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					MillenniumYear® Your Success, Our Strength ™

Third Edition

Rohit Birla

MillenniumYear® Your Success, Our Strength ™

   

Tested by Programmers Suggested by Educators Written by me Helped by friends

Revised: 1. Dec 2007 2. Sep 2009

Your Success, Our Strength™

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: Note from Author  MillenniumYear® is working from 6th April, 2003 and producing integrated solutions of projects, programs, books, notes, guides etc.  All material given here is either copied or taken from some else and given in simple way. We have tried to cover all syllabus.  It is not the responsibility of MillenniumYear® that these notes cover all your requirements. For any +/- ve points, reader will be responsible.  No material regarding these notes will be reproduced.  Before giving any Xerox copy of these notes, make sure that you have given title page, also available, note from author, preface, bibliography, content pages. Without these pages, it is illegal to give those pages as Xerox copy.  In these notes, We have used ™ which stands for “tera-mera”, © which stands for “copied” and ® which stands for “by rohit”. However all symbols used regarding MillenniumYear®, are somewhat registered under MillenniumYearExtension® and can’t be used.  For further information contact me at rohitbirla_rb@yahoo.com

Rohit Birla 15 December 2007 6:09:10 PM

Making a book is a bear of undertaking, not only for the person who created it but also for those around him or those who have to use this book. Mere words can‘t do justice to the effect these people have had on me, either through technical assistance or moral support. Still, words are all I have. This book is derived from its previous editions. Who help me in my previous edition includes Mr. Ravinder kajal and Mr. Manoj Rana, lecturers in department of computer science in Maharaja Surjamal Institute. I am thankful to them for their dedication and attention towards the book. This book would not have been possible without the work of several other people. Firstly, I want to thanks Mr. Vikas Polowalia, who give me idea of writing this integrated solution. Many friends and colleagues have contributed greatly to the quality of this book. I thank all of you for your help and constructive criticisms. My thanks go to - Mr. Vikas Polowalia who help me in typing and in finding other topics - MSI‘s laboratory of computer science - Mrs. Krishna Devi (mother) who motivate and care me while I was working for this book. - Mr. Nishant Kohli for their practical works. Grateful acknowledgement is extended to all the people who make this book possible with their enthusiastic and encouragement. I am grateful for the support given to me by my friends for supporting and motivating me to write this book efficiently and effectively. They have provided an environment that has helped me develop my self-confidence and generously given me the resources needed to make this book. I really appreciate your support. For once words fail me. I have no idea what I could say that would be appropriate for all the times you all have been there throughout the years. ―Thank you‖ seems pitifully inadequate, but it‘s all I have.

Rohit Kumar 12/25/2007 11:28:29 AM

This book provides an integrated solution for Linux environment. I have tried to write it in simple language which is easily understandable by all the students. I wrote this book as a text for an introductory course in Linux Programming at the junior or undergraduate level. This book work as text book and more correctly you can refer it as notes for your syllabus. Now to get marks is no more difficult if you complete this book. To teacher: This book is designed to be both versatile and complete. You will find it very useful and interesting while reading and teaching from this book. The problems given in this book will sharpen your mind. To students: I home that this textbook/ notes provide you with an enjoyable introduction to the field of Linux. Before starting reading, you must have some knowledge of C. To professional: the wide range of topics in this book makes it very useful and excellent handbook. Because each unit is relatively self contained, you can focus in on the topics that most interest you. Most of the part can be practically implemented and can be seen in Linux kernel. To colleagues: I have supplied an extensive bibliography and pointers to the current literature. This book ends with model test papers and MYLinuxEntrance (T&P). Despite myriad requests from students for solutions to problems and exercises, we have chosen as a matter of policy not to supply references for problems and exercises, to remove the temptation for students to look up a solution rather than to find it themselves.

1. Operating System Principles by Abraham Silberschatz,… 2. Linux Kernel Programming by M. Beck, … 3. Beginning Linux Programming by Neil Methew, … 4. Fedora 6 Bible by Christopher Negus 5. http://www.systhread.net 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki 7. http://www.lynuxworks.com/products/posix 8. HAL by Bill Weinberg 9. http://www.computerhope.com 10. http://lowfatlinux.com 11. http://schemas.microsoft.com/intellisense 12. Memory management by Zhihua (Scott) Jiang 13. http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-9-Manual 14. http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/library/l-linuxboot/index.html 15. http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialInitProcess.html 16. http://www.faqs.org/docs/kernel_2_4/lki-1.html 17. http://oldfield.wattle.id.au/luv/boot.html 18. http://kernel.org 19. http://www.beunited.org/bebook/The%20Kernel%20Kit 20. Named pipes by Faisal Faruqui 21. http://www.fedora.com 22. http://www.2000trainers.com/linux/linux-process-manage 23. uick_Ref/Linux_Syscall_quickref.pdf+linux+system+calls&hl=en&ct=clnk& cd=1&gl=in 24. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/is/unix/ee.htm 25. http://www.panix.com/~elflord/linux/editors/index.html 26. http://www.cs.rit.edu/~cslab/vi.html and many more . . .

Unit1: Overview of Unix - History - Advantages + Disadvantages - Kernel + Shell - Multi-user + time sharing system - Internal and external commands - Help - Files Unit2: Overview of Linux - History - Features - Advantages - Distributions - Unix vs. Linux - Pattern matching + Basic commands - Overview of commands Unit3: Working with Linux - Architecture - Editors - Process management - System calls - Shell Scripts - System administration Unit4: Linux for crammers - Data Structure in kernel - Memory management o Arch. Independent memory model o Virtual address space o Block devices + Caching o Paging under Linux - File system representation - Proc - Ext2

Unit5: Linux in four pages - Multiprocessing - Debugging - Modules Unit6: Linux for programmers - IPC o Synchronization in kernel o Files o Pipes o System V IPC o Socket o Ptrace Unit7: Linux for burning oils - HAL - POSIX - Different types of kernels - Booting up of Linux - Compiling Kernel Unix8: Linux for self testers - Model Test Paper1 - Model Test Paper2 - Model Test Paper3 Unit9: Linux for competitors - MYLinuxEntrance2007 Unit10 : Extras
Note: we have tried to give best of contents including surrounding factors. But it’s not responsibility of Author for any +/- ve points. Read “Note from Author”.

