Nuclear Medicine History

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					Nuclear Medicine History

    Haim Golan MD, MSc
      Nuclear Medicine
     Hasharon Hospital
        Petach-Tikva
         Radioactivity

• 1896 - Radioactivity was discovered
  in uranium salts by the French
  physicist Henri Becquerel.

• 1898 - The French scientists Marie
  and Pierre Curie discovered the
  naturally occurring radioactive
  elements polonium and radium.
             Radioactivity
• 1 march 1896 –
 Radioactivity was
 discovered in uranium
 salts by the French
 physicist:

• Henri Antoine
  Becquerel
Antoine Henri Becquerel
       1852-1908
Marie Curie
     Marie Curie.
     Originally Marja Sklodowska.
     1867-1934
     Polish-born French chemist.
     She shared a 1903 Nobel Prize
     with her husband, Pierre
     Curie (1859-1906), and Henri
     Becquerel for fundamental
     research on radioactivity.
     In 1911 she won a second
     Nobel Prize for her discovery
     and study of radium and
     polonium.
1883 -
Marie Curie
at 16
 1904
Marie and
 Pierre
 Curie
 1921
Marie Curie

in her lab.
1921
1904 – Content of a purse taken by Marie Curie using a radium source
1904 – Hand radiograph with 10 mg radium, 6 hr exposure.
            ‫רדיואקטיביות‬
‫• חומר הפולט קרינה מהגרעין נקרא‬
             ‫חומר ראדיואקטיבי.‬
           ‫• האטום הפולט קרינה‬
 ‫ראדיואקטיבית יכול להפוך ליסוד‬
  ‫אחר או לאיזוטופ אחר של אותו‬
                          ‫יסוד.‬
   ‫• הגרעין לפני ההתפרקות נקרא‬
‫גרעין אב, ואחרי ההתפרקות נקרא‬
                      ‫גרעין בת.‬
              Radiation Biology




1901 – Pierre Curie, self inflicted radium burn
Irene Curie and Frederic Joliot
     Artificial Radioisotopes

• During the 1930s, Irene and Frederick
  Joliot-Curie made the first artificial
  radioactive nuclides by bombarding boron
  (5B) and aluminum (13Al) with α particles to
  form radioactive isotopes of nitrogen (7N)
  and phosphorus (15P). Naturally occurring
  isotopes of these elements are stable.
              Radiotherapy




1910 – Radium therapy
             Radiotracers
  • 1912 - George von Hevesy introduced
              the tracer principle.
• 1923 - George von Hevesy elucidate the
    principle of the dynamic state of body
                  constituents.
• 1925 - Herman Blumgart measured with
 Radon solution the velocity of circulation.
       Nuclear Medicine

• 1939 - Ernest O. Lawrence won the
  Nobel Prize in physics for the invention
  of the cyclotron.
• 1943 - George von Hevesy won the
  Nobel Prize in chemistry for developing
  the use of radioactive trace elements
  in chemical and biological research.
   Radioactivity Detectors

• 1928 - The Geiger-Muller counter
  was developed.
• 1947 - The scintillation counter
  was introduced.
• 1950 - Benedict Cassen invented
  the rectilinear scanner.
Rectilinear Scanner
1950
Thyroid
 scan
1973
1980 - Renograme
           ENIAC Computer *
• 1946 - The world's first truly electronic digital
   computer, the ENIAC computer, went into service
   at the University of Pennsylvania.
• It contained 18,000 vacuum tubes, and had a
   speed of several hundred multiplications per
   minute.
• John Vincent Atanasoff - developed certain
   basic techniques later used in the design of
   ENIAC.
* - Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer
    *UNIVAC-I Computer
       (*Universal Automatic Computer)
   1951 - First commercial computer
    The Gamma Camera

• 1958 - Hal O. Anger invented the
    scintillation gamma camera.
        Hal O. Hanger
•1958
The Gamma Camera
Computerization
                SPECT
 Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography


• 1963 - David E. Kuhl and Roy Q.
  Edwards invented Tomography.
• 1967 - Hal Anger introduced the
  rotating gamma camera.
• 1971 - David A. Chesler introduced
  the “Filtered Backprojection
  Technique” for tomographic image
  reconstruction.