The HACCP system by broverya73

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									The HACCP system
            Eric Cardinale
               Cirad-Emvt
        The need for HACCP
• Foodborne diseases are widespread
  public health problem
• Sweden          7%    National survey
• Netherlands     15%   Sentinel study
• New Zealand     9%    National survey
• UK               7%   National survey
• Canada          8%    Estimation
• USA             10%   Estimation
                           Incidence of infectious enteritis
                            and typhoid fever in Germany


                           250,000                         Infectious enteritis
Number of reported cases




                           200,000

                           150,000

                           100,000
                                      Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers
                            50,000

                                0
                                 1946 1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991

                                                         Years
             Increased incidence of
           foodborne diseases in UK
           Laboratory reports of gastrointestinal infections in
                          England and Wales
 50
      *
 45
 40
                                                        Campylobacters
 35
                                                        Salmonellae
 30
                                                        Rotavirus
 25
 20                                                     Shigellae
 15                                                     Giardia
 10                                                     Cryptosporidia
  5
  0
      80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95
* x 1000
     New food technologies and
       processing methods

• Need for predicting potential health risk
  associated with
    new technologies and their application
    consequences due to inappropriate
     handling during preparation
    Increased awareness of
the economic consequences of
      foodborne diseases
    medical care costs
    loss of productivity
    loss of food
    reduced food trade
    decrease in tourism
      Increase in the number
        of vulnerable people
elderly
immunocompromised individuals
pregnant women
infants and young children
undernourished individuals
                Urbanisation

• A longer and more                          Agricultural production

  complex food chain;
                                             Processing & manufacturing



• thus greater                                Transport & distribution

• opportunities for
• food contamination         Food service &
                                 catering
                                                Household food           Street food
                                                                          vending
                                                 preparation
                             establishments                              operations


                       Transport & serving
                                                  Consumption
      Increased tourism and
 international trade in foodstuffs

• increase in travel - related
      foodborne diseases

• foodborne disease outbreaks
      due to contaminated foods
      Increased consumer
    awareness of food safety

education
media
consumer organizations
     Objectives of application of the
            HACCP system

              Prevention of foodborne illness
              Prevention of foodborne illness



                         More efficient
                         More efficient         Reduction of
                                                Reduction of
Reduction of costs
Reduction of costs
 of food analyses      quality assurance
                       quality assurance        losses due to
                                                 losses due to
 of food analyses                               product recall
                             system
                             system              product recall



                     Protection of reputation
                     Protection of reputation
Principles of the HACCP system
HACCP concept
 Identification of potential food safety
 problems
 Determination of how and where these
 can be prevented
 Description of what to do and training of
 the personnel
 Implementation and recording
    HACCP principles
• 1. Conduct a hazard analysis
• 2. Determine the CCPs
• 3. Establish critical limit(s)
• 4. Establish a monitoring system
• 5. Establish corrective actions
• 6. Establish verification procedures
• 7. Establish documentation
          HAZARD

A biological, chemical or physical
 agent in, or condition of, food
        with the potential
to cause an adverse health effect

      Codex Alimentarius, 1997
Examples of agents
      • Bacteria
       • Viruses
       • Moulds
      • Parasites
       • Toxins
     • Chemicals
   • Foreign material
              Examples of
          adverse health effects
• Acute illness :     choking
                      vomiting
                      abdominal cramps
                      diarrhoea
                      nausea
                      fever

• Chronic illness :   chronic infections
                      damage of various
                      organs
                      cancer
• Death
        Acceptable levels
 • Not all levels (or sizes) of all agents
   are harmful to all individuals under
              all conditions

• Agents (contaminants) are acceptable
     as long as their levels remain
      below a certain maximum
  Increase or decrease in level
• If an agent is present in a food at a

  – low, acceptable, level, its increase to an
  unacceptable level should be prevented

  – high, unacceptable, level, its reduction to
    an acceptable level should be assured
         Hazard control

Prevention of contamination
Prevention of increase in level
Assurance of adequate reduction
Prevention of recontamination
Prevention of dissemination (spread)
      Critical limit
• A criterion which separates

      acceptability ☺
           from
     unacceptability

   Codex Alimentarius, 1997
Microbiological process control
          • Having control over
                conditions
            which may lead to
              unacceptable
        or growth, survival, spread
              contamination
    with / of undesirable microorganism
 Example of processing for safety
Pasteurization

 Safety assured by adequate heating time
 & temperature
 Reliance on monitoring to detect
 deviations
 Timely adjustments and corrective actions
           Critical Control Point
• A step in the food chain where activities are carried out,
  or conditions prevail which can have an influence on the
  safety of the product, and where
               control can be exercised over
                  one or more factors to
         prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard
            or reduce it to an acceptable level
         Monitoring
• Checking, by testing, measuring
     or observing, whether a
   Critical Control Point (CCP)
         is under control
       Verification
• Checking the implementation

     and effectiveness

    of the HACCP system
            Factors contributing to
              foodborne illness
• Contamination    - Unclean equipment
                   - Raw materials
                   - Insects / rodents
                   - Aerosols / condensation
                   - Infected handlers