Unit1: History of Unix: - Unix started as a single user OS. - In 1969, Ken Thomson with Denis Ritchie and other wrote a general purpose OS for small machines. It attracted a large number of users and then it is developed to be multi-user OS. - In 1973, Thompson and Ritchie rewrote the Unix OS in C, breaking away from the tradition of writing Os in assembly. - Around 1974, Unix was licensed to universities for educational purposes and few years later was made commercial available. - It is interesting to note that MS DOS was created much later than Unix. By that time industry has begun to accept Unix as standard OX. - Many vendors such as IBM, SUN, HP and others purchased the code of Unix and develop their own versions of Unix. o IBM use AIX o SUN use SOLARIS o DEC use ULTRIX o HP use HP-UNIX - To avoid confusion, some standards were laid down, known as POSIX ( Portable Operating System Interface) (for Unix Environment). POSIX was a set pf Standards that enables soft wares to run on different Unix based OS without change to source code. - There are many features which are same to that of Linux. - In 1984, the BSD (Berkeley Software Distributions) group ported Unix on their VAX machines. They implemented certain improvements over the original Unix and created BSD versions of Unix. - Improvements of BSD versions were: o Support for virtual memory o Demand paging o A new shell (CSH) o TCP/IP network protocols  The services like remote login, file transfer and e mail are possible due to the TCP/IP network protocol supported by Unix.  Unix is still the most preferred OS for networking.

Advantages of Unix: - Unix is more secure than other OS. It allows only authorised users to modify files and directories. - It does not infect from viruses. - Stable: It can stay up for several years without any problem. - Multi-user OS - Can be loaded on any type of computer system - Multi tasking OS: you can work with multiple programs simultaneously. Disadvantages of Unix: - Slightly difficult to install and configure - Difficult to learn for windows users of PC - Windows soft wares MS office, Internet explorer etc. are not available in Unix however their replacements are available. eg: Word Perfect and Netscape Navigator. Unix Architecture:

App. Programs and utilities.
shell kernel

Kernel: The kernel is the core of OS. This is loaded in RAM as soon as the system starts up. It manages memory, files, and peripheral devices and also maintains date and time. The different functions performed by kernel are: - Managing memory: Allocation and de-allocation of memory - Scheduling: Enabling each user to work efficiently - Organizing data transfer between I/O devices and memory - Accept the instructions from shell and execute them - Enforce the security measures.

Shell: Shell is a program which interprets commands given by user. These commands can be given in two ways: either typed or in a file called shell script. A variety of shells supported by Unix are: Bourne shell, Korn shell, C shell. Features of Shell: - communication between user and Unix system takes place through the shell - Shell allows background processing - A sequence of commands can be collected in a file called shell script. The name of the file can be used to execute the sequence of commands automatically. - Shell includes features like loop and conditional constructs. - Input of one command can be taken from the output of another command or output of one command can be diverted to the input of a file or printer. Two commands can be combined using pipe operator. Multi User: Unix is a multi-user OS. Each user has a different terminal. A terminal consists of keyboard and a monitor and is connected to main computer known as host computer. A host consists of hard disks, memory, processor and printer etc. these resources are accessible to all the users. Time Sharing System: In time sharing system, CPU time is divided among all the users. Unix works on the concept of time sharing system. Each user‘s program is allocated a short period of CPU time, one by one. This short period of CPU time is called Time Slice/ time slot or quantum. It may be of 10-20 ms. In time sharing environment, CPU switches from one user to another so rapidly that each user has the illusion that he alone is using the computer. eg: let us assume that the time slice for a time sharing system is 10 ms that is in one cycle each user gets 10 ms to execute its task. Command Line and Command Syntax: A command in Unix is a series of characters. These characters consist of words separated by white spaces. The first work is the command itself and the rest are the command‘s argument. Unix commands are case-sensitive. ie: cd is different from Cd or CD. Type all your commands in lower case. Commands are issued to the shell at the command line. A command line comprises commands, the line of instructions, optiosn and any command-line argument that you provide. eg: a command line $man cp. Commands are entered at the shell prompt ($,#). Prompt is merely a symbol that appears at the start of a command line. Prompt means Unix is ready and waiting for your command. Note: a command line may have more than one command separated by semicolons(;). Pipes(|) or ampersands(&).

Internal and External Commands: Internal commands are such programs that are built-in into the OS and reside in the memory along with the kernel. They are loaded in the memory at the time of booting. eg: cp, mv, rmdir, ls etc. all are internal commands. External commands are not built-in into the OS but loaded from other program files which resides on HDD/Floppy. They are loaded as and when required. Help: To seek help on a command, we use $ man <command name> eg: $man cp A manual page will be displayed on the screen, with a lot of information such as commands used, its syntax, switches/options available, examples etc.

File System: - All information in Unix is treated as a file - A single disk can store thousand of file. - To manage these files, OS provides a file system. - Similar files can be grouped in a directory. - The file system of Unix is the main key to success of Unix system. File Type in Unix: Everything in Unix is treated as a file. eg: it treats I/O devices as files. There are three types of files in Unix. a) Ordinary files: All files created by user are called ordinary/regular files. It includes data file, program file, object file and executable file. b) Directory files: For each directory, there is a file by same name as the directory which contains information about files under that directory. eg: for the directory abc, there will be a directory file called ―abc‖. This file contains the information on all the files and sub-directories under the directory abc. Some main points about this are: a. It is automatically created by Unix, whenever a directory is created. b. A directory file contains 2 fields- name of file and identification number(inode) c. Cannot be modified by the user. Only change is done by Unix when a old file is deleted or new file is created. c) Device files: Each I/O device is associated with a special file called device file. Any combination to I/O device is done through device file. Text and Binary files: A text file is a file that consists of text characters. A text file can be read by any editor or word processor. A binary file is a program or data file that contains binary information in a machine readable form rather than in a human readable form. Structure of File System: It follows tree or hierarchical directory structure. It starts with root directory. It is represented by forward slash(/). In Unix forward slash is used as a separator. Nore that windows or DOS use backslash(\) as a separator. Under the root directory, there are several system and home directory. Brief descriptions of these are given here: 1. /bin: contains binary file, executable program files. In his directory we can find the files for Unix commands. It is same as command.com file in DOS 2. /dev: This directory contains the device files. eg: printer file is known as prn, HDD file is had. It‘s first partition is hda0 3. /etc: This directory contains all the configuration information of the system. 4. /lib: contains the library files. It contains the reusable functions and routines for the programmers to use. 5. /tmp:This directory contains all the temporary informatoins same as c:\windows\temp\ directory in windows.

