Bab III Kebijakan Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Alam dan Lingkungan by broverya75

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									                                       DAFTAR ISI


     Kata Pengantar .....................................................................................................................................................................                        iii

     Ucapan Terimakasih ..........................................................................................................................................................                               iv

     Daftar Isi .................................................................................................................................................................................                 v

     Daftar Gambar ......................................................................................................................................................................                         x

     Daftar Kotak ..........................................................................................................................................................................                    xiii

     Daftar Tabel ............................................................................................................................................................................ xiv

     Daftar Singkatan ................................................................................................................................................................. xviii

     Bab I                 Pendahuluan ..................................................................................................................................................                         2

     Bab II                Indonesia: Fisiologi, Geografi, dan Demografi ....................................................................................                                                   14

                   2.1 Fisiografi dan Geografi ...................................................................................................................................................               14
                   2.2 Kependudukan .................................................................................................................................................                           17

     Bab III               Kebijakan Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Alam dan Lingkungan Hidup ........................................                                                                                 22
                   3.1     Permasalahan .....................................................................................................................................................................   22
                   3.2     Sasaran Pembangunan Tahun 2006 ............................................................................................................................                          24
                   3.3     Kebijakan Tahun 2006 .....................................................................................................................................................           25
                   3.4     Pendanaan Tahun 2006 ....................................................................................................................................................            27
                   3.5     Kegiatan Utama dan Pendukung KLH ..........................................................................................................................                          28
                           3.5.1 Kegiatan Utama .........................................................................................................................................                       29
                           3.5.2 Kegiatan Pendukung .......................................................................................................................................                     35

     Bab IV                Air ......................................................................................................................................................................           38

                   4.1 Kondisi Air .........................................................................................................................................................................    38
                       4.1.1 Kuantitas Air .........................................................................................................................................................            38
                       4.1.2 Kualitas Air ......................................................................................................................................................                39
                   4.2 Permasalahan ..................................................................................................................................................................          44
                       4.2.1 Kebutuhan Air .................................................................................................................................................                    44
                       4.2.2 Pencemaran Air ...............................................................................................................................................                     45
                       4.2.3 Kerusakan Lingkungan ..................................................................................................................................                            46
                   4.3 Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Air .....................................................................................................................................                        48
                       4.3.1 Konservasi Air .................................................................................................................................................                   48
                       4.3.2 Pengendalian Pencemaran .................................................................................................................................                          49
                              4.3.2.1 Prokasih ....................................................................................................................................................             50
                              4.3.2.2 Proper ......................................................................................................................................................             50




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Bab V           Udara dan Atmosfer ......................................................................................................................................                     54

          5.1 Status Udara dan Atmosfer .............................................................................................................................................         54
              5.1.1 Kualitas Udara Ambien ...................................................................................................................................                 54
                      5.1.1.1 Pemantauan Kualitas Udara dengan Metode AQMS ...................................................................                                                54
                      5.1.1.2 Sistem Pemantauan Non -QMS .......................................................................................................                              57
              5.1.2 Pemantauan Kadar Timbal di Udara .............................................................................................................                            57
              5.1.3 Aerosol .........................................................................................................................................                         59
         5.2 Kondisi Atmosfer .............................................................................................................................................................   63
              5.2.1 Emisi dan Konsentrasi Gas Rumah Kaca ....................................................................................................                                 63
              5.2.2 Variabilitas Iklim ..................................................................................................................................................     63
              5.2.3 Kondisi Lapisan Ozon Stratosfer ...................................................................................................................                       64
              5.2.4 Kondisi Deposisi Asam .................................................................................................................................                   66
         5.3 Dampak Pencemaran Udara Terhadap Kesehatan .....................................................................................................                                 68
              5.3.1 Sumber Pencemar Pb .......................................................................................................................................                68
              5.3.2 Toksikologi dan Dampak Kesehatan Pb .......................................................................................................                               68
              5.3.3 Biomarker ...........................................................................................................................................................     69
         5.4 Dampak Gangguan Terhadap Atmosfer ...................................................................................................................                            72
              5.4.1 Dampak Lokal Perubahan Iklim ....................................................................................................................                         72
                      5.4.1.1 Relokasi Penduduk di Daerah Pantai .............................................................................................                                72
                      5.4.1.2 Dampak Hilangnya Lahan ..............................................................................................................                           72
                      5.4.1.3 Terjadinya Kebakaran Hutan ..........................................................................................................                           72
         5.5 Sumber Pencemaran Udara dan Gangguan Atmosfer .............................................................................................                                      74
              5.5.1 Energi (Bahan Bakar) ...............................................................................................................................                      74
              5.5.2 Sarana dan Alat Transportasi ........................................................................................................................                     74
              5.5.3 Industri ..........................................................................................................................................................       74
                      5.5.3.1 Industri Manufaktur ..........................................................................................................................                  75
                      5.5.3.2 Industri Pertambangan, Energi dan Migas (PEM) .......................................................................                                           75
                      5.5.3.3 Kegiatan Agroindustri .....................................................................................................................                     75
         5.6 Upaya Pengendalian Pencemaran Udara dan Gangguan Terhadap Atmosfer ..................................................                                                            77
              5.6.1 Upaya Pengendalian Pencemaran Udara .............................................................................................                                         77
                      5.6.1.1 Pengendalian Pencemaran Sumber Bergerak ................................................................................                                        77
                      5.6.1.2 Penataan Sistem Transportasi ....................................................................................................                               80
                      5.6.1.3 Pengendalian Pencemaran Sumber Tidak Bergerak ....................................................................                                              80
                      5.6.1.4 Pengendalian Dampak Pencemaran Udara ...................................................................................                                        84
              5.6.2 Upaya Pengendalian Gangguan Atmosfer ...................................................................................................                                  84
                     5.6.2.1 Upaya Pengendalian Dampak Perubahan Iklim .........................................................................                                              84
                     5.6.2.2 Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim ................................................................................................................                        84
                     5.6.2.3 Perlindungan Lapisan Ozon ...............................................................................................................                        85
              5.6.3 Upaya Pengendalian Deposisi Asam .............................................................................................................                            86
              5.6.4 Peningkatan Kapasitas pemangku kepentingan ..........................................................................................                                     86
                      5.6.4.1 Roadshow Bioethanol........................................................................................................                                     86
                      5.6.4.2 Penyelenggaraan Workshop Better Air Quality (BAQ) 2006 ........................................................                                                 87
              5.6.5 Riset dan Pengembangan ................................................................................................................................                   88
                      5.6.5.1 Kegiatan Riset Pemantauan Kualitas Udara Skala Regional .............................................................                                           88
                      5.6.5.2 Proyek Peningkatan Kualitas Udara Perkotaan .............................................................................                                       89
                      5.6.5.3 Pendidikan Lingkungan .......................................................................................................................                   89