• Survival        - Inadequate cooking / reheating

• Growth          - Insufficient cooling / hot
  holding
      HACCP
• A structured application

    of the basic rules

of preventing foodborne

        diseases
         Prevention of foodborne
                diseases
• Prevent, eliminate or reduce

•   unacceptable
•   growth
•   survival      of         pathogens
•   spread
•   contamination with
 Controlling growth of microbes
Needed for growth   Control measure

• Nutrients         Clean surfaces
                    Dry surfaces
• Water
                    Food kept hot or
• Temperature       cold
• Time              Short holding time
Survival depends on

    • Temperature

       • Time

      • Quantity

       • Food
  Hamburger case
 • E. coli inside the meat
    Short time heating
   Fat protected the bug

      • E. coli survived,
Illness and death in children
   Claims up to $ 13 million
         Codex HACCP principles
•   1.   Conduct a hazard analysis
•   2.   Determine the CCPs
•   3.   Establish critical limit(s)
•   4.   Establish a monitoring system
•   5.   Establish corrective actions
•   6.   Establish verification procedures
•   7.   Establish documentation
Raw material




    Milk
Potential hazards




         Salmonella
         Campylobacter
Control measure




                  Heating
Critical Control Point




             Boiling in pan
Critical limit




         Foam formation
Monitoring




Observation of foaming
    Verification




Observation of foam residues
    Verification




Observation of foam residues
    Effectiveness of HACCP

          • Shared responsibility :
Farmers       Manufacturers      Consumers
                  Key messages

• Safe food is obtained by applying HACCP
•   "from farm to fork"
• Hazards are all kinds of agents when present at
    unacceptable levels
• Control means "having things under control"
• Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and Good
  Hygienic Practice (GHP) are the basis of HACCP
• Anticipating hazards is the key to their prevention
HACCP system and its application
HACCP can ( should ) be applied from the
primary producer to the final consumer

HACCP enhances food safety, makes better use
of resources, enables more timely response to
problems

HACCP can aid official inspection and promote
international trade by increasing confidence in
food safety
             Codex Alimentarius 1995
     Codex HACCP
principles and guidelines
     • The “Principles”
      set the basis for
 the minimum requirements
for the application of HACCP,
     • The “Guidelines”
  provide general guidance
         Codex HACCP principles
•   1.   Conduct a hazard analysis
•   2.   Determine the CCPs
•   3.   Establish critical limit(s)
•   4.   Establish a monitoring system
•   5.   Establish corrective actions
•   6.   Establish verification procedures
•   7.   Establish documentation
    How to do HACCP (1)

HACCP study

HACCP plan

Training the personnel

Implementation of the plan

Verifying and improving
     How to do HACCP (2)

Commitment of management
Training in HACCP
Resources expertise, equipment, etc.
     Codex HACCP guidelines
• 1. Assemble HACCP team
• 2. Describe product
• 3. Identify intended use
• 4. Construct flow diagram
• 5. Confirm on-site flow diagram
• 6. List all potential hazards, conduct a hazard
  analysis and consider control measures
• 7 - 12. Apply principles 2 - 7
 (1) Assemble HACCP team
Obtain top management commitment
Appoint a leader and a secretary
Assure participation of experts in QA,
        microbiology, chemistry, food
technology
Assure co-operation of other experts
Define scope of the study
Set priorities
        (2) Describe product
  Formulation and composition
•       Raw materials & ingredients
•       Parameters influencing safety
  Processing
  Packaging
  Distribution
   (3) Identify intended use
Food service establishments
Caterers
Hospitals
General population
Specific groups of the population
Preparation practices
Exportation
   (4) Construct flow diagram
• Cover all steps which might have an
  influence on the safety of the product

 Include important data such as time &
 temperature

 Indicate hygiene level of areas and
 barriers
      (5) On - site confirmation
           of flow diagram
Check correctness of information
Check whether important information was not overlooked
Check during all periods of operation and cleaning, but
also during idle hours
Discuss practices with operators Check correctness of
information
Check whether important information was not overlooked
Check during all periods of operation and cleaning, but
also during idle hours
Discuss practices with operators
 • (6) List all hazards
  associated with each
           step,
    conduct a Hazard
        Analysis,
consider any measures
   to control identified
         hazards
When to perform a Hazard Analysis
 during product development
 during industrialization of new product
 when new hazards emerge
 when new raw materials are used
 when formulation or use is changed
 when equipment is changed
 with new (layout of) production area
                     • etc.
        (7) Determine CCPs
• Critical Control Points (CCPs)
             • can be related to :