6. /mnt: This contains the directories where other mounted file system reside like floppy, CD, other partitions of HDD. 7. /usr: This directory contains the home directories of the users. There is one home directory for each user. 8. /kernel: This directory contains all the kernel specific code. File naming conventions: 1. filename can be up to 255 characters long. 2. may or may not have extensions. 3. can contains alphabets, digits, dots(.), hyphen(-), underscore(_) any where. 4. can have any no. of dots. eg: a.b.c 5. can contain both upper and lower case characters 6. file names are case-sensitive 7. should not have a blank space or tab.


Unit2: History of Linux: - Linus Torvald, a student at the University of Helsinki, Finland introduced Linux in 1991 - Torvalds worked on Linux project and wrote the source code of Linux kernel. He made Linux available on net. - Many programmers added to the code, change it and built in support for all kind of hardware. - There are several versions of Linux available for different hardware platforms. o Linux version 0.02 of Linux kernel was released in 1991 - Torvalds and hundreds of developers from across the world worked on it and in march 1994, version 1.0 of Linux kernel was released. o Red Har Linux 6.0 uses version 2.25 of all the Linux kernel - Linux is Unix clone and has been written from scratch by Torvalds. Torvalds was working in minix, a miniature version of Unix which was used for teaching purposes in universities and colleges. - Linux follows the open development model. Torvalds made the source code available for study and changes over the internet. (and still is) - Torvalds accepts modification to the kernel code. The result is that whenever a new version of Linux having new functionality was released, people work on it to fix the bug if any. - To assess whether they are using some version, the following scheme is mage eg: version 1.x.y if x is even it signifies stable version else changes to be done very soon it‘s not stable. Main Features of Linux: 1. Multitasking: Linux support true preemptive multitasking. All the processes run entirely independent of each other. No process needs to be concerned with making processor time available to other processes. 2. Multi-user: Linux allows a number of users to work with the system at the same time. 3. Multiprocessing: From version 2.0 upwards, Linux also run on multiprocessor architectures. This means that the OS can distribute several applications across several processors 4. Architecture Independence: Linux run on almost all the platforms that are able to process bit and bytes. The supported hardware, from embedded systems to IBM mainframes, is sufficient. This kind of hardware independence is not achieved by any other serious OS. 5. Demand load executables: Only those parts of a program actually required for execution are loaded into memory. 6. Shared Libraries: Linux introduced the concept of shared libraries. Those libraries which are used by almost all the programs are put in shared libraries which when required are used from that place. 7. Support for POSIX: Linux support all of the POSIX standards.

8. Various executable formats: Linux supports various executable formats like .out was old extensions which were supported by Linux and now ELF also supported by Linux and for .exe files there are Dos Emulator. 9. Different File System: This is that point which makes Linux much popular over other all OS. Linux supports 13 different file systems (NTFS, vfat, FAT16, FAT32, DOS, ext2, proc, swap …) by help of a virtual file system namely VFS. 10. Cron Scheduler: Linux has a scheduler program, called Cron scheduler. It is used to run commands, shell scripts or programs at scheduled time. 11. Office suits 12. Data archiving utilities: Linux provides utilities for basic data backup such as tar, cpio and dd. Red Hat 5.0 onwards also provide a Backup and Restore Unit (BRU), which can be purchased. BRU offers automated backup and scheduling. 13. Licensing: Linux is copyright under GNU general public license. This licensing for Red Hat Linux states that a person can make any number of copies of software‘s and distributes it freely or charge a price for it. One can freely download Linux from internet for use. Advantages of Linux: 1. Reliability: Linux is stable OS. Linux servers are not shut down for years together. This means that users on Linux OS work consistently without reporting OS failure. 2. Backward compatibility: Linux has an excellent support for older hardware. It can run on different type of processors not just intel 386/ 486 but also on DEC‘s alpha, sun sparc machine, power PC etc. 3. GUI interface: The graphical interface for Linux is X windows system. It is devided into 2 subsystem consisting of server and client. Linux has a number of graphical user interfaces called Desktop Environments such as K Desktop Environment and GNU Object Model Environment, both of which are versions of X windows system. a. When we start KDE, desktop is organized into folder such as auto start, CDROM, printer and floppy drive in form of icons b. GNOME can be configured in the way you want to use it. It supports the drag and drop mechanism. Gnome follows the common client request bnker architecture (CORBA) standards to allow different software to communicate easily. 4. Excellent Security features: It support high security that is why many ISP (internet service providers) are replacing their current OS with Linux system. 5. Development libraries: Linux provides an excellent platform for many development languages like c++, c, Perl, java, PHP and many more. 6. Can support high user load: Linux can support a large number of users working simultaneously. 7. No known viruses: Linux is free from any viruses attacks so far, there are no known viruses for Linux. 8. Multiple Distributors: there are many distributors of Linux