Bab VI           Lahan dan Hutan ..........................................................................................................................................                   92

          6.1 Kondisi Lahan dan Hutan ................................................................................................................................................        92
              6.1.1 Penutupan Lahan Berhutan ............................................................................................................................                     92
              6.1.2 Lahan Kritis ......................................................................................................................................................       92



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                   6.1.3 Kondisi Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS) .........................................................................................................                                   94
               6.2 Faktor Penekan Sumber Daya Lahan dan Hutan .......................................................................................                                                   94
                   6.2.1 Kebakaran Lahan dan Hutan ........................................................................................................................                             96
                   6.2.2 Penebangan Illegal ............................................................................................................................................                96
                   6.2.3 Perambahan Hutan ...........................................................................................................................................                   97
                   6.2.4 Konversi Lahan dan Hutan .............................................................................................................................                         98
                         6.2.4.1 Konversi Lahan Pertanian .................................................................................................................                             98
                         6.2.4.2 Konversi Hutan .................................................................................................................................                      100
                   6.2.5 Kegiatan Pertambangan ..................................................................................................................................                      100
               6.3 Konservasi dan Pengendalian Kerusakan Lahan dan Hutan ..................................................................................                                            101
                   6.3.1 Pengelolaan Lahan dan Hutan ......................................................................................................................                            101
                          6.3.1.1 Lahan Pertanian Abadi ....................................................................................................................                           101
                          6.3.1.2 Konservasi Lahan Pertanian ..........................................................................................................                                103
                          6.3.1.3 Pengelolaan Hutan Lestari .............................................................................................................                              103
                   6.3.2 Rehabilitasi Lahan dan Hutan .......................................................................................................................                          109
                         6.3.2.1 Gerakan Nasional Rehabilitasi Hutan dan Lahan .......................................................................                                                 109
                         6.3.2.2 Kampanye Indonesia Menanam ....................................................................................................                                       109
                         6.3.2.3 Program Menuju Indonesia Hijau .................................................................................................                                      109
                         6.3.2.4 Program Bank Pohon ......................................................................................................................                             111
                         6.3.2.5 Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Pedesaan di Sekitar Hutan ....................................................................                                                111
                   6.3.3 Penanganan Kasus ...........................................................................................................................................                  113
                         6.3.3.1 Penanganan Kasus Pembakaran Lahan dan Hutan ....................................................................                                                      113
                         6.3.3.2 Penanganan Kasus Penebangan Ilegal ........................................................................................                                           115

     Bab VII          Pesisir dan Laut ........................................................................................................................................................... 124

               7.1 Kondisi Pesisir dan Laut .............................................................................................................................................. 124
                   7.1.1. Sumber Daya Hayati ........................................................................................................................................ 124
                          7.1.1.1 Ekosistem Terumbu Karang .......................................................................................................... 125
                          7.1.1.2 Ekosistem Mangrove ....................................................................................................................... 126
                          7.1.1.3 Ekosistem Lamun ............................................................................................................................. 127
                          7.1.1.4 Sumberdaya Perikanan ..................................................................................................................... 128
                   7.1.2 Sumber Daya Non-Hayati ................................................................................................................................. .128
               7.2 Pengelolaan Pesisir dan Laut ....................................................................................................................................... 131
                   7.2.1 Pengelolaan Terumbu Karang ..................................................................................................................... 135
                   7.2.2 Pengelolaan Mangrove .................................................................................................................................... 136
                   7.2.3 Pengelolaan Perikanan .................................................................................................................................... 137
                   7.2.4 Pengelolaan Pulau Kecil ................................................................................................................................ 138
                   7.2.5 Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Pasir Laut ........................................................................................................... 139

     Bab VIII         Keanekaragaman Hayati ........................................................................................................................................ 152

               8.1 Kondisi Keanekaragaman Hayati .......................................................................................................................... 152
                   8.1.1 Ekosistem ............................................................................................................................................................        152
                         8.1.1.1 Kondisi Kawasan Konservasi ........................................................................................................                                   152
                         8.1.1.2 Daerah Prioritas Untuk Konservasi Keanekaragaman Hayati di Sumatera ....................                                                                              152
                         8.1.1.3 Kawasan Kritis Keanekaragaman Hayati Laut ..........................................................................                                                  155
                   8.1.2 Spesies ...................................................................................................................................................................   157
                   8.1.3 Sumber Genetik ..............................................................................................................................................                 164
               8.2 Ancaman Terhadap Keanekaragaman Hayati .............................................................................................................                                165
                   8.2.1 Ekosistem ............................................................................................................................................................        165
                   8.2.2 Spesies ...................................................................................................................................................................   165



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                   8.2.2.1 Fragmentasi Habitat ..........................................................................................................................                            165
                   8.2.2.2 Perburuan dan Perdagangan Ilegal Flora dan Fauna ......................................................................                                                   167
                   8.2.2.3 Masuknya Jenis Asing Invasif .........................................................................................................                                    168
             8.2.3 Sumber Daya Genetik ......................................................................................................................................                        168
         8.3 Konservasi Pengelolaan dan Konservasi Hayati .....................................................................................................                                      170
             8.3.1 Kebijakan dan Program ..................................................................................................................................                          170
             8.3.2 Konservasi In-Situ ...........................................................................................................................................                    173
             8.3.3 Konservasi Eks-Situ ........................................................................................................................................                      176
         8.4 Kemitraan Dan Pengelolaan Terpadu ........................................................................................................................                              179
             8.4.1 Penandatanganan Mou IOSEA .....................................................................................................................                                   179
                    8.4.1.1 Program Heart Of Borneo .............................................................................................................                                    179
                    8.4.1.2 Program Kabupaten Konservasi .................................................................................................                                           180

Bab IX           Energi .............................................................................................................................................................................. 186

