Assessment and Analysis of Nutritional Status in Bangladesh

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					     H388 Presentations 11/28/06
1.   Catie Broussard           9. Michael Franklin
2.   Kris Van Voorhis          10. Manisha Thapa
3.   Jessica Bruno             11. Susan Krissel (absent
                                  with illness)
4.   Elizabeth Schlossberg
                               12. Ashlyn Murphy
5.   Amanda Graham
6.   Melissa Teixeira
7.   Brian Kelly
8.   Yuehong Lei (no slides)
REFUGEES
Dependent, Un-Free, Homeless, Unequal




      Catie Broussard, 28 November 2006
                What is a Refugee?
•   International Law and Normative Practice dictates that a refugee is a person
    who ―owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race,
    religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political
    opinion, is outside of the country of his nationality, and is unable to, or,
    owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that
    county. ― ( UN Conventoin,1951)

•   By concentrating on the large refugee populations in Africa—those refugees
    that have being displaced within their home region and are hosted by a
    neighboring state—we can target the greatest unequal and dependent
    populations to determine how their living.

•   Policy Questions for Hosts and International Community: Integration vs.
    Segregation and Repatriation vs. Assimilation
     – Decisions based on the situations of Refugee creation
     – Host –or contracting – country’s government acceptance of the international
       treaties and norms vs. indigenous ―acceptance‖ of new and inherently needy
       populations
Source : UN Statistics Report 2005: Global Refugee Trends
    Refugee Status is by nature
   UNEQUAL to nationals of host
            countries.
• Uprooted to another
  country
• Persecuted
• Homeless
• Dependent on Host
  and International
  Community
Refugees in Africa



                     Obtained from
                     ReliefWeb
DEPENDENCE OF
  REFUGEES
          QUESTIONS GET COMPLICATED…

                  Who is the ―Refugee‖?

           Do only the poor become refugees?

  How does the extreme poverty of refugee populations
    compare to the state of indigenous populations?

How can we understand and combat the problems of these
dependent, homeless, unequal, ―un-free‖ populations, that
  is only further complicated by the difficulty of obtaining
           statistics and measures of their plight?
   Understanding The
Affordable Housing Crisis

            Kris Van Voorhis
               History 388
   Hunger, Poverty and Market Economy
            Professor Ludden
           November 28, 2006
                        The Problem
•   The American Planning Association has dubbed the
    affordable housing crisis as a “silent killer,” likening
    it to high blood pressure – acute, growing, deadly,
    and yet largely unknown for most Americans

•   According to the U.S. Department of Housing and
    Urban Development, more than 11 million
    households fall within HUD’s "worst-case" category,
    forced to pay more than one-half their incomes for
    housing, endure overcrowded conditions and/or live
    in structures with severe physical deficiencies.

•   More than 3.5 million Americans are considered
    homeless, 1.35 million of them being children
Homelessness is a Poverty Issue
The Homeless Population
Demographic Factors:

       Race
Demographic Factors:

    Geography
     An Underlying Cause:

The Lack of Affordable Housing
An Underlying Cause:

The Lack of Government Spending
An Underlying Cause:

         The Lack of

 Public Awareness and Support
 Assessment and Analysis of
Nutritional Status in Bangladesh
         Jessica Bruno
           History 388
       November 28th, 2006
                Findings
• Comparisons of food intake vs. education
  level, location (urban/rural), gender,
  occupation, NGO (benefited/non-
  benefited)
• Improvements in intake with primary
  education completed, urban location,
  female gender, and cultivators
                                                 Example

                                      Education v Total Daily Food Intake per capita
Daily Food Intake per




                        820
                        800
      capita (gm)




                        780
                        760
                        740
                        720
                        700
                        680
                        660
                              Illiterate   Can Read     Primary    Class VI- X S.S.C- H.S.C   Graduate
                                           and Write
                                                         Educational Status
 The Double Burden of
     Malnutrition

Exploring the link between obesity
    and poverty and why the
       correlation exists…


           Elizabeth Schlossberg
                The Evidence
• NHANES Survey 1971-2004 revealed a 50%
  increased chance of becoming overweight in
  poor versus non poor families (Miech et al 2006)

• “The prevalence of obesity is significantly higher
  in poor communities than in affluent
  communities” (Journal of Youth and
  Adolescence)
   – Variables include age and race
            Why the Link?
• Focus: Availability of healthy food
• Healthcare
• Adequate education about nutrition and a
  healthy lifestyle
• A safe environment for physical activity
      Case Study: Washington DC
              Focus on the Availability of Fresh Food
“Residents in Wards 7 & 8 where poverty is high and grocery stores are scarce are more likely to
    suffer from diet-related diseases than residents of the District’s other wards (Hunger Solutions).