9. Simple upgrade: the installation procedure of most Linux version is menu driven and easy. It includes the ability to upgrade from prior version. The upgrade process preserves the existing configuration files and maintains a list of its actions during installation. Multiple Distributions: To install Linux, the user requires a distribution. This consists of a boot diskette and other diskettes or a CD-ROM. Installation scripts enable even in experienced users to install systems that can be run. It helps that many software packages are already adapted to Linux and appropriately configures: this saves a lot of time. Discussions are constantly taking place with in Linux community on the quality of various distribution of this sort is a very lengthy and complex task. Internationally, the RedHat, S.u.S.E, Debian and slackware distributions are widely used. Which of these distributions is used is a matter of taste. Distributions can be obtained from FTP servers, e-mail systems, public domains distributors and some bookshops. Sources of supply can be found by consulting specialist magazines or the Linux newsgroup in usenet. Unix vs. Linux:  Unix is costly while Linux is freely available  Source of Linux is available while source of Unix is not available  Linux supports all of the network topologies while Unix support only star topology  Linux can run on different platforms while for different hardware there are different versions of Unix.  Linux is GUI while Unix is CUI  Linux is paged system while Unix is swap system.  Linux can support 78 GB and 2 GB RAM while Unix can support 2 GB and 512 MB.  More shells are available under Linux  Linux support development libraries, scripting languages but Unix not. Pattern Matching: 1. ls a.??? 2. ls a*.* 3. ls a[1 2 4] 4. ls a[1-5] 5. ls a[!1-5] What are these what are their functions and why they are used? Try these on system and find difference or you may ask any teacher of Linux. For further information regarding these put these points in Google search.

Basic Commands: These commands are executed on a terminal ( main menu > system tools > terminal) $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ useradd : to add a new user adduser: to add a new user passwd: to change the password passwd rohit and press enter it will change the password of user rohit by asking you the new password. passwd and press enter it will change the password of root/administrator by asking you the new and confirm password exit: to exit the terminal cat filename: to display the contents of a file cat > filename: create a file and to save press ctrl + d cat firstfilename secondfilename : to display content of both files. Firstly first file followed by second file cat Ifile > IIfile : it will copy the content of first file into second file cat Ifile >> IIfile: it will append the contents of first file into second file cat >.filename: it will create the hidden file ls: to see the list of files under current directory ls –l: to see the long details with descriptions as permissions, users ls –a: to see all files hidden and normal ls –x: to see files in multicolumn ls –Fx: F is used for identifying directories and executable files. * for files ad / for folders. ls [mv]?r* : to list files that begin with m or w following any one characters, then r and then any string. cat a*>b : to send all files starting with a to b bc: basic calculator. 12+5 and press enter, it will show 17. you can use multiple expressions separated by semicolon

Overview of commands: access() Used to check the accessibility of files int Access(pathname, access_mode) Char* pathname; int access-mode; The access modes are. 04 read 02 write 01 execute (search) 00 checks existence of a file & operator execute a command as a background process. banner prints the specified string in large letters. Each argument may be upto 10 characters long. break is used to break out of a loop. It does not exit from the program. Cal Produces a calender of the current month as standard output. The month (1-12) and year (1-9999) must be specified in full numeric format. Cal [[ month] year] Calendar Displays contents of the calendar file case operator The case operator is used to validate multiple conditions. Case $string in Pattern 1) Command list;; Command list;; Pattern 3) Command list;; easc cat (for concatenate) command is used to display the contents of a file. Used without arguments it takes input from standard input <Dtrl d> is used to terminate input. cat [filename(s)] cat > [filename] Data can be appended to a file using >> Some of the available options are : Cat [-options] filename(S)

-s silent about files that cannot be accessed -v enables display of non printinging characters (except tabs, new lines, formfeeds) -t when used with -v, it causes tabs to be printed as ^I‘s -e when used with -v, it causes $ to be printed at the end of each line The -t and -e options are ignored if the -v options is not specified. cd Used to change directories chgrp Changes the group that owns a file. Chgrp [grou -id] [filename] chmod Allows file permissions to be changed for each user. File permissions can be changed only by the owner (s). Chmod [+/-][rwx] [ugo] [filename] chown Used to change the owner of a file. The command takes a file(s) as source files and the login id of another user as the target. Chown [user-id] [filename] cmp The cmp command compares two files (text or binary) byte-by-byte and displays the first occurrence where the files differ. Cmp [filename1] [filename2] -1 gives a long listing comm. The comm command compares two sorted files and displays the instances that are common. The display is separated into 3 columns. Comm. filename1 filename2 first displays what occurs in first files but not in the second second displays what occurs in second file but not in first third displays what is common in both files continue statement The rest of the commands in the loop are ignored. It moves out of the loop and moves on the next cycle. cp The cp (copy) command is used to copy a file. Cp [filename1] [filename2] cpio(copy input/output) Utility program used to take backups. Cpio operates in three modes: -o output -i input -p pass

creat() the system call creates a new file or prepares to rewrite an existing file. The file pointer is set to the beginning of file. #include<sys/tyes.h> #include<sys/stat.h> int creat(path, mode) char *path; int mode; cut used to cut out parts of a file. It takes filenames as command line arguments or input from standard input. The command can cut columns as well as fields in a file. It however does not delete the selected parts of the file. Cut [-ef] [column/fie,d] filename Cut-d ―:‖ -f1,2,3 filename Where -d indicates a delimiter specified within ―:‖ df used to find the number of free blocks available for all the mounted file systems. #/etc/df [filesystem] diff the diff command compares text files. It gives an index of all the lines that differ in the two files along with the line numbers. It also displays what needs to be changed. Diff filename1 filename2 echo The echo command echoes arguments on the command line. echo [arguments] env Displays the permanent environment variables associated with a user‘s login id exit command Used to stop the execution of a shell script. expr command Expr (command) command is used for numeric computation. The operators + (add), -(subtract), *(multiplu), /(divide), (remainder) are allowed. Calculation are performed in order of normal numeric precedence. find The find command searches through directories for files that match the specified criteria. It can take full pathnames and relative pathnames on the command line. To display the output on screen the -print option must be specified for operator The for operator may be used in looping constructs where there is repetitive execution of a section of the shell program. For var in vall val2 val3 val4; Do commnds; done