         9.1 Kondisi Energi Nasional ..............................................................................................................................................                  187
             9.1.1 Cadangan Energi Fosil dan Potensi Energi Terbarukan .............................................................................                                                 187
             9.1.2 Peran Minyak Bumi Dalam Penyediaan Energi Nasional ...........................................................................                                                    189
             9.1.3 Peran Energi Terbarukan Untuk Pembangkitan Listrik .........................................................................                                                      189
             9.1.4 Rasio Elektrifikasi Antar-Pulau Jawa dan Luar Pulau Jawa ...........................................................................                                              190
             9.1.5 Tekanan Energi Fosil Terhadap Lingkungan ..............................................................................................                                           191
         9.2 Tekanan .............................................................................................................................................................................   192
             9.2.1 Konsumsi Energi Final Relatif Tinggi di Indonesia .........................................................................................                                       192
             9.2.2 Harga Minyak Bumi Dunia dan Subsidi BBM .............................................................................................                                             193
             9.2.3 Konsumsi Energi dan Intensitas Energi di Indonesia .............................................................................                                                  194
             9.2.4 Rendahnya Investasi di Bidang Energi Terbarukan ................................................................................                                                  194
             9.2.5 Permintaan Energi Fosil Dunia Versus Kebutuhan Nasional ..................................................................                                                        195
         9.3 Respons .............................................................................................................................................................................   196
             9.3.1 Kebijakan Energi Nasional ............................................................................................................................                            197
                    9.3.1.1 Tujuan dan Sasaran Kebijakan Energi Nasional ..............................................................................                                              197
                    9.3.1.2 Kebijakan Utama ..............................................................................................................................                           197
             9.3.2 Effisiensi Penggunaan Energi ........................................................................................................................                             198
             9.3.3 Rencana Pembangunan Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Nuklir (PLTN) .....................................................                                                                 199
             9.3.4 Rencana Pembangunan PLTU B atu Bara 10.000 Megawatt ..........................................................................                                                    200
             9.3.5 Briket Batu Bara ..............................................................................................................................................                   203
             9.3.6 Pengembangan Energi Terbarukan ..............................................................................................................                                     207
                   9.3.6.1 Panas Bumi ........................................................................................................................................                       208
                   9.3.6.2 Energi Surya dan Energi Angin ..................................................................................................                                          209
                   9.3.6.3 Biofuel .........................................................................................................................                                         210
             9.3.7 Program Desa Mandiri Energi ......................................................................................................................                                214
             9.3.8 Transportasi Berkelanjutan dan Berwawasan Lingkungan ............................................................................                                                 215

Bab X           Limbah Padat Domestik, B3 dan Limbah B3 ................................................................................................ 218

         10.1 Limbah Padat Domestik ...............................................................................................................................................                  218
              10.1.1 Kondisi Umum Limbah Padat Domestik ...................................................................................................                                          218
              10.1.2 Permasalahan Umum Pengelolaan Limbah Padat Domestik ........................................................................                                                    223
                     10.1.2.1 Kondisi Darurat Sampah Kota Bandung .................................................................................                                                  225
                     10.1.2.2 Tragedi Longsornya TPA Bantar Gebang ..........................................................................................                                        225
              10.1.3 Upaya Mengatasi Permasalahan Limbah Padat Domestik ..............................................................................                                               226
                     10.1.3.1 RUU Pengelolaan Sampah ..............................................................................................................                                  226
                     10.1.3.2 Program Adipura ...............................................................................................................................                        227



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                                 10.1.3.3 Implementasi Program 3R ..............................................................................................................                                          231
                                 10.1.3.4 Pinjaman Lunak untuk Pengelolaan Sampah ............................................................................                                                            231
                     10.2 Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun serta Limbah B3 ......................................................................................................                                              231
                          10.2.1 Bahan Berbahaya Beracun ..............................................................................................................................                                   231
                                 10.2.1.1 Penggunaan dan Sumber B3 ..........................................................................................................                                             232
                                 10.2.1.2 Pemantauan Senyawa Persistent Organic Pollutants .....................................................................                                                          233
                          10.2.2 Limbah B3 .........................................................................................................................................................                      235
                                 10.2.2.1 Limbah B3 yang Dihasilkan dan Dikelola .....................................................................................                                                    235
                                 10.2.2.2 Notifikasi .............................................................................................................................................                        237
                                 10.2.2.4 Pemulihan Lingkungan Akibat Limbah B3 ...............................................................................                                                           242

       Bab XI                Lingkungan Permukiman ...................................................................................................................... 258

                     11.1 Pendahuluan .....................................................................................................................................................................               258
                          11.1.1 Permukiman, Kota, Manusia, dan Lingkungan ..........................................................................................                                                     258
                          11.1.2 Permukiman dan Perkotaan di Indonesia ....................................................................................................                                               259
                     11.2 Pola Perhubungan dan Persebaran Permukiman .....................................................................................................                                                260
                          11.2.1 Tekanan dan Kondisi yang Terjadi ............................................................................................................                                            260
                          11.2.2 Upaya Penanganan dan Pengendalian ..........................................................................................................                                             265
                     11.3 Tapak Ekologis Permukiman .......................................................................................................................................                               266
                          11.3.1 Sumber Daya Alam yang Disedot Kota .............................................................................................................                                         267
                                 11.3.1.1 Bahan Bangunan ................................................................................................................................                                 268
                                 11.3.1.2 Energi ...................................................................................................................................................                      269
                                 11.3.1.3 Air .........................................................................................................................................................                   271
                          11.3.2 Bentang Alam yang Diubah oleh Kota ...........................................................................................................                                           272
                          11.3.3 Limbah yang Dihasilkan oleh Kota .............................................................................................................                                           276
                                 11.3.3.1 Sampah .................................................................................................................................................                        276
                                 11.3.3.2 Limbah Cair .......................................................................................................................................                             277
                                 11.3.3.3 Polusi Udara/Gas Rumah Kaca .....................................................................................................                                               278
                     11.4 Dampak pada Manusia .................................................................................................................................................                           279
                          11.4.1 Akses pada Rumah yang Langka ................................................................................................................                                            280
                          11.4.2 Akses pada Air Bersih dan Sanitasi ................................................................................................................                                      284
                     11.5 Persoalan yang Sedang Tumbuh (Emerging Issues) .............................................................................................                                                    284
                     11.6 Penutup .............................................................................................................................................................................           287

       Bab XII               Agenda Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup ........................................................................................................ 290

                     12.1    Air ......................................................................................................................................................................................   290
                     12.2    Udara ..............................................................................................................................................................................         291
                     12.3    Atmosfer ...........................................................................................................................................................................         291
                     12.4    Lahan dan Hutan ..........................................................................................................................................................                   291
                     12.5    Pesisir dan Laut .............................................................................................................................................................               292
                     12.6    Keanekaragaman Hayati ...............................................................................................................................................                        292
                     12.7    Energi ...............................................................................................................................................................................       293
                     12.8    Limbah Padat Domestik, B3 dan Limbah B3 .......................................................................................................                                              293
                     12.9    Permukiman ..................................................................................................................................................................                294


       Daftar Pustaka ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 295




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Bab II Indonesia: Fisiografi,Geografi, Demografi

Gambar 2.1    Pola lempeng tektonik Indonesia........................................................................................................................     15
Gambar 2.2    Wilayah dengan aktivitas seismisitas tinggi di Indonesia..................................................................................                  15
Gambar 2.3    Lokasi utama gunung berapi aktif di Indonesia..............................................................................................                 16
Gambar 2.4    Laju pertumbuhan penduduk................................................................................................................................   18
Gambar 2.5    Keadaan geografi dan kepadatan penduduk Indonesia, 2005...........................................................................                          18