Obesity prevalence in Wards 7 & 8 is about four times higher than in Wards 2 and 3, which have the
   most grocery stores and many of the highest community food security rankings in the District.”
   (Hunger Solutions)




                                                            QuickTime™ and a
                                                        TIFF (LZW) decompressor
                                                     are needed to see this picture.
    Grocery Stores and Poverty
The
                           The dots
darker
                           represent
colors
                           grocery
represent
                           stores that
higher
                           sell fresh
rates of
                           food
poverty
            Availability and Race
• Ratio of grocery stores to residents revealed a ratio of 1:3,816 in
  chiefly white neighborhoods as opposed to 1:23,582 in chiefly
  African American neighborhoods (Journal for Preventative Medicine
  2002)
                      Why?
• Similar problems occur in Philadelphia, Chicago
  and New York, but why?

• The RISK is greater than the REWARD
  – Cost is too great to maintain security and to train
    reliable employees in lower income areas
  – Smaller profit margin due to sales of cheaper goods
    First Obesity, Then Diabetes
             The Upper East Side vs. East Harlem
• Upper East Side grocery stores were three times as likely to
  stock diet soda, low-fat or fat-free milk, high fiber bread, fresh
  fruit and fresh vegetables
• “Those living in East Harlem die of diabetes at twice the
  rate of people in the city as a whole” (New York Times
  2006)
• Sub par health care available in East Harlem leaves residents
  unable to afford medication for diabetes
    No Such Thing as an Easy
            Solution
• While the availability of fresh, healthy food
  in lower income areas is one contributing
  factor to the problem, other factors include
  education, healthcare and a safe
  environment. Until all of these factors,
  along with government support come
  together, the problem can not be fixed.
Dynamics of Poverty Among the
Indigenous Population of Bolivia
         Amanda Graham
        November 28, 2006
              Introduction
• 72% of population below poverty line
• Same proportion of those people are
  indigenous
• 60% of population indigenous
• Social ladder ―whitens in accordance with
  class privilege‖
• Why? Social Exclusion-denied access to
  resources
    What defines indigenous?
• 36 Indian tribes recognized by government
• 2 Main Groups
  – Aymara (20-25%)
  – Quechua (35-40%)
           Historical Factors
• Spanish Conquistadors
  – Exploitation and Slavery
• Liberalism (19th Century)
  – Biological Category of Slaves
  – Poverty dates from here
  – Serfdom until 1950s
• Can’t escape
  – Continue to live in rural highlands
      Geo-Economic Factors
• Rural/Western Provinces
  – Home to Indigenous population
• Eastern Provinces
  – Local white/foreign business control
  – Control of natural gas resources/GDP
           Mobility Factors
• Geographic landscape creates obstacles
  for adequate construction
• Lack of adequate roads that link Eastern
  and Western provinces
      Discrimination Factors
• White Persona v. Indigenous Persona
• Deprivation of basic human rights by
  Government
• Low Paying Jobs
          Educational Factors
• Low investment in
  education
• Indians don’t realize
  situation
• Dropout rate
• Attendance disparity
  between rich and
  poor
    Educational Factors (Cont.)
• School attendance’s relationship with child labor
           Health Factors
• Vulnerable to communicable diseases like
  cholera and tuberculosis
• Diseases preventable by vaccines lower in
  rural population
• Risks to women during child birth
           Improvements
• Increase in education
• Political activism
• New government leadership
• Government recognition of demands of
  indigenous population
• Improvement slow-needs continued
  activism
      I n e q u a l i t y in B r a z i l
                                                                 Melissa Teixeira