 Raw materials,
 Locations,
 Processes,
 Procedures,
 Practices,
 Product formulations etc.
     Critical Control Point

• A step at which control is essential

       to prevent or eliminate

        a food safety hazard

  or reduce it to an acceptable level
             Step

• A point, procedure, operation or

     stage in the food chain,

     including raw materials,

      from primary production

        to final consumption
       (8) Establish critical limits
             for each CCP
              • Critical limits can be :

• Values of : pH, aw, temperature, time
• Maximum residue limits
• Maximum levels (of contaminants)
• Limits in microbiological criteria
• Level of cleanliness
• Levels of chlorine, overpressure etc.
(9) Establish a monitoring system
            for each CCP

the method or equipment to be used

the moment and / or frequency of checking

the interpretation of the results and the
actions to be taken
(10) Establish corrective actions

   • Corrective actions should ensure

        that only safe products

          reach the consumer
(11) Establish verification
       procedures
   • Verification procedures

    are intended to check

       the effectiveness

    of the HACCP system
 (12) Establish record keeping
      and documentation
Minutes of HACCP study meetings, decisions
made and their reasons
Records of monitoring
Records of verification
Records of deviations and corrective actions
Records of modifications to the HACCP plan
           HACCP plan
• A document prepared in accordance with
        the principles of HACCP
     to ensure control over hazards
   which are significant for food safety
     in a segment of the food chain
                    HACCP data sheet
 Raw              Control     CCP     Critical Target Monitoring Corrective
          Hazards
Materials         Measures Parameters Limits Values Procedures Actions




Process             Control     CCP     Critical Target Monitoring Corrective
          Hazards
 step               Measures Parameters Limits Values Procedures Actions
               Key messages
  The HACCP system consists of 7 Principles
  The Codex terminology should be used to
      prevent misunderstanding
  The Guidelines provide an optional framework for
•   HACCP studies
  Hazard Analysis should be performed when significant
  changes are made
  Records should be kept to demonstrate
     correctness of application and implementation
Hazard and CCP Analysis
• The process of collecting and evaluating
          information on hazards
 and conditions leading to their presence
           to decide which are
        significant for food safety
        and should be addressed
           in the HACCP plan
         (Codex Alimentarius 1997)
HACCP Decision Tree Questions for
each hazard and each raw material

  Q 1. Could the raw material contain the
  Q 1. Could the raw material contain the
       hazard at dangerous levels?
       hazard at dangerous levels?               NO
YES
                                                 Not a
                                                 Not a
      Q 2. Will further processing // handling
      Q 2. Will further processing handling      CCP
                                                  CCP
           (including correct consumer use)
            (including correct consumer use)
           remove the hazard or reduce it
            remove the hazard or reduce it
           to a safe level?
            to a safe level?                      NO
      YES


  Not a CCP
  Not a CCP
                                                 CCP
             HACCP Decision Tree
           Questions for each hazard
           and each process step (1)

Q 3. Is the formulation // composition of the
Q 3. Is the formulation composition of the
     intermediate or final product essential to
      intermediate or final product essential to
     prevent unacceptable increase of the hazard?
      prevent unacceptable increase of the hazard?
          YES                                  NO


                                            Not a CCP
                                            Not a CCP
      Formulation or
      composition is
          CCP
              HACCP Decision Tree
            Questions for each hazard
            and each process step (2)

  Q 4. Is (re)contamination probable?
   Q 4. Is (re)contamination probable?
        Is increase of the hazard probable?
         Is increase of the hazard probable?   NO
  YES
  YES


                                             Go to Q6
                                             Go to Q6
  Q 5. Will further processing // handling
  Q 5. Will further processing handling
       (including correct consumer use)
        (including correct consumer use)
       remove the hazard?
        remove the hazard?                    NO
  YES
  YES


Not a CCP
Not a CCP                                    CCP
          HACCP Decision Tree
        Questions for each hazard
        and each process step (3)

Q 4. Is (re)contamination probable?
 Q 4. Is (re)contamination probable?
      Is increase of the hazard probable?
       Is increase of the hazard probable?
NO
NO                                           YES


                                         Go to Q5
                                         Go to Q5
 Q 6. Is the process step intended to eliminate
 Q 6. Is the process step intended to eliminate
      or reduce the hazard to safe levels?
       or reduce the hazard to safe levels? NO
YES
YES                                             NO


                                             Not a CCP
                                             Not a CCP
CCP
    Normally, foods produced
      under GMP are safe
• When foodborne diseases occurred,
this was due to deviations from GMP,
            or incidents
    that were not detected in time
           Key messages
Hazard analysis should be done in a systematic
manner, to prevent hazards from being
overlooked
CCPs may be identified with the help of decision
trees
Existing lines normally produce safe products,
based on GMP, deviations from normality have
to be prevented
Hazards associated with changes must be
anticipated and controlled

								
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