Bab III       Kebijakan Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Alam dan Lingkungan Hidup

Gambar 3.1    Alokasi anggaran fungsi lingkungan hidup tahun 2006 pada berbagai kementerian/lembaga........................                                               27

Bab IV        Air

Gambar 4.1    Persentase sampel air sungai di Sumatera yang memenuhi kriteria mutu air kelas II untuk paramater
              BOD dan COD tahun 2006...............................................................................................................................       43
Gambar 4.2    Persentase sampel air sungai di Jawa yang memenuhi kriteria mutu air kelas II untuk paramater
              BOD dan COD tahun 2006..........................................................................................................................            43
Gambar 4.3    Persentase sampel air sungai di Bali & Nusa Tenggara yang memenuhi kriteria mutu air
              kelas II untuk paramater BOD dan COD tahun 2006.......................................................................                                      43
Gambar 4.4    Persentase sampel air sungai di Kalimantan yang memenuhi kriteria mutu air kelas II
              untuk paramater BOD dan COD tahun 2006............................................................................                                          43
Gambar 4.5    Persentase sampel air sungai di Sulawesi yang memenuhi kriteria mutu air kelas II untuk
              paramater BOD dan COD tahun 2006.........................................................................................................                   43
Gambar 4.6    Persentase sampel air sungai di Maluku dan Papua yang memenuhi kriteria mutu
              air kelas II untuk paramater BOD dan COD tahun 2006.........................................................................                                43
Gambar 4.7    Persentase kebutuhan air minum penduduk menurut pulau-pulau besar tahun 2004....................................                                            44
Gambar 4.8    Kebutuhan air untuk tanaman pangan tahun 2000 - 2004..............................................................................                          44
Gambar 4.9    Persentase rumah tangga tanpa fasilitas tempat buang air besar menurut wilayah tahun 2004.......................                                            46
Gambar 4.10   Perkiraan jumlah pembuangan limbah domestik langsung ke lingkungan menurut wilayah tahun 2004...                                                            46
Gambar 4.11   Persentase ketaatan industri manufaktur dalam pencemaran air tahun 2006..................................................                                   51
Gambar 4.12   Persentase ketaatan industri jasa dalam pengendalian pencemaran air tahun 2006........................................                                      51
Gambar 4.13   Persentase ketaatan industri agro dalam pengendalian pencemaran air tahun 2006......................................                                        51

Bab V         Udara dan Atmosfer

Gambar 5.1    Hasil pemantauan AQMS tahun 2001 - 2006...................................................................................................                  55
Gambar 5.2    Konsentrasi NO2 di pemukiman.........................................................................................................................       58
Gambar 5.3    Konsentrasi SO2 di pemukiman............................................................................................................................    58
Gambar 5.4    Konsentrasi TSP di beberapa kota besar di Indonesia tahun 2006...................................................................                           58
Gambar 5.5    Konsentrasi Pb di beberapa kota besar di Indonesia tahun 2006................................................................                               58
Gambar 5.6    Konsentrasi Pb di beberapa kota besar di Pulau Jawa Tahun 2002-2006.......................................................                                  59
Gambar 5.7    Konsentrasi Pb di beberapa kota besar di luar Pulau Jawa Tahun 2002-2006..................................................                                  59
Gambar 5.8    Kecenderungan indeks aerosol di atas Indonesia selama 1979 - 2006..........................................................                                 60
Gambar 5.9    Indeks aerosol di atas Indonesia 1997.............................................................................................................          61
Gambar 5.10   Indeks aerosol rata–rata 1979 – 2005 di atas Indonesia..................................................................................                    61
Gambar 5.11   Konsentrasi harian 24 jam PM2.5 dan PM10 di Bandung 2002 – 2006.................................................................                            62
Gambar 5.12   Konsentrasi harian 24 jam PM2.5 dan PM10 di Lembang 2002 – 2006................................................................                             62



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    Gambar 5.13   Anomali suhu permukaan laut bulan Oktober 2006.........................................................................................                                64
    Gambar 5.14   Anomali curah hujan bulan Februari 2006.............................................................................................................                   65
    Gambar 5.15   Anomali curah hujan bulan Oktober 2006 yang merupakan puncak musim kemarau..................................                                                           66
    Gambar 5.16   Konsentrasi ozon total di empat kota...................................................................................................................                66
    Gambar 5.17   Kecenderungan ozon dan temperatur pada ketinggian 17-35 km di Watukosek tahun 1998-2005..............                                                                  66
    Gambar 5.18   pH rata-rata tahunan di Jakarta, Bandung, Kototabang dan Serpong.......................................................                                                67
    Gambar 5.19   Komposisi kimia air hujan di Jakarta, Bandung, Kototabang dan Serpong (2001-2006)..............................                                                        67
    Gambar 5.20   Distribusi frekuensi kandungan Pb.............................................................................................................                         71
    Gambar 5.21   Sebaran asap kebakaran di Kalimantan dari Citra Satelit NOAA-16 AVHRR Tanggal
                  4 November 2006.....................................................................................................................................................    73
    Gambar 5.22   Beban emisi di Jabodetabek tahun 1995 dan 2002...........................................................................................                               73
    Gambar 5.23   Persentase status penaatan industri manufaktur tahun 2006.............................................................................                                  75
    Gambar 5.24   Status penaatan industri manufaktur tahun 2006...............................................................................................                           75
    Gambar 5.25   Tingkat penaatan industri sektor pertambangan, energi, dan migas......................................................                                                  76
    Gambar 5.26   Persentase penaatan pengendalian pencemaran udara industri agroindustri tahun 2006...........................                                                           76
    Gambar 5.27   Status Penaatan Industri Agro Tahun 2006........................................................................................................                        76
    Gambar 5.28   Hasil uji petik emisi gas buang kendaraan bermotor..........................................................................................                            78
    Gambar 5.29   Pemantauan bahan bakar di 20 kota....................................................................................................................                   78
    Gambar 5.30   Pemantauan bahan bakar di 20 kota.....................................................................................................................                  78