                                                                                            National Statistics:
                                                                                •Population: 188,078,227
                                                                                •Infant Mortality: 28.6 deaths/1000 live
                                                                                                           births
                                                                                •Life expectancy at birth: 71.97 years
                                                                                •Literacy rate: 86.4%
                                                                                •GDP per capita (PPP): $8,300
                                                                                •Percentage below the Poverty Line: 22%
North         Northeast                Centre-West
1.   Rorai
     ma
              8.
              9.
                    Maranhão
                    Piauí
                                       17.
                                       18.
                                              Mato Grosso
                                              Goiás                             •Gini Index: 0.59
2.   Amap     10.   Ceará              19.    Distrito Federal
     á        11.   Rio Grande do             (Brasília)
3.   Amazo          Norte              20.    Mato Grosso do Sul
     nas      12.   Paraíba
4.   Pará     13.   Pernambuco
5.   Tocant
     ins
              14.
              15.
                    Alagoas
                    Sergipe
                                 Southeast                 South
6.   Acre     16.   Bahia        21.   Minas Gerais        25.     Paraná
7.   Rondô                       22.   Espírito Santo      26.     Santa
     nia                         23.   Rio de Janeiro              Catarina
                                 24.   São Paulo           27.     Rio Grande
                                                                   do Sul
                                                                   I n e q u a l i t y
                                                         Average Monthly Salary by Region in Brazil 1995-2004 (Real$)
                                                                                                                                                                               “Inequalities in power and wealth
                                 1200                                                                                                                                        translate into unequal opportunities,
                                 1000
                                                                                                                                                                                 leading to wasted productive
                                                                                                                                                                                 potential and to an inefficient
                                                                                                                                                                                    allocation of resources”
Average Monthly Salary (Real$)




                                  800
                                                                                                                                Northern Brazil
                                                                                                                                Northeastern Brazil
                                                                                                                                Southern Brazil


                                                                                                                                                                                             [World Bank 2006]
                                  600                                                                                           Southeastern Brazil
                                                                                                                                Central-Western Brazil
                                                                                                                                Brazilian Average


                                  400




                                  200
                                                                                                                                                                                      Gini Index by Region in Brazil 1995-2004
                                                                                                                                                                  0.625

                                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Northern Brazil
                                    1995   1996   1997     1998     1999     2000     2001      2002     2003     2004   2005
                                                                             Year                                                                                                                                                                  Northeastern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Brazil
                                                                                                                                                                    0.6                                                                            Southern Brazil

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Southeastern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Brazil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Central-Western
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Brazil
                                                                                                                                                     Gini Index
                                                                                                                                                                  0.575                                                                            Brazilian
                                              The top ten percent of the                                                                                                                                                                           Average

                                            Brazilian population control
                                        fifty percent of salaried income and                                                                                       0.55


                                        the bottom fifty percent account for
                                          a mere twelve percent of income.                                                                                        0.525




                                                                                                                                                                    0.5
                                                                                                                                                                      1994   1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004     2005

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Year
                                            E d u c a t i o n
                                                                                            Level of Education for Students of Five Years or Older, by
                                                                                                                    Region in 2005
                                                                                         Level (and type)                      Region
                      Average Years of Education by Region in Brazil, 2004                    of Education
                                                                                                                Brazil     Northeastern     Southeastern
                                                                                              (%)
                                                                                                                                Region           Region
                8.0

                                                                                         Average Years           6.6            5.3              7.3
                7.0
                                                                                         Pre School              9.42          10.19            9.98
                6.0
                                                                                            Private School      24.29          25.49           23.80
Average Years




                5.0
                                                                                            Public School       75.68          74.51           76.15
                4.0                                                                      Primary                61.63          66.04           57.40
                                                                                             Education
                3.0

                                                                                            Private School      11.02          10.27           13.30
                2.0
                                                                                            Public School       88.98          89.73           86.67
                1.0
                                                                                         Secondary              17.75          15.32           19.88
                0.0
                                                                                              Education
                        North   Northeast   Southeast1   South   Central-West   Brazil
                                                                                            Private School      15.00          13.55           16.83
                                                    Region
                                                                                            Public School       84.98          86.45           83.12
                                                                                         Higher Education        8.86           5.14           10.90
                                                                                            Private School      73.92          58.49           81.40
                                                                                            Public School       26.08          41.51           18.60
                                                           E d u c a t i o n
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Literacy Rates for Brazil by Region
                                                                                                                                                                      100.00

                                                                                                                                                                                      88.67%
                                                                                                                                                                       90.00
                       Percentage of Population more Educated than their Father and
                                                                                                                                                                       80.00
                                       Level of Education Attained,          Southeast Brazil [% more
                                                                             educated than father]
                                                by Region                    Northeast Brazil [% more
                                                                                                                                                                       70.00




