Child Development Jean Piaget

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					Child Development/
    Jean Piaget
      FOUN 3100
    August 25, 2003
Development
  Why and What?
Child Development in the
      16th Century
• Puritans
  – Children are born evil and have a natural
    tendency toward evil
  – Children are born without knowledge – they are
    not aware of their evilness and how to lead a
    good life
  – Teachers/parents must steer children away
    from natural tendencies so they could go to
    Heaven
  – “The New England Primer” – rote memorization
Child Development in the
      17th Century
• Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Émile)
  – Children morally good
  – Stayed that way unless corrupted by
    society
  – Discovery learning – teachers/parents
    should create environment for children
    to explore
Child Development in the
      21st Century
• What is the basis of the modern day
  ideas of child development?
  – Puritans or Rousseau?
     Why is studying
 development important?
• The more you know, the more capable
  you are to teach
• Our society values childhood
  – Individual level
  – Shared characteristics (psychologists)
  What is development?

• The pattern of biological, cognitive,
  and socioemotional changes that
  begins at conception and continues
  through the life span.
       Development:
      The Whole Child
                 Biological




Socioemotional                Cognitive
    Periods of Development

•   Infancy: birth to 18 months
•   Early childhood: 18 months to 6-years-old
•   Middle and late childhood:6 to 11-years-old
•   Adolescence: 10 to 18-years-old
•   Early adulthood: late teens to early 30s
Cognitive Processes
     Jean Piaget
     (1896-1980)
       Piaget’s Theory

• Piaget was interested in:
  – how we develop our understanding of
    the things around us
  – How kids come to know day-to-day
    things adults take for granted
Three Characteristics of
    Piaget’s Theory

• Biological model
• Structured theory
• Stages
      Biological Model
• Piaget’s education – Biology
• Explained development using
  biological terms
  – Example: over time our knowledge gets
    more advanced and more differentiated
    as cells do during prenatal growth
     Structured Theory
• Interested in how things are organized
• Determined that children do not think in
  the same way as adults
• Schemas
  – Change as we get older
  – Assimilation
  – Accommodation
• Equilibration
     Characteristics of
      Piaget’s Stages
• Reflect an underlying mental structure
• Describe a person in a state of equilibrium
• Must follow the order developed by Piaget
• Cannot skip stages
• Composed partly of preparation and party
  of achievement
• Found in all cultures - Universal
     Piaget’s Stages of
        Development
• Sensorimotor Stage: birth to 2
  – Infants use senses to understand their
    world
  – Object permanence
       Piaget’s Stages of
          Development
• Preoperational Stage: 2 to 7
  –   Increased use of language
  –   Egocentrism
  –   Animism
  –   Centration
  –   Lack of conservation
  –   Lack reversibility (operations)
     Piaget’s Stages of
        Development
• Concrete Operational Stage: 7 to 11
  – Operations
  – Logical reasoning only in concrete
    situations
  – Classification
  – Seriation
       Piaget’s Stages of
          Development
• Formal Operational Stage: 11 – 15
  –   More logical thought
  –   Abstract thought
  –   Idealistic thought
  –   Hypothetical-deductive reasoning
        Strengths of
       Piaget’s Theory
• One of the first formal, comprehensive
  theories on child development
• Children as active, constructive thinkers
• Methodology – interested in why kids got
  wrong answers
• Observation methods
• Cognitive growth: partial accomplishments
  vs. complete appearance at once
      Weaknesses of
      Piaget’s Theory
• Estimates of time related to
  children’s competencies
• Development does not always occur in
  a stage-like fashion
• Children can be trained to be at the
  next stage