    Bab VI        Lahan dan Hutan

    Gambar 6.1    Laju deforentasi di Indonesia periode 1982 sampai 2006........................................................................                                          93
    Gambar 6.2    Peta Lahan Berhutan Tahun 2005 Berdasarkan Interpretasi Citra Landsat 7ETM +.....................................                                                       93
    Gambar 6.3    Jumlah hotspot tahun 2005 dan 2006 di Pulau Sumatera dan Kalimantan......................................................                                               96
    Gambar 6.4    Jumlah hotspot tahun 2006 per Provinsi di Sumatera dan Kalimantan........................................................                                               96
    Gambar 6.5    Rencana dan realisasi pelaksanaan GNRHL tahun 2003-2007........................................................................                                        109
    Gambar 6.6    Pengelompokkan kabupaten dalam Program Menuju Indonesia Hijau..........................................................                                                110
    Gambar 6.7    Persebaran daerah kegiatan pemberdayaan masyarakat pedesaan dalam upaya rehabilitasi
                  lahan kritis dan kerusakan hutan tahun 2006................................................................................................                            115
    Gambar 6.8    Vonis kasus penebangan illegal tahun 2004-2006...............................................................................................                          120
    Gambar 6.9    Lama hukuman vonis kasus penebangan illegal tahun 2004-2006..................................................................                                          120

    Bab VII       Pesisir dan Laut

    Gambar 7.1    Perairan Indonesia.................................................................................................................................................    124
    Gambar 7.2    Distribusi ekosistem di wilayah Indo-Pasifik......................................................................................................                     126
    Gambar 7.3    Distribusi hutan mangrove di Indonesia.............................................................................................................                    131
    Gambar 7.4    Persentase jumlah pelabuhan perikanan menurut wilayah................................................................................                                  133
    Gambar 7.5    Persentase jumlah armada perikanan nasional tahun 2005...............................................................................                                  133
    Gambar 7.6    Persentase jumlah armada kapal perikanan menurut wilayah..........................................................................                                     134
    Gambar 7.7    Trendline produksi perikanan tangkap 2000-2006............................................................................................                             134
    Gambar 7.8    Perkembangan jumlah nelayan 2000-2006..........................................................................................................                        135

    Bab VIII      Keanekaragaman Hayati

    Gambar 8.1    Tingkat tekanan dan ancaman pada berbagai kawasan konservasi...............................................................                                            154
    Gambar 8.2    Daerah prioritas untuk konservasi keanekaragaman hayati di Sumatera........................................................                                            154
    Gambar 8.3    Rangkuman ekosistem di wilayah pesisir dan laut............................................................................................                            158
    Gambar 8.4    Sebaran orangutan di Sumatera............................................................................................................................              159
    Gambar 8.5    Peta sebaran orangutan di Kalimantan................................................................................................................                   160
    Gambar 8.6    Prediksi kerusakan hutan di Sumatera dan Kalimantan....................................................................................                                164



x         Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia 2006
                                                                                                                            DAFTAR GAMBAR



Gambar 8.7    Peta distribusi Acacia nilotica di Indonesia.......................................................................................................                    168
Gambar 8.8    Perbandingan anggaran pemerintah untuk sistem kawasan konservasi.............................................................                                          177
Gambar 8.9    Peta kawasan Heart of Borneo.............................................................................................................................              180

Bab IX        Energi

Gambar 9.1    Komposisi bauran energi (energy mix)................................................................................................................                   189
Gambar 9.2    Rasio penggunaan bahan bakar untuk pembangkit listrik di Indonesia.................................................................                                    189
Gambar 9.3    Rasio elektrifikasi dan konsumsi listrik per kapita..................................................................................................                  190
Gambar 9.4    Perbandingan rasio elektrifikasi Pulau Jawa dan luar Pulau Jawa.........................................................................                               190
Gambar 9.5    Emisi CO2 yang dihasilkan oleh sektor energi.........................................................................................................                  191
Gambar 9.6    Konsumsi energi final ..............................................................................................................................................   193
Gambar 9.7    Harga minyak bumi dunia (OPEC Basket Price)......................................................................................................                      193
Gambar 9.8    Intensitas energi dan energi per kapita..................................................................................................................              194
Gambar 9.9    APEC energy demand and supply outlook.............................................................................................................                     195
Gambar 9.10   Neraca ekspor nasional.............................................................................................................................................    196
Gambar 9.11   Sasaran bauran energi tahun 2025.............................................................................................................................          197
Gambar 9.12   Rencana pembangunan PLTN untuk jangka menengah.........................................................................................                                199
Gambar 9.13   Penyebaran suhu dari pembuangan air bahang oleh PLTU Suralaya...................................................................                                       202
Gambar 9.14   Produksi dan konsumsi briket batu bara.................................................................................................................                204
Gambar 9.15   Negara produsen ethanol dunia (2005)....................................................................................................................               211
Gambar 9.16   Produksi dan konsumsi gandum dunia....................................................................................................................                 212
Gambar 9.17   Potensi pengembangan komoditas penghasil bio energi di Indonesia...............................................................                                        213

Bab X         Limbah Padat Domestik, B3 dan Limbah B3

Gambar 10.1   Rata-rata kondisi TPA seluruh Indonesia akhir tahun 2006.........................................................................                                      219
Gambar 10.2   Sepuluh negara pengimpor terbesar tahun 2006....................................................................................................                       232
Gambar 10.3   Komposisi importasi B3 berdasarkan pelabuhan bongkar tahun 2006.........................................................                                               233
Gambar 10.4   Konsentrasi tertinggi senyawa POPs terdeteksi di air tahun 2006..............................................................                                          235
Gambar 10.5   Konsentrasi tertinggi senyawa POPs terdeteksi di tanah dan sedimen tahun 2006.........................................                                                 235
Gambar 10.6   Jumlah dan jenis perizinan yang telah dikeluarkan tahun 2006..........................................................................                                 242
Gambar 10.7   Sebaran SK MENLH berdasarkan provinsi............................................................................................................                      242

Bab XI        Lingkungan Permukiman

Gambar 11.1   Persentase penduduk kawasan perkotaan dan perdesaan di Indonesia............................................................. 260
Gambar 11.2   Tingkat konversi lahan pertanian menjadi non-pertanian.................................................................................... 273
Gambar 11.3   Model pertumbuhan bentuk fisik kota................................................................................................................. 274
Gambar 11.4   Urban sprawl di perbatasan Kota Yogyakarta – Kabupaten Sleman...................................................................... 274
Gambar 11.5   Persentase rumah tangga menurut cara pembuangan sampah........................................................................... 276
Gambar 11.6   Persentase rumah tangga menurut tempat penampungan air limbah/mandi/dapur/cuci............................. 278
Gambar 11.7   Luas kawasan kumuh di Indonesia............................................................................................................................. 281
Gambar 11.8   Peta kondisi dan kebutuhan rumah di Indonesia.................................................................................281




                                                                                              Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia 2006                                                 xi
                DAFTAR KOTAK

      Bab IV             Air

      Kotak 4.1          Klasifikasi Kelas Mutu Air .............................................................................................................................................       42