                                                                                                                                                  Literacy Rate (%)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    61.78%
                 100                                                                       educated than father]                                                       60.00
                                                                                           Southeast Brazil [level
                  90                                                                       attained]                                                                   50.00
                                                                                           Northeast Brazil [level
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                38.20%
                  80                                                                       attained]                                                                   40.00

                  70                                                                                                                                                   30.00
Percentage (%)




                  60                                                                                                                                                   20.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   11.32%
                  50                                                                                                                                                   10.00

                  40                                                                                                                                                    0.00
                                                                                                                                                                               Literate in Southeast       Illiterate in Southeast           Literate in Northeast      Illiterate in Northeast
                  30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Literacy and Region
                  20

                  10

                   0
                       Uneducated   Primary Education    Primary Education   Secondary   Higher Education                                                       Literacy Rate, by Literacy of Father and Region
                                       Uncompleted           Completed       Education      Completed
                                                                                                                                  100%
                                                                             Completed                                                           8.29                                                                                9.44                               11.83
                                                        Level of Education                                                                                                                      13.47



                                                                                                                                  80%                                                                                                                                    17.7
                                                                                                                                                                                                25.55


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     56.82
                                                                                                                 Percentage (%)




                                                                                                                                  60%
                                                                                                                                                 71.31




                                                                                                                                  40%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        70.91
                                                                                                                                                                                                  61


                                                                                                                                  20%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     33.73

                                                                                                                                                 20.58


                                                                                                                                   0%
                                                                                                                                         Literate in Southeast                       Illiterate in Southeast                Literate in Northeast               Illiterate in Northeast
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Literacy and Region
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Literacy of Father Unknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Literate Father
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Illiterate Father
                               M i g r a t i o n
          Demographic Composition of Southeastern Brazil


             Immigrants from
          other regions in Brazil
                   19%




 Immigrants from                                    Native of
Northeastern Brazil                             Southeastern Brazil
        9%                                             71%
    Foreign-born
   Immigrants to
Southeastern Brazil
         1%
                                                                      Demographics of Northeastern Brazil


                                                                                    Immigrants from
                                                                                   Southeastern Brazil
                                                                                          2%       Immigrants from other
                                                                                                       regions of Brazil
                                                                          Foreign-born                       1%
                                                                         Immigrants to
                                                                       Northeastern Brazil
                                                                             0.05%




                                                                                                                       Native of Northeastern
                                                                                                                               Brazil
                                                                                                                                97%
                                                                            Social Mobility
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Employment in Northeast by Sector
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Other
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Public Administration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 5%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Social Services
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5%
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Transportation and
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Communication
                                                                                                                                                                                                           5%

                                                                                                                                                                                                Economic Services
                                                     Percentage of Employed Persons Over the Age of 15 Still Employed in the Industry in which They First Started:                                    2%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Agriculture
                                                                                   Comparison Between Sao Paulo and La Bahia                                                                                                                                                                         40%

                                          100%
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Services
                                                                                                                                                                                                      12%
                                          90%


                                          80%
Percentage Working in Same Industry (%)




                                          70%
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Commercial Services
                                                                                                                                                                                                          13%

                                          60%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Industrial Production
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Construction                             9%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8%

                                          50%

                                                                                                                                                                     Industry:
                                          40%                                                                                                                        1. Technicial/Scientific
                                                                                                                                                                     2. Administrative
                                                                                                                                                                     3. Agricultural
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Employment in Southeast by Sector
                                                                                                                                                                     4. Industrial/                                                                    Other
                                          30%                                                                                                                            Construction                                      Public Administration        2%                     Agriculture
                                                                                                                                                                     5. Commerce/Business                                          5%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 14%
                                                                                                                                                                     6. Transportation/                             Social Services
                                          20%                                                                                                                            Communication                                    7%
                                                                                                                                                                     7. Service


                                          10%                                                                                                                                                        Transportation and
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Communication
                                                                                                                                                                                                            7%

                                           0%
                                                 1               2                  3                   4                  5                  6                  7                               Economic Services                                                                                          Industrial Production
                                                                                                                                                                                                       4%                                                                                                            20%
                                                                                                     Industry                                                                      Sao Paulo
                                                                                                                                                                                   La Bahia




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Services
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     18%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Construction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10%


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Commercial Services
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13%
                                                           1

    Poverty, Inequality, and
    Nigeria’s Oil Economy
              Questions:
              1) Is oil wealth distributed unevenly in
                 Nigeria?
              2) What agricultural, environmental,
                 economic, and social effects has oil
                 extraction had on the local communities
                 of the Niger Delta?