fsck Used to check the file system and repair damaged files. The command takes a device name as an argument # /etc/fsck /dev/file-system-to-be-checked. grave operator Used to store the standard the output of a command in an enviroment variable. (‗) grep The grep (global regular expression and print) command can be used as a filter to search for strings in files. The pattern may be either a fixed character string or a regular expression. Grep ―string‖ filename(s) HOME User‘s home directory if operator The if operator allows conditional operator If expression; then commands; fi if … then…else… fi $ if; then commands efile; then commands fi kill used to stop background processes In used to link files. A duplicate of a file is created with another name LOGNAME displays user‘s login name ls Lists the files in the current directory Some of the available options are: -l gives a long listing -a displays all file{including hidden files lp used to print data on the line printer. Lp [options] filename(s) mesg The mesg command controls messages received on a terminal. -n does not allow messages to be displayed on screen -y allows messages to be displayed on screen

mkdir used to create directories more The more command is used to dispay data one screenful at a time. More [filename] mv Mv (move) moves a file from one directory to another or simply changes filenames. The command takes filename and pathnames as source names and a filename or exiting directory as target names. mv [source-file] [target-file] news The news command allows a user to read news items published by the system administrator. ni Displays the contents of a file with line numbers passwd Changes the password paste The paste command joins lines from two files and displays the output. It can take a number of filenames as command line arguments. paste file1 file2 PATH The directories that the system searches to find commands pg Used to display data one page (screenful) at a time. The command can take a number of filenames as arguments. Pg [option] [filename] [filename2]….. pipe Operator (1) takes the output of one commands as input of another command. ps Gives information about all the active processes. PS1 The system prompt pwd (print working directory) displays the current directory. rm The rm (remove) command is used to delete files from a directory. A number of files may be deleted simultaneously. A file(s) once deleted cannot be retrieved. rm [filename 1] [filename 2]…

sift command Using shift $1becomes the source string and other arguments are shifted. $2 is shifted to $1,$3to $2 and so on. Sleep The sleep command is used to suspend the execution of a shell script for the specified time. This is usually in seconds. sort Sort is a utility program that can be used to sort text files in numeric or alphabetical order Sort [filename] split Used to split large file into smaller files Split-n filename Split can take a second filename on the command line. su Used to switch to superuser or any other user. sync Used to copy data in buffers to files system0 Used to run a UNIX command from within a C program tail The tail command may be used to view the end of a file. Tail [filename] tar Used to save and restore files to tapes or other removable media. Tar [function[modifier]] [filename(s)] tee output that is being redirected to a file can also be viewed on standard output. test command It compares strings and numeric values. The test command has two forms : test command itself If test ${variable} = value then Do commands else do commands File The test commands also uses special operators [ ]. These are operators following the of are interpreted by the shell as different from wildcard characters. Of [ -f ${variable} ] Then Do commands Elif [ -d ${variable} ] then do commands

else do commands fi many different tests are possible for files. Comparing numbers, character strings, values of environment variables. time Used to display the execution time of a program or a command. Time is reported in seconds. Time filename values

tr The tr command is used to translate characters. tr [-option] [string1 [string2]] tty Displays the terminal pathname umask Used to specify default permissions while creating files. uniq The uniq command is used to display the uniq(ue) lines in a sorted file. Sort filename uniq until The operator executes the commands within a loop as long as the test condition is false. wall Used to send a message to all users logged in. # /etc/wall message wait the command halts the execution of a script until all child processes, executed as background processes, are completed. wc The wc command can be used to count the number of lines, words and characters in a fine. wc [filename(s)] The available options are: wc -[options] [filename] -1 -w -c while operator the while operator repeatedly performs an operation until the test condition proves false. $ while Ø do

commands Ø done who displays information about all the users currently logged onto the system. The user name, terminal number and the date and time that each user logged onto the system. The syntax of the who command is who [options] write The write command allows inter-user communication. A user can send messages by addressing the other user‘s terminal or login id. write user-name [terminal number]

Linux architecture: Kernel: The core of Linux system is the kernel – the OS program. Kernel controls the resources of computer, allot them to different users and tasks. It interacts directly with h/w so making programs easy to write and portable across the different platforms hardware. Since kernel communicates directly with hardware, the part of kernel must be customized to the h/w features of each system. However kernel does not deal directly with user. Instead, the login process starts up a separate interactive program called shell for each user. Shell: Linux has a simple user interface b/w user and kernel called shell that has a power to provide the service that a user wants. It protects the user from having to now the intricate h/w details. Linux utilities and application programs: Linux utilizes or commands are a collection of programs that service day to day processing requirements. These programs are invoked through the shell which is itself another utility. Apart from utilities provided as a part of Linux OS, more that a thousand Linux based application programs like DBMS, word processor and various other programs are available from independent software vendors.

Vi editor: General Startup To use vi: vi filename To exit vi and save changes: ZZ or :wq To exit vi without saving changes: :q! To enter vi command mode: [esc] Counts A number preceding any vi command tells vi to repeat that command that many times. Cursor Movement h j k l move left (backspace) move down move up move right (spacebar)

[return] move to the beginning of the next line $ 0 ^ w W b B e E H M last column on the current line move cursor to the first column on the current line move cursor to first nonblank column on the current line move to the beginning of the next word or punctuation mark move past the next space move to the beginning of the previous word or punctuation mark move to the beginning of the previous word, ignores punctuation end of next word or punctuation mark end of next word, ignoring punctuation move cursor to the top of the screen move cursor to the middle of the screen


move cursor to the bottom of the screen

Screen Movement G xG z+ z z^F ^B ^D ^U ^R ^L move to the last line in the file move to line x move current line to top of screen move current line to the middle of screen move current line to the bottom of screen move forward one screen move backward one line move forward one half screen move backward one half screen redraw screen redraw screen ( does not work with VT100 type terminals ) ( does not work with Televideo terminals )

Inserting r R i a A O replace character under cursor with next character typed keep replacing character until [esc] is hit insert before cursor append after cursor append at end of line open line above cursor and enter append mode

Deleting x dd dw db delete character under cursor delete line under cursor delete word under cursor delete word before cursor

Copying Code yy (yank)'copies' line which may then be put by the p(put) command. Precede with a count for multiple lines.