      Bab V              Udara dan Atmosfer

      Kotak 5.1          Pemantauan Kadar Pb dalam Rambut Pelajar ..................................................................................................................                    71
      Kotak 5.2          Reduksi Emisi melalui Program Wahana Tata Nugraha (WTN) ..........................................................................                                             81
      Kotak 5.3          Baku Mutu Emisi Ketel Uap Berbahan Bakar Biomassa ...........................................................................................                                  82
      Kotak 5.4          Baku Mutu Emisi Ketel Uap Berbahan Bakar Batu Bara, Minyak, dan Gas .........................................................                                                  83

      Bab VI             Lahan dan Hutan

      Kotak 6.1          Koperasi Mendapat Sertifikat Pengelolaan Hutan Berbasis Masyarakat Lestari .................................................... 106
      Kotak 6.2          Kayu Jati Konsel Bersertifikasi Ekolabel Internasional Pertama di Indonesia ........................................................ 107
      Kotak 6.3          Kerja Sama Pemerintah AS dan Indonesia, Siaran Pers Kedutaan Besar Amerika Serikat 17 November 2006 ... 121

      Bab VII            Pesisir dan Laut

      Kotak 7.1          Pembelajaran dari Lampung ..........................................................................................................................................          127
      Kotak 7.2          Pembelajaran dari Sulawesi Selatan ..............................................................................................................................             129
      Kotak 7.3          Potendi Energi Terbarukan ............................................................................................................................................        140

      Bab VIII Keanekaragaman Hayati

      Kotak 8.1          WWF Temukan Ular Bunglon di Sungai Kapuas Kalimantan ..................................................................................                                       163
      Kotak 8.2          Perburuan dan Perdagangan Kukang ..........................................................................................................................                   166
      Kotak 8.3          Repatriasi Orangutan ......................................................................................................................................................   171
      Kotak 8.4          Malinau Menuju Kabupaten Konservasi ....................................................................................................................                      182
      Kotak 8.5          Deklarasi Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Alam Terpadu di Taman Nasional Bukit Tigapuluh ........................................                                                     183

      Bab IX             Energi

      Kotak 9.1          Dampak Pembangunan PLTU 10.000 MW Terhadap Lingkungan .........................................................................                                               201
      Kotak 9.2          Proyek Panas Bumi Darajat Unit III Clean Development Mechanism ...................................................................                                            209

      Bab X              Limbah Padat Domestik, B3 dan Limbah B3

      Kotak 10.1 Pengelolaan Sampah di Kota Padang ............................................................................................................................. 224
      Kotak 10.2 Konvensi Basel ................................................................................................................................................................ 243
      Kotak 10.3 Limbah Elektronik ............................................................................................................................................................ 245

      Bab XI             Lingkungan Permukiman

      Kotak 11.1 Millenium Development Goals ...............................................................................................................................                           259
      Kotak 11.2         Beberapa Definisi Permukiman, Perkotaan dan Tapak Ekologis .......................................................................                                            261
      Kotak 11.3         Kriteria Penentuan Kawasan Perkotaan Menurut Badan Pusat Statistik .................................................................                                          262
      Kotak 11.4         Urbanisasi di Yogyakarta ................................................................................................................................................     273
      Kotak 11.5         Perkembangan Pola Bermukim di DKI Jakarta ......................................................................................................                              275



xii              Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia 2006
                                                                                                   DAFTAR TABEL


Bab II       Indonesia: Fisiografi,Geografi, Demografi

Tabel 2.1    Penduduk Menurut Provinsi, 2000-2005 (ribu) ...................................................................................................                                    17
Tabel 2.2    Kepadatan Penduduk Per km2 Menurut Provinsi ...................................................................................................                                    19

Bab III      Kebijakan Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Alam dan Lingkungan Hidup

Tabel 3.1    Penanganan Kasus Lingkungan Tahun 2002-2006 .................................................................................................                                      33

Bab IV       Air

Tabel 4.1    Persentase Stasiun dan Tingkat Curah Hujan Tahun 2006 ....................................................................................                                         39
Tabel 4.2    Potensi Volume Air Hujan di Indonesia Tahun 2006 .............................................................................................                                     39
Tabel 4.3    Potensi Cekungan Air Tanah di Indonesia ...............................................................................................................                            40
Tabel 4.4    Volume Air Beberapa Sungai (2004) .........................................................................................................................                        40
Tabel 4.5    Luas Areal Beberapa Danau di Indonesia ................................................................................................................                            40
Tabel 4.6    Status Mutu Air Beberapa Sungai di Indonesia ........................................................................................................                              41
Tabel 4.7    Persentase Rumah Tangga dan Sumber Air Minum, 2004 ......................................................................................                                          44
Tabel 4.8    Kebutuhan Air Minum Penduduk Tahun 2000 dan 2004 .....................................................................................                                             45
Tabel 4.9    Perkiraan Kebutuhan Air untuk Beberapa Produk Bahan Makanan ..................................................................                                                     46
Tabel 4.10   Kebutuhan Air untuk Tanaman Pangan (Miliar m3) Menurut Wilayah Tahun 2000 - 2004 .............................                                                                     47
Tabel 4.11   Jumlah Industri Besar dan Menengah yang Berpotensi Mencemari Air Permukaan dan Air Tanah
             Tahun 2001 - 2004 .......................................................................................................................................................          47
Tabel 4.12   Jumlah Industri Kecil yang Berpotensi Mencemari Air Permukaan dan Air Tanah Tahun 2001-2004 ..........                                                                             47
Tabel 4.13   Penggunaan Pupuk Anorganik dan Pestisida di Kolam Menurut Wilayah Tahun 2004 ...................................                                                                   47
Tabel 4.14   Luas Lahan Kritis Menurut Wilayah Tahun 2000 ..................................................................................................                                    48
Tabel 4.15   Rasio Volume Air Sungai dan Curah Hujan Tertampung di DAS/Sub-DAS Tahun 2004 ...............................                                                                       48
Tabel 4.16   Jumlah Industri Manufaktur Penandatangan Super menurut Provinsi Tahun 2003 - 2006 ...............................                                                                  49
Tabel 4.17   Jumlah Industri Agroindustri Peserta Prokasih menurut Provinsi Tahun 2006 ................................................                                                         49
Tabel 4.18   Jumlah Industri Agroindustri Peserta Prokasih yang Memenuhi Baku Mutu untuk Parameter BO
             Tahun 2006 .....................................................................................................................................................................   49