Brian Kelly
                                          Brian Kelly – Nigeria and Oil, 2


Contribution of Agriculture and
     Oil to Nigeria’s GDP
          100


          90


          80


          70


          60
Percent




                                                   Agriculture
          50
                                                   Mining (including Crude Oil)
          40


          30


          20


          10


           0
            66 6

            67 7

            68 8

            69 9

            70 0

            71 1

            72 2

            73 3

            74 4

            75 5

            76 6

            77 7

            78 8

            79 9

            80 0

            81 1

            82 2

                    3
          19 96

          19 96

          19 196

          19 96

          19 97

          19 97

          19 97

          19 97

          19 197

          19 97

          19 97

          19 97

          19 97

          19 97

          19 198

          19 98

          19 98

                 98
               -1

               -1



               -1

               -1

               -1

               -1

               -1



               -1

               -1

               -1

               -1

               -1



               -1

               -1

               -1
               -




               -




               -
            65
          19




                Year   Source: Onyige, P.U. Energy and Social Development in Nigeria
                                                                                                          Brian Kelly – Nigeria and Oil, 3


Nigeria’s Principal Agricultural
    Export Commodities
                    900,000



                    800,000



                    700,000



                    600,000

                                                                                                                             Rubber
Exports (in tons)




                    500,000                                                                                                  Palm oil
                                                                                                                             Palm kernel
                                                                                                                             Groundnuts
                    400,000                                                                                                  Cotton
                                                                                                                             Cocoa

                    300,000



                    200,000



                    100,000



                         0
                              1974-   1975-   1976-   1977-   1978-          1979-   1980-   1981-    1982-    1983-
                              1975    1976    1977    1978    1979           1980    1981    1982     1983     1984
                                                                      Year
                                                                                         Source: Onyige, P.U. Energy and Social Development in Nigeria
                                                                     Brian Kelly – Nigeria and Oil, 4
    Oil Revenue Distribution
             1963
                                                        15%
Distribution of
                      35%
Mining Rents and
                                                                                            Federal Government
Royalties, 1963                                                                             Regions of Origin
                                                                                            Distributable Pools Account




                                                              50%




                                        8%


                            20%
Distributable Pools                                                                   42%
                                                                                                          North
Account Regional                                                                                          East
                                                                                                          West
Allocations, 1963                                                                                         Midw est




                                  30%




                                             Source: Khan, Sarah Ahmad. Nigeria: The Political Economy of Oil
                                                            Brian Kelly – Nigeria and Oil, 5

           Oil Revenue Distribution
                    1979
                 10%                                 Distribution of Mining
                                                     Rents and Royalties, 1979
                                              Federal Government
                                              State Government
                                              Local Government
35%                               55%




            4%         4%                            Breakdown of Allocation to
      6%
                                                     State Governments, 1979
                                                      Directly to States
                                                      Derivation
                                                      Development of Mineral Producing Areas
                                                      Ecological Problems


                            86%


                                        Source: Khan, Sarah Ahmad. Nigeria: The Political Economy of Oil
                                                                                                                                                   Brian Kelly – Nigeria and Oil, 6



                                                            Poverty in Nigeria
                                                                                                                          Percentage of Rural Population Below the Poverty Line




                                                                                                       80.00%


                                 Nigerian GNP per Capita has
                                                                                                                                                                                    71.73%


                                                                                                       70.00%

                                 steadily fallen since 1980.
                                                                                                       60.00%
                                                 Nigerian GNP per Capita Trends                                                           51.43%

                                                                                                                                                                    46%
                                                                                                       50.00%
                        1200

                                                                                                       40.00%


                        1000                                                                                         28.29%
                                                                                                       30.00%



                                                                                                       20.00%
                        800
 GNP per Capita (USD)




                                                                                                       10.00%

                        600

                                                                                                       0.00%
                                                                                                                   1980                1985                  1992                 1996
                                                                                                                                                   Year
                        400


                                                                                                                The percentage of Nigeria’s rural
                                                                                                                population living below the poverty
                        200




                          0
                                                                                                                line has risen since 1980.
                          1978     1980   1982           1984           1986      1988   1990   1992
                                                                 Year