Put Command brings back previous deletion or yank of lines, words, or characters P p bring back before cursor bring back after cursor

Find Commands ? / f F t before it T find a character on the current line going backward and stop one character before it ; repeat last f, F, t, T finds a word going backwards finds a word going forwards finds a character on the line under the cursor going forward finds a character on the line under the cursor going backwards find a character on the current line going forward and stop one character

Miscellaneous Commands . u U xp J ^G % mx 'x repeat last command undoes last command issued undoes all commands on one line deletes first character and inserts after join current line with the next line display current line number if at one parenthesis, will jump to its mate mark current line with character x find line marked with character x second (swap)

NOTE: Marks are internal and not written to the file. Line editor mode Any commands form the line editor ex can be issued upon entering line mode. To enter: type ':' To exit: press[return] or [esc] Reading files copies (reads) filename after cursor in file currently editing :r filename Write file


saves the current file without quitting

Moving :# :$ move to line # move to last line of file

Starting ee To edit a file simply type ee followed by the filename at your Unix prompt, for example:
ee mytext

If a file of that name exists, the start of the file is then displayed on the screen, otherwise an empty file of that name is created. Full details of the ee command can be seen by typing
man ee

at your Unix prompt. Text and Commands Unlike some other editors, there are no special modes to worry about. Typing ordinary text will insert it into the document at the position of the cursor, and commands are provided by [Ctrl] key combinations, a list of which is shown permanently at the top of the screen as follows:

^[ (escape) menu ^e search prompt ^y delete line ^u up ^p prev page ^a ascii code ^x search ^z undelete line ^d down ^n next page ^b bottom of text ^g begin of line ^w delete word ^l left ^t top of text ^o end of line ^v undelete word ^r right Note: ^ means ^c command ^k delete char ^f undelete char hold down Ctrl

The caret symbol (^) indicates that the [Ctrl] key should be held down while pressing the relevant key. On most keyboards, the cursor arrow keys will work correctly as well as the [Ctrl] commands for cursor movement, and some keyboards also have [Page Up], [Page Down] and [Delete] keys which can be used.

Using Menus You can call up a menu of additional commands by pressing [Ctrl+[] or [Esc]. This main menu appears as follows:

The cursor will be over the top menu item. leave editor in this case. To select a menu item, move the cursor down to the required item using the cursor motion commands or arrow keys and press the Enter key. Some items call up a further menu. Further Commands Typing [Ctrl+C] will cause a prompt command: to appear at the bottom of the screen and the panel at the top of the screen to be replaced by the following list of commands:

help : get help info |file : print file name |line : print line # read : read a file |char : ascii code of char |0-9 : go to line "#" write: write a file |case : case sensitive search |exit : leave and save !cmd : shell "cmd" |nocase: ignore case in search |quit : leave, no save expand: expand tabs |noexpand: do not expand tabs Text and Commands

Unlike some other editors, there are no special modes to worry about. Typing ordinary text will insert it into the document at the position of the cursor, and commands are provided by [Ctrl] key combinations, a list of which is shown permanently at the top of the screen as follows: command: To obey one of these commands, simply type the command name at the prompt and press the Enter key. Most of the commands are also available via the main menu, so you can choose your favourite way of doing some tasks. Commands may be abbreviated, as long as that abbreviation is unique. For example, as no other command starts with a q, you can quit the editor without saving your changes by typing the sequence [Ctrl+C] [q] [Enter]. Invoking ee from Mail and other Programs A number of programs, including the pine> mailer, call a text editor directly. The default editor on IS Unix Services is ee. Tip for mail users: to incorporate a file into a mail message, you can use the read command on the [Ctrl+C] menu.

Quitting ee Leaving the editor is achieved by selecting the top item (leave editor) in the main menu, which calls the following further menu:

+---------------------+ | leave menu | | | Unlike some other editors, | save changes | s to worry about. Typing ordinary text | no save | document at the position of the cursor, and | | [Ctrl] key combinations, a list of whi | press Esc to cancel | t the top of the screen as follows: +---------------------+

Text and Commands

So the usual method of finishing an editing session is to type the key sequence [Esc] [Enter] [Enter]

ee ee stands for "easy editor" ee is a very easy to use editor which always displays the keybindings on line so that you don't have to know anything to use it. It is good for people who don't want to learn how to use a text editor. Emacs Emacs is a popular text editor. it has several features including extensibility, customisability, and several powerful features file comparison, spell checking, syntax hilighting which is good but not as good as that on vim, an IDE, mail and news reading ... calling emacs an editor is a little misleading. Compared to vim , it seems fast for editing small regions of text but slower for editing large files , as the vim commands are more compact, and in some cases more powerful. The nice use of emacs-style keybindings is for interactive shells: the default line editor in bash resembles emacs. Jed Jed is a versatile editor that can "impersonate" a number of well known text editors includiong emacs. For people looking for a wordstar clone or a lightweight version of emacs, jed is nice. Joe Joe is a lot like jed: it is a lightwieght editor that includes different modes including pico, wordstar and emacs. mcedit mcedit is the editor that ships with midnight commander. It is very dos like, it looks and feels a lot like dos edit. Good for nostalgic windows refugees. Nedit Nedit is a GUI editor which should make windows users feel at home. It has some programmer-friendly features, and is essentially a superset of the classic windows text editors (notepad) in functionality. Pico Pico ships with the popular email client pine pico is much like ee in a number of ways. It is not terribly powerful (in fact quite the opposite) but easy to use. Good for people who don't want to know how to use a text editor.