Bab V        Udara dan Atmosfer

Tabel 5.1    Rekapitulasi Data ISPU Berdasarkan Kategori Tahun 2006 ................................................................................                                            55
Tabel 5.2    Nilai Maksimum Harian Tertinggi untuk Parameter Pm10 .....................................................................................                                         56
Tabel 5.3    Nilai Maksimum Harian Tertinggi untuk Parameter So2 .........................................................................................                                      56
Tabel 5.4    Resume Konsentrasi Massa PM2.5 dan PM10 di Bandung dan Lembang .............................................................                                                       62
Tabel 5.5    Emisi CO2 Sektor Energi ..........................................................................................................................................                 63
Tabel 5.6    Perkiraan Penduduk yang Direlokasi .......................................................................................................................                         72
Tabel 5.7    Konsumsi Bahan Bakar Tahun 2001-2005 ...............................................................................................................                               74
Tabel 5.8    Beban Emisi di Cekungan Bandung ..........................................................................................................................                         74
Tabel 5.9    Hasil Uji Petik untuk Industri Gula ...........................................................................................................................                    82
Tabel 5.10   Hasil Uji Petik untuk Industri Minyak Sawit ............................................................................................................                           82
Tabel 5.11   Bahan Bakar Sistem Utilitas Industri Tekstil di Cekungan Bandung ..................................................................                                                83
Tabel 5.12   Baku Mutu Emisi Ketel Uap Berdasarkan Jenis Bahan Bakar ............................................................................                                               83




                                                                                                     Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia 2006                                                     xiii
      DAFTAR TABEL


      Bab VI        Lahan dan Hutan

      Tabel 6.1     Penutupan Lahan Berhutan Tahun 2005 Per Provinsi (Berdasarkan Interpretasi Citra Landsat
                    7 ETM +) .....................................................................................................................................................................    93
      Tabel 6.2     Luas dan Sebaran Lahan Kritis (Sangat Kritis Dan Kritis) Tahun 2000 dan 2004 ..........................................                                                           94
      Tabel 6.3    Perubahan DAS Prioritas Antara Tahun 1994/1995 -- 1998/1999 dan 1999/2000--2004 ..............................                                                                     95
      Tabel 6.4     Pasokan Kayu Illegal dan Legal Tahun 2003-2006 ..................................................................................................                                 97
      Tabel 6.5     Penebangan Ilegal Per Provinsi Tahun 2005 ............................................................................................................                            97
      Tabel 6.6     Luasan Perambahan Hutan Per Provinsi Tahun 2005 .......................................................................................                                           98
      Tabel 6.7     Perubahan Penggunaan Lahan Sawah Per Provinsi Selama Agustus 1999-Agustus 2002 (Hektar) ..............                                                                            99
      Tabel 6.8     Pemetaan Lahan Sawah Berdasarkan Boleh Tidaknya Dikonversi untuk Penggunaan Lain ...........................                                                                     102
      Tabel 6.9     Perkembangan Status 13 Perusahaan Tambang di Dalam Kawasan Hutan Lindung Sampai Juni 2007 ........                                                                               103
      Tabel 6.10    Pencetakan Sawah Per Provinsi Tahun 2006 ...........................................................................................................                             104
      Tabel 6.11    Pengembangan Konservasi Lahan Terpadu Tahun 2006 ......................................................................................                                          104
      Tabel 6.12    Hasil Penilaian Kinerja PHAPL 103 UM untuk Sertifikasi Tahun 2002-2006 ..................................................                                                        104
      Tabel 6.13    Jumlah HPH dan Luasan yang Telah Mendapat Sertifikasi Tahun 2006 ...........................................................                                                     105
      Tabel 6.14    Unit Manajemen Hutan di Indonesia yang Mendapatkan Sertifikasi Sukarela Tahun 2001-2006 ....................                                                                     105
      Tabel 6.15    Quota Tebangan Tahun 2005-2006 .........................................................................................................................                         108
      Tabel 6.16    Output Kegiatan Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Pedesaan Dalam Upaya Rehabilitasi Lahan Kritis dan
                    Kerusakan Hutan Tahun 2006 ..................................................................................................................................                    114
      Tabel 6.17    Rekapitulasi Penanganan Kasus Pidana Kebakaran Lahan dan Hutan ................................................................                                                  115
      Tabel 6.18    Vonis Kasus Illegal Logging Tahun 2004-2006 ......................................................................................................                               119

      Bab VII       Pesisir dan Laut

      Tabel 7.1     Luas Terumbu Karang dan Panjang Garis Pantai Berdasarkan Data Penginderaan Jauh ................................                                                                 125
      Tabel 7.2     Proyeksi Produksi Perikanan Nasional Tahun 2006-2009 (Dalam Ribu Ton) .....................................................                                                      128
      Tabel 7.3     Jumlah Armada Kapal Perikanan Nasional Tahun 2005 .......................................................................................                                        132
      Tabel 7.4     Perkembangan Alat Tangkap di Wilayah Indonesia Bagian Barat ........................................................................                                             134
      Tabel 7.5     Perkembangan Alat Tangkap di Wilayah Indonesia BagianTimur .......................................................................                                               135
      Tabel 7.6     Daftar 92 Pulau Kecil Terluar di Kawasan Perbatasan Maritim Indonesia .........................................................                                                  141

      Bab VIII      Keanekaragaman Hayati

      Tabel 8.1     Daerah Prioritas untuk Konservasi Keanekaragaman Hayati di Sumatera ...........................................................                                                  155
      Tabel 8.2     Wilayah Kritis Kehati Laut di Indonesia ..................................................................................................................                       156
      Tabel 8.3     Jumlah Satwa dan Tumbuhan yang Dilindungi Sampai Desember 2005 .............................................................                                                     158
      Tabel 8.4     Perkembangan Nilai Eksport Tumbuhan dan Satwa...............................................................................................                                     159
      Tabel 8.5     Jumlah Spesies Tanaman dan Pemanfaatannya ..........................................................................................................                             162
      Tabel 8.6     Pemanfaatan Bioprospesi di Berbagai Sektor ........................................................................................................                              164
      Tabel 8.7     Jumlah Primata yang Diperdagangkan ....................................................................................................................                          167
      Tabel 8.8     Perdagangan Kukang di Pasar Burung di Jawa dan Bali Periode Tahun 2000-2006 ...........................................                                                          167
      Tabel 8.9     Perkembangan Kawasan Konservasi .......................................................................................................................                          173
      Tabel 8.10    Sebaran Kawasan Konservasi Daratan di Indonesia ..............................................................................................                                   174
      Tabel 8.11    Sebaran Kawasan Konservasi Laut di Indonesia ....................................................................................................                                175
      Tabel 8.12    Rekapitulasi Luas Kawasan Konservasi Laut di Indonesia ...................................................................................                                       176
      Tabel 8.13    Perbandingan Anggaran Pemerintah untuk Sistem Kawasan Konservasi ..........................................................                                                      176
      Tabel 8.14    Jumlah Penangkaran Satwa dan Tumbuhan ..............................................................................................................                             178