Source: Khan, Sarah Ahmad. Nigeria: The Political Economy of Oil                                Source: Anyanwu, John C. Rural Poverty in Nigeria: Profile, Determinants and Exit Paths
     Yuehong Lei

AIDS and TB in South Africa

         No slides
  Maternal Education and the
Relationship to Children’s Health




          Michael Franklin
             HIST 388
                     Topic
• Establishing a link between a mother’s
  education and the health of her children
  – Difficult, many variables deal with children’s
    health
     • Community and maternal endowments
  – Has research ―overstated‖ the benefits of
    improved maternal education?
          Personal Findings
• Data comes from the UN Stats website
  (http://hdl.library.upenn.edu/1017/7058)
• Took 42 countries and compared:
  – GDP per capita in current US$ (1981-2000)
  – Children under 5 mortality rate per 1,000 live
    births (1980-2000)
  – Literacy rates in women 15-24 (1981-2004)
                    Outline
• Examined data in three ways:
  – Countries where GDP per capita declined
    • Does a fall in GDP lead to deteriorating conditions
      and a rise in child mortality?
  – Correlation
    • GDP per capita vs. Mortality Rates
    • Female literacy vs. Mortality Rates
  – Countries with similar GDP per capita
    • How do female literacy and child mortality rates
      compare?
    Decline in GDP Per Capita
• 17 countries experienced a fall in their GDP per
  capita
  – Decrease in GDP per capita indicates living standards
    did not improve, and potentially worsened
• Despite drop in GDP per capita, child mortality
  rates decreased everywhere, except Zimbabwe
  (increased) and Liberia (did not change)
• Literacy rates among women improved in each
  country
GDP Per Capita and Female Literacy

• GDP per capita vs. Mortality rates
  – R² = 0.3822
• Female literacy v. Mortality rates
  – R² = 0.749
• Stronger association between female
  literacy and child mortality than GDP per
  capita
                                           GDP/Per Capita (in current US$ for 1981)
                Vi
                    et




                                0
                                    5000
                                             10000
                                                           15000
                                                                         20000
                                                                                       25000
                                                                                                     30000
                                                                                                               35000
                                                                                                                                          40000
                       na
                 Et o La m
                    hi s
                       o
              Ca Er pia
                  m e  itr
                     b a
                 Ug od
              Sr an ia
                  iL d
                      a a
                   G nka
                     ha
                     Tona
                     Ni go
                    K ge
                 Se en r
                           y
               Pa neg a
                    ki a
                  Ye sta l
                       m n
                   Li en
               Th be
                    a ria
                 G ilan
                    uy d
             Zi Djibana
               m o
                   ba ut
            El C bw i
               S on e
              Ni alva go
                 c
             Ca ara dor
                 m gu
                    e a
                  Ni roo
                     g n




Country
            CoEcu eria
                 st ad
                    a or
                      R
                   Tu ica
               Ro rk
                    m ey
                       an
                     Ch ia
                     Cu ile
              Pa Br ba
                   ra az
                 Uk gua il
                     ra y
                         in
          Re         Sy e
             pu Jo ria
                b. rd
                    Ko an
              Si         re
                 ng Iraa
           Sa apo n
                                                                                                              Child Mortality




              ud Om re
                                                                                                              GDP/Per Capita




                  iA a
                     r n
                   Kuabia
                        w
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                                                                                                                                                  GDP Per Capita vs. Mortality Rates for Children Under 5




                           ar
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                                      50
                                                     100
                                                                   150
                                                                                 200
                                                                                               250
                                                                                                             300
                                                                                                                                          350




                                     Under 5 Child Mortality per 1,000 Live Births (1980)
            R = 0.3822
                                Female Literacy Rate ages 15-24 (1981)
          N




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                                                                                        Linear (Child Mortality )




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                          50
                                                                                                                         Female Literacy Rate vs Mortality Rates for Children Under 5




                                   100
                                              150
                                                         200
                                                                    250
                                                                            300
                                                                                  350




                                  Child Mortality per 1,000 Live Births
                                                  1980
    R2 = 0.749
                                                Child Mortality per 1,000 Live Births




                                       0
                                           50
                                                   100
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                                                                                                    Linear (Child Mortality )




R2 = 0.749
             GDP Per Capita
  Country      GDP       Female Lit (%)   Child Mortality