Process Management Any application that runs on a Linux system is assigned a process ID or PID. This is a numerical representation of the instance of the application on the system. In most situations this information is only relevant to the system administrator who may have to debug or terminate processes by referencing the PID. Process Management is the series of tasks a System Administrator completes to monitor, manage, and maintain instances of running applications. Multitasking Process Management beings with an understanding concept of Multitasking. Linux is what is referred to as a preemptive multitasking operating system. Preemptive multitasking systems rely on a scheduler. The function of the scheduler is to control the process that is currently using the CPU. In contrast, symmetric multitasking systems such as Windows 3.1 relied on each running process to voluntary relinquish control of the processor. If an application in this system hung or stalled, the entire computer system stalled. By making use of an additional component to pre-empt each process when its ―turn‖ is up, stalled programs do not affect the overall flow of the operating system. Each ―turn‖ is called a time slice, and each time slice is only a fraction of a second long. It is this rapid switching from process to process that allows a computer to ―appear‘ to be doing two things at once, in much the same way a movie ―appears‖ to be a continuous picture. Types of Processes There are generally two types of processes that run on Linux. Interactive processes are those processes that are invoked by a user and can interact with the user. VI is an example of an interactive process. Interactive processes can be classified into foreground and background processes. The foreground process is the process that you are currently interacting with, and is using the terminal as its stdin (standard input) and stdout (standard output). A background process is not interacting with the user and can be in one of two states – paused or running. The following exercise will illustrate foreground and background processes. 1. Logon as root. 2. Run [cd \] 3. Run [vi] 4. Press [ctrl + z]. This will pause vi 5. Type [jobs]

6. Notice vi is running in the background 7. Type [fg %1]. This will bring the first background process to the foreground. 8. Close vi. The second general type of process that runs on Linux is a system process or Daemon (day-mon). Daemon is the term used to refer to process‘ that are running on the computer and provide services but do not interact with the console. Most server software is implemented as a daemon. Apache, Samba, and inn are all examples of daemons. Any process can become a daemon as long as it is run in the background, and does not interact with the user. A simple example of this can be achieved using the [ls –R] command. This will list all subdirectories on the computer, and is similar to the [dir /s] command on Windows. This command can be set to run in the background by typing [ls –R &], and although technically you have control over the shell prompt, you will be able to do little work as the screen displays the output of the process that you have running in the background. You will also notice that the standard pause (ctrl+z) and kill (ctrl+c) commands do little to help you.

System Call: System call is the services provided by Linux kernel. In C programming, it often uses functions defined in libc which provides a wrapper for many system calls. Manual page section 2 provides more information about system calls. To get an overview, use ―man 2 intro‖ in a command shell. It is also possible to invoke syscall() function directly. Each system call has a function number defined in <syscall.h>or <unistd.h>. Internally, system call is invokded by software interrupt 0x80 to transfer control to the kernel. System call table is defined in Linux kernel source file ―arch/i386/kernel/entry.S ‖. System Call Example #include <syscall.h> #include <unistd.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <sys/types.h> int main(void) { long ID1, ID2; /*-----------------------------*/ /* direct system call */ /* SYS_getpid (func no. is 20) */ /*-----------------------------*/ ID1 = syscall(SYS_getpid); printf ("syscall(SYS_getpid)=%ld\n", ID1); /*-----------------------------*/ /* "libc" wrapped system call */ /* SYS_getpid (Func No. is 20) */ /*-----------------------------*/ ID2 = getpid(); printf ("getpid()=%ld\n", ID2); return(0); } System Call Quick Reference No Func Name Description Source 1 exit terminate the current process kernel/exit.c 2 fork create a child process arch/i386/kernel/process.c 3 read

read from a file descriptor fs/read_write.c 4 write write to a file descriptor fs/read_write.c 5 open open a file or device fs/open.c 6 close close a file descriptor fs/open.c 7 waitpid wait for process termination kernel/exit.c 8 creat create a file or device ("man 2 open" for information) fs/open.c 9 link make a new name for a file fs/namei.c 10 unlink delete a name and possibly the file it refers to fs/namei.c 11 execve execute program arch/i386/kernel/process.c 12 chdir change working directory fs/open.c 13 time get time in seconds kernel/time.c 14 mknod create a special or ordinary file fs/namei.c 15 chmod change permissionsof a file fs/open.c 16 lchown

change ownership of a file fs/open.c 18 stat get file status fs/stat.c 19 lseek reposition read/write file offset fs/read_write.c 20 getpid get process identification kernel/sched.c 21 mount mount filesystems fs/super.c 22 umount unmount filesystems fs/super.c 23 setuid set real user ID kernel/sys.c 24 getuid get real user ID kernel/sched.c 25 stime set system time and date kernel/time.c 26 ptrace allows a parent process to control the execution of a child process arch/i386/kernel/ptrace.c 27 alarm set an alarm clock for delivery of a signal kernel/sched.c 28 fstat get file status fs/stat.c 29 pause suspend process until signal arch/i386/kernel/sys_i386.c 30 utime set file access and modification times fs/open.c 33 access check user's permissions for a file fs/open.c 34 nice

change process priority kernel/sched.c 36 sync update the super block fs/buffer.c 37 kill send signal to a process kernel/signal.c 38 rename change the name or location of a file fs/namei.c 39 mkdir create a directory fs/namei.c 40 rmdir remove a directory fs/namei.c 41 dup duplicate an open file descriptor fs/fcntl.c 42 pipe create an interprocess channel arch/i386/kernel/sys_i386.c 43 times get process times kernel/sys.c 45 brk change the amount of space allocated for the calling process's data segment mm/mmap.c 46 setgid set real group ID kernel/sys.c 47 getgid get real group ID kernel/sched.c 48 sys_signal ANSI C signal handling kernel/signal.c 49 geteuid get effective user ID kernel/sched.c 50 getegid get effective group ID kernel/sched.c

