthey J. A. 146     Patny A. 38
Chen L. 102             Gallaher D. D. 4        Kim C -T. 73            Mao W. 71             Peng J. 30
Chen L. 121             Garti N. 127            Kim J -H. 90            Mao W. 72             Peng J. 99
Chen P. 84              Gavillan-Suarez J. 68   Kitayama T. 86          Mayes D. M. 92        Peters S. E. 119
Chen P. 91              Geels E. J. 94          Klimo K. 23             McClements D. J. 31   Pezzuto J. M. 27
Chen T. 8               Geilman W. G. 58        Komai K. 86             McCormick S. P. 85    Place A. 30
                  AGFD TECHNICAL PROGRAM AUTHOR/PAPER INDEX - continued
Powers J. R. 67           Rosell C. M. 22       Surh Y -J. 12          Vaughn S. F. 156       Yasuda M. 81
Qian D. 110               Ruan R. 84            Sweet V. 67            Vinson J. A. 36        Yokoyama W. H. 15
Qian M. C. 39             Ruan R. 91            Takeuchi Y. 42         Walker R. A. 87        Yokoyama W. H. 38
Qiu T -Q. 108             Ruqiang H. 110        Tan D. 57              Wang Q. 124            Yoneyama K. 42
Quinones M. C. 68         Russell J. 70         Tang J. 67             Wang W. 53             Yoo S. H. 73
Ramirez-Vicens M. A. 68   Sabnis R. W. 111      Taub D. R. 69          Wang X. 130            Yoo S. H. 90
Rao C. V. 9               Sang S. 26            Taylor A. J. 21        Wang Y -W. 130         Yoshida T. 112
Rasco B. A. 92            Santagati A. 97       Taylor A. J. 133       Wasson M. H. 60        Yoshihisa N. 99
Reddy B. S. 9             Sarasara C. 40        Taylor S. E. 60        Wedge D. E. 54         Yoshii H. 81
Reineccius G. A. 136      Sato K. 128           Tisserat B. 145        Weiling D. 110         Yoshii H. 82
Reineccius G. A. 138      Schuler M. A. 148     Tisserat B. 156        Wen Z. 148             Young C. 21
Ren M. 44                 Seigler D. 147        Tobe H. 81             West B. J. 58          Yousef G. 147
Reppas C. 14              Shen Q. 142           Townrow S. 46          West B. J. 59          Yu M. 83
Ridout M. J. 116          Shieh W. 126          Troutman K. 93         Wickham M. S. J. 116   Yu Y. 101
Riefler R. S. 43          Shilabin A. G. 54     Tseng W -C. 104        Widmer W. W. 140       Yue J. 99
Rimando A.M. 150          Shin J -S. 73         Tseng W -C. 106        Wieczorek M. 66        Zang X. 72
Rimando A. M. 9           Singh H. 123          Tunick M. H. 76        Wilde P. J. 116        Zeng R. S. 148
Rimando A. M. 38          Smith P. R. 118       Turowski M. 15         Will F. 23             Zessner H. 23
Ring S. G. 48             Sobiak S. 66          Turowski M. 20         Willie J. J. 149       Zhang H. 71
Rinken M. J. 19           Song Y. S. 52         Ubbink J. 46           Wu X. 45               Zhang J. 91
Rivera Y. 68              Spears R. D. 60       Vail N. K. 51          WU X. J. 88            Zhang L -H. 142
Rohrer C. 62              Stoner G. D. 8        Vail N. K. 131         Xie X. 42              Zhang Y. 45
Rohrer C. 63              Su Y. 99              Vaisberg A. J. 40      Xiong W. 77            Zhou B -N. 58
Rohrer C. 64              Subirade M. 121       van Breemen R. B. 27   Yamada Y. 42           Zilberboim R. 17
Rojas R. E. 40            Suh N. 9              van der Linden E. 35   Yamauchi K. 82         Zuo Y. 61
Rosano H. L. 117          Sun Q. 99             Van Hekken D. L. 76    Yang C. S. 26          Pasteur, L. 157
Rosano H. L. 134          Sun R. 99             Vaughn S. F. 145       Yang J. 36             Pauling, L. 158




                                              Mark your calendar
                                                   for the

                                                 234th ACS
                                              National Meeting

                                                          in

                                                   BOSTON

                                              August 19-23, 2007
                     the             CORNUCOPIA
SPRING
 AGFD

  2007




                 DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL & FOOD CHEMISTRY
the CORNUCOPIA




                                                             the CORNUCOPIA
                 AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
                 1155 16TH STREET, NW
                 WASHINGTON DC 20036
                     the             CORNUCOPIA




                                                             SPRING
                                                              AGFD

                                                               2007

								
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