Cameroon     1,011 (5)      57.4 (4)         173 (4)

Nigeria      1,167 (4)      45.3 (5)         216 (5)

Ecuador      1,207 (3)      93.7 (2)          57 (2)

Costa Rica   1,381 (2)      96.7 (1)          26 (1)

Turkey       1,487 (1)      79.8 (3)         133 (3)
             GDP Per Capita
  Country      GDP     Female Lit (%)   Child Mortality

Pakistan       443          21.5             153
Yemen          444          11.0             205


• Vietnam has the lowest GDP per capita in 1980
  yet one of the lowest rates of child mortality and
  highest of female literacy
               Conclusion
• Education = Good
• Importance of maternal education
  – Present inequality between men and women
  – Improving a mother’s level education has
    been found to yield greater results than
    improving her husband’s level of education
   Manisha Thapa

Female Education and Child
     Health in Nepal
     Variables in Women’s education versus Child
                  health relationship

                                      Under 5 Child Mortality Rate Ratios (Rural : Urban
                                           and Uneducated : Educated Mothers)
•   Urban-Rural                         5
    differences                       4.5
                                        4
    - access to                       3.5
                                                                             rural to urban
    health facilities   Ratio           3
                                      2.5

    -access to clean                    2
                                      1.5
    drinking water                      1
                                                                             Uneducated to
                                                                             Educated
                                      0.5                                    Mothers
    -transportation                     0
                                                   i
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                                                     Countries
   Variables in Women’s education versus Child
                health relationship

                                 Under 5 Child Mortality Rates ratios for wealth (lowest
• Wealth as a                     to highest quintile) and education (uneducated to
                                                 educated mothers)
   variable
-similar relation                  5
                                 4.5                                            wealth
   with child health               4
                                 3.5
                                                                                (lowest

                       ratios
                                                                                quintile to
   as mother’s                     3
                                 2.5                                            highest)
                                   2
   education                     1.5
                                   1
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                                                                                mothers
   than rural-urban
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                                                     countries
                        Case for Nepal
WHO data for 2001
• Under-5 mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) - rural to urban ratio) - 1.7
• Under-5 mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) - lowest to highest wealth
  quintile ratio)- 1.9
• Under-5 mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) - mother with no to higher
  education ratio -2.4
Why does the relationship between women’s education and child health
  still hold for Nepal?
• Gradual Urbanization
• Increased per capita GDP undermined by inflation
• Government spending in education relatively higher than in health sector
Programs to improve maternal
 and child nutritional status


          Susan Krissel

       (absent due to illness)
   Examples of Interventions
• UNICEF
 – Fortification of food (ex. Iodization of salt)
 – Supplemental micronutrient formula with RDIs
   for pregnant/lactating women
 – Education for the empowerment of women
 – Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative
 – International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk
   Substitutes
• Earthwatch
  – Educate women about nutrition and hygiene as
    related to disease prevention
  – Involve and train community members/leaders
  – Make community self-sufficient

• Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program
  –   Supplementation
  –   Community gardens
  –   Gift certificates to buy healthy food
  –   Cooking demonstrations and shopping tours
  –   Nutrition and Health Awareness Education
  –   Budgeting workshops
  –   Breastfeeding incentives
               Conclusions
• Various types of organizations are taking
  action to improve maternal/child nutrition
• These organizations are mainly focused
  on improving malnutrition through
  nutrients, rather than targeting its causes
Poverty & Female Mental
         Health


      Ashlyn Murphy
       Final Project
         Hist 388
         Issue of Causation
• Is there a causal relationship between
  poverty and mental illness?
• Which came first: the poverty or the
  mental illness?
       Selection Hypothesis
• Emotional problems that are preexisting
  predispose a woman to poverty.
• Mental illness/emotional problems precede
  poverty.
  Social Causation Hypothesis
• Stresses of poverty and the environment
  of poverty lead to mental illnesses.
• Poverty precedes mental illness.
      Previous Findings & Links
•    The following circumstances have been
     pre-established as common among
     clinically depressed women:
1.   Recent entry in welfare program.
2.   Dependent upon welfare.
3.   ―Inadequately‖ employed: marked by
     unfavorable hours and/or wages.
4.   Nonunion employment position.
5.   Residing in low-income neighborhoods.
6.   Residing in neighborhoods marked by drug trade.
7.   Having no health benefits.
8.   Spending large amount of income on child care.