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									History of Psychology
        Pre-empiricism (<1800)
• Philosophy-psychology
   – Plato (387 BC) – brain is seat
     of mental processes
   – Aristotle (335 BC) – children
     are born tabula rasa; heart is
     the seat of mental processes
   – Descartes (1637) – dualism;      • 1774 – Franz
     children are born with innate      Mesmer develops
     ideas                              “mesmerism”, a
   – Locke (1690) – supported           predecessor of
     tabula rasa idea; stressed the     hypnosis.
     importance of empiricism
    Early empirical influences on
      psychology (1800-1879)
            Young (1802) – trichromatic theory of vision
                  Franz Gall (1808) – phrenology
                Weber (1834) – difference threshold
         Phineas Gage (1848) – case study in brain function
        Darwin (1859) – Proposed theory of natural selection
Galton (1869) – Claims that intelligence of inherited; begins eugenics
            Wernicke (1874) – language comprehension;

                   ***Wundt (1879) – established
                   first psychology laboratory
  Late 1800’s: The debate to define
Structuralism (Wundt) –
   psychology should be the
   study of the basic units of
   thought; its structure, so to
   - subjects were trained for
   years to learn to break down
   their thoughts and perceptions
   into basic units; this was called
Functionalism (James) –
   psychology should be the
   study of how mental processes
   help us to adapt, survive, and      Wundt   James
            Who won?
            Early Battles in Psychology
                     in the US
The first quarter of the 20th century, psychology
    was dominated by three major, competing
    movements: Psychoanalysis, behaviorism,
    and eugenics

Freudian psychoanalysis vs. Watson’s
    - Freud’s ideas were based on case studies
    and self analysis.
    - Watson’s emphasized the necessity of
    empirical research to bring credibility to the
    young science of psychology.

Nature (eugenics movement) vs. Nurture
    (Watson’s behaviorism)
    - Eugenics Record Office was opened in
    1910 and began advocating forced
    sterilization; Terman developed Stanford-
    Binet test (1916); was modified for WWI
    army recruits and immigrants.
    - Watson (1920) demonstrated the
    malleability of human behavior with his Little
    Albert experiment.
    Psychology Expands(1920-1950)
•   Alder (1912) – neoFreudian; proposes
    inferiority and superiority complex
•   Piaget (1923) – cognitive development in
•   Anna Freud (1927) – psychoanalysis of
•   Kohler (1929) – Gestalt psychology as a
    criticism of behavioralism
•   Moniz (1936) – Frontal lobotomy
•   Allport (1936) – proposes trait theory
•   Skinner (1938) – Operant conditioning
•   Weschler (1939) – develops (WAIS)
•   Hathaway and McKinley (1943) – publish
•   Horney (1945) – neoFreudian; criticizes
    Freud’s theories for being sexist
•   Spock (1948) – publishes first edition of The
    Commonsense Book of Baby and Child Care
     Rejection of determinism; the
       beginning of humanism
 Psychoanalysis             Behaviorism was:
 was:                          -Deterministic

• Humanism (Maslow and Rogers) began in the
  1960’s as a reaction to these things. Humanism
   – The good in people
   – Self-actualization
   – Optimism
• Maslow was a hero of the counterculture
  movement of the 1960’s
      Embracing our thoughts: The
       rebirth of consciousness
Cognitive psychology was also
    a reaction to dissatisfaction
    with determinism,
    pessimism, dehumanization
    of earlier schools of thought.
It coincided with the
    development of brain
    imaging techniques (CAT
    scan, EEG, MRI) that
    allowed scientists to “see”
    into the brain.
  Atrocities of war make us think
Social psychology
  developed out of
  Gestalt psychology.
Atrocities of WWII
  provided the ideas for
  many early
  experiments (Lewin’s
  leadership styles,
  Milgram’s obedience,
  Asch’s conformity)
            Recent Movements
1. Evolutionary psychology –
   the study of how current
   behaviors are shaped by
   selection in past

2. Positive psychology –
  using empiricism to find
  what makes people
  happy, healthy, and
                              Psychoanalysis (Freud, Jung, Adler, Horney)

                              Behaviorism      (Thorndike, Pavlov, Watson, Skinner, Bandura)

                                                     Humanistic               Positive
                                                     (Maslow, Rogers)      Psych (Seligman)

                                                        Cognitive Psych        (Bandura, Beck)

                                                                    Evolutionary Psych

                          Gestalt Psychology             Social Psychology           (Asch,
                                                                Zimbardo, Milgram)

                  Functionalism     (James)

       Stucturalism (Wundt)

1850           1900                           1950                          2000

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