      Bab IX        Energi

      Tabel 9.1     Posisi Energi Fosil Utama di Indonesia (2005) ....................................................................................................... 187
      Tabel 9.2     Potensi Energi Terbarukan di Indonesia ................................................................................................................ 188



xiv          Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia 2006
                                                                                                                                       DAFTAR TABEL


Tabel 9.3     Target dan Realisasi Subsidi BBM dan Tarif Dasar Listrik ....................................................................................                              194
Tabel 9.4     Potensi Efisiensi Energi per Sektor ........................................................................................................................               198
Tabel 9.5     Prediksi Emisi Gas Buang yang Disebabkan oleh Pembangunan Pembangkit Listrik Batu Bara 10.000 MW .....                                                                     201
Tabel 9.6     Perbandingan Briket Dengan Minyak Tanah dan LPG .........................................................................................                                  205
Tabel 9.7     Hasil Pengukuran Emisi Gas Buang dan Partikulat Diukur dari Awal Penyalaan Sampai Briket Habis
              Terbakar (Fase Preheating + Combustion) .............................................................................................................                      206
Tabel 9.8     Hasil Pengukuran Emisi Kompor untuk Parameter Partikulat dan Logam ......................................................                                                  206
Tabel 9.9     Hasil Uji Toksikologi Limbah Abu Dasar (Bottom Ash) Pembakaran Briket Batu Bara .................................                                                          207
Tabel 9.10    Potensi Panas Bumi .....................................................................................................................................................   208
Tabel 9.11    Tahapan Kerja Pengembangan Biofuel Berdasarkan 2006-2010 .......................................................................                                           215
Tabel 9.12    Target Luas Area Tanaman Bahan Bakar Nabati dan Kebutuhan Pupuk Urea ..................................................                                                    213
Tabel 9.13    Target Pengembangan Desa Mandiri Energi ..........................................................................................................                         214

Bab X         Limbah Padat Domestik, B3 dan Limbah B3

Tabel 10.1    Rata-Rata Timbulan Sampah di Kota Metropolitan di Indonesia Tahun 2005 dan 2006 ..................................                                                         218
Tabel 10.2    Rata-Rata Timbulan Sampah di Kota Besar di Indonesia Tahun 2005 dan 2006 ............................................                                                      219
Tabel 10.3    Nilai Kondisi TPA di Indonesia Berdasarkan Penilaian Adipura Tahun 2006 ...................................................                                                219
Tabel 10.4    Perkembangan Jumlah Kota Peserta Program Adipura ........................................................................................                                  227
Tabel 10.5    Hasil Valuasi dan Pemeringkatan Kota Adipura Tahun 2006 Kategori Kota Metropolitan ...........................                                                             227
Tabel 10.6    Hasil Valuasi dan Pemeringkatan Kota Adipura Tahun 2006 Kategori Kota Besar .........................................                                                      227
Tabel 10.7    Hasil Valuasi dan Pemeringkatan Kota Adipura Tahun 2006 Kategori Kota Sedang ......................................                                                        228
Tabel 10.8    Hasil Valuasi dan Pemeringkatan Kota Adipura Tahun 2006 Kategori Kota Kecil ...........................................                                                    228
Tabel 10.9    Penggunaan B3 pada Kegiatan Pertambangan 2006 ..............................................................................................                               232
Tabel 10.10   Sepuluh Importasi Terbesar Tahun 2006 Berdasarkan HS Code 6 Digit ............................................................                                             233
Tabel 10.11   Daftar B3 yang Telah Diregistrasi dan Asal Negaranya .........................................................................................                             234
Tabel 10.12   Limbah B3 pada Kegiatan Pertambangan Tahun 2006 .........................................................................................                                  236
Tabel 10.13   Limbah Pelumas Bekas yang Dikumpulkan oleh PT WGI dan PT Agip ............................................................                                                 236
Tabel 10.14   Neraca Limbah B3 untuk Peserta Proper Tahun 2006 ..........................................................................................                                237
Tabel 10.15   Jenis dan Jumlah Limbah B3 Pada Industri Dasar Periode 2006 ........................................................................                                       238
Tabel 10.16   Neraca Limbah B3 Industri Kimia Tahun 2006 .....................................................................................................                           238
Tabel 10.17   Neraca Limbah B3 Agroindustri untuk Setiap Jenis Limbah B3 ..........................................................................                                      239
Tabel 10.18   Neraca Limbah B3 Kegiatan Pertambangan, Energi dan Migas ..........................................................................                                        240
Tabel 10.19   Jenis dan Jumlah Limbah B3 yang Dimanfaatkan Tahun 2005-2006 ..................................................................                                            240
Tabel 10.20   Jenis Limbah B3 dan Negara Tujuan Ekspor ..........................................................................................................                        241
Tabel 10.21   Hasil Pengawasan E-Waste Oleh KNLH ..................................................................................................................                      245


Bab XI        Lingkungan Permukiman

Tabel 11.1    Variabel, Klasifikasi, Skor dan Kriteria *) Desa Perkotaan Tahun 2000 ..............................................................                                       242
Tabel 11.2    Sebaran Penduduk Berdasarkan Provinsi ................................................................................................................                     264
Tabel 11.3    Persentase Penduduk dan Laju Pertumbuhan Penduduk Perkotaan dan Total 1990 – 2000 ..........................                                                               264
Tabel 11.4    Persebaran 12 Kota Terbesar di Indonesia ............................................................................................................                      265
Tabel 11.5    Pengeluaran Rata-rata Per Kapita Sebulan (2005) ..................................................................................................                         267
Tabel 11.6    Nilai Pengeluaran Sektor Konstruksi untuk Bahan Bangunan .............................................................................                                     268
Tabel 11.7    Jumlah Kendaraan Bermotor Berdasarkan Jenis Kendaraan (2002 – 2004) .......................................................                                                270
Tabel 11.8    Penduduk Perkotaan di D.I. Yogyakarta ..................................................................................................................                   273
Tabel 11.9    Jumlah Desa yang Memiliki Keluarga yang Tinggal di Bantaran Sungai, di Bawah Jaringan Listrik
              Tegangan Tinggi, dan Permukiman Kumuh (2005) ...............................................................................................                               280
Tabel 11.10   Persentase Rumah Tangga dengan Akses Pada Sumber Air Minum yang Bersih .............................................                                                       284
Tabel 11.11   Angka KLB Diare Nasional Tahun 2000 - 2004 ................................................................................................                                285




                                                                                                  Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia 2006                                                 xv

								
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