51 acct enable or disable process accounting kernel/acct.c 52 umount2 unmount a file system fs/super.c 54 ioctl control device fs/ioctl.c 55 fcntl file control fs/fcntl.c 56 mpx (unimplemented) 57 setpgid set process group ID kernel/sys.c 58 ulimit (unimplemented) 59 olduname obsolete uname system call arch/i386/kernel/sys_i386.c 60 umask set file creation mask kernel/sys.c 61 chroot change root directory fs/open.c 62 ustat get file system statistics fs/super.c 63 dup2 duplicate a file descriptor fs/fcntl.c 64 getppid get parent process ID kernel/sched.c 65 getpgrp get the process group ID kernel/sys.c 66 setsid creates a session and sets the process group ID kernel/sys.c 67 sigaction POSIX signal handling functions

arch/i386/kernel/signal.c 68 sgetmask ANSI C signal handling kernel/signal.c 69 ssetmask ANSI C signal handling kernel/signal.c 70 setreuid set real and effective user IDs kernel/sys.c 71 setregid set real and effective group IDs kernel/sys.c 72 sigsuspend install a signal mask and suspend caller until signal arch/i386/kernel/signal.c 73 sigpending examine signals that are blocked and pending kernel/signal.c 74 sethostname set hostname kernel/sys.c 75 setrlimit set maximum system resource con sumption kernel/sys.c 76 getrlimit get maximum system resource con sumption kernel/sys.c 77 getrusage get maximum system resource con sumption kernel/sys.c 78 gettimeofday get the date and time kernel/time.c 79 settimeofday set the date and time kernel/time.c 80 getgroups get list of supplementary group IDs kernel/sys.c 81 setgroups set list of supplementary group IDs kernel/sys.c 82 old_select sync. I/O multiplexing

arch/i386/kernel/sys_i386.c 83 symlink make a symbolic link to a file fs/namei.c 84 lstat get file status fs/stat.c 85 readlink read the contents of a symbolic link fs/stat.c 86 uselib select shared library fs/exec.c 87 swapon start swapping to file/device mm/swapfile.c 88 reboot reboot or enable/disable Ctrl-Alt-Del kernel/sys.c 89 old_readdir read directory entry fs/readdir.c 90 old_mmap map pages of memory arch/i386/kernel/sys_i386.c 91 munmap unmap pages of memory mm/mmap.c 92 truncate set a file to a specified length fs/open.c 93 ftruncate set a file to a specified length fs/open.c 94 fchmod change access permission mode of file fs/open.c 95 fchown change owner and group of a file fs/open.c 96 getpriority get program scheduling priority kernel/sys.c 97 setpriority set program scheduling priority kernel/sys.c

98 profil execution time profile 99 statfs get file system statistics fs/open.c 100 fstatfs get file system statistics fs/open.c 101 ioperm set port input/output permissions arch/i386/kernel/ioport.c 102 socketcall socket system calls net/socket.c 103 syslog read and/or clear kernel message ring buffer kernel/printk.c 104 setitimer set value of interval timer kernel/itimer.c 105 getitimer get value of interval timer kernel/itimer.c 106 sys_newstat get file status fs/stat.c 107 sys_newlstat get file status fs/stat.c 108 sys_newfstat get file status fs/stat.c 109 olduname get name and information about current kernel arch/i386/kernel/sys_i386.c 110 iopl change I/O privilege level arch/i386/kernel/ioport.c 111 vhangup virtually hangup the current tty fs/open.c 112 idle make process 0 idle arch/i386/kernel/process.c 113 vm86old enter virtual 8086 mode

arch/i386/kernel/vm86.c 114 wait4 wait for process termination, BSD style kernel/exit.c 115 swapoff stop swapping to file/device mm/swapfile.c 116 sysinfo returns information on overall system statistics kernel/info.c 117 ipc System V IPC system calls arch/i386/kernel/sys_i386.c 118 fsync synchronize a file's complete in-core state with that on disk fs/buffer.c 119 sigreturn return from signal handler and cleanup stack frame arch/i386/kernel/signal.c 120 clone create a child process arch/i386/kernel/process.c 121 setdomainname set domain name kernel/sys.c 122 uname get name and information about current kernel kernel/sys.c 123 modify_ldt get or set ldt arch/i386/kernel/ldt.c 124 adjtimex tune kernel clock kernel/time.c 125 mprotect set protection of memory mapping mm/mprotect.c 126 sigprocmask POSIX signal handling functions kernel/signal.c 127 create_module create a loadable module entry kernel/module.c 128 init_module

initialize a loadable module entry kernel/module.c 129 delete_module delete a loadable module entry kernel/module.c

130 get_kernel_syms retrieve exported kernel and module symbols kernel/module.c 131 quotactl manipulate disk quotas fs/dquot.c 132 getpgid get process group ID kernel/sys.c 133 fchdir change working directory fs/open.c 134 bdflush start, flush, or tune buffer-dirty-flush daemon fs/buffer.c 135 sysfs get file system type information fs/super.c 136 personality set the process execution domain kernel/exec_domain.c 137 afs_syscall (unimplemented) 138 setfsuid set user identity used for file system checks kernel/sys.c 139 setfsgid set group identity used for file system checks kernel/sys.c 140 sys_llseek move extended read/write file pointer fs/read_write.c 141 getdents read directory entries fs/readdir.c 142 select sync. I/O multiplexing fs/select.c 143 flock

apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file fs/locks.c 144 msync synchronize a file with a memory map mm/filemap.c 145 readv read data into multiple buffers fs/read_write.c 146 writev write data into multiple buffers fs/read_write.c 147 sys_getsid get process group ID of session leader kernel/sys.c 148 fdatasync synchronize a file's in-core data with that on disk fs/buffer.c 149 sysctl read/write system parameters kernel/sysctl.c 150 mlock lock pages in memory mm/mlock.c 151 munlock unlock pages in memory mm/mlock.c 152 mlockall disable paging for calling process mm/mlock.c 153 munlockall reenable paging for calling process mm/mlock.c 154 sched_setparam set scheduling parameters kernel/sched.c 155 sched_getparam get scheduling parameters kernel/sched.c 156 sched_setscheduler set scheduling algorithm parameters kernel/sched.c 157 sched_getscheduler get scheduling algorithm parameters kernel/sched.c 158 sched_yield yield the processor kernel/sched.c 159

sched_get_priority_ max get max static priority range kernel/sched.c 160 sched_get_priority_ min get min static priority range kernel/sched.c 161 sched_rr_get_inter val get the SCHED_RR interval for the named process kernel/sched.c 162 nanosleep pause execution for a specified time (nano seconds) kernel/sched.c 163 mremap re-map a virtual memory address mm/mremap.c 164 setresuid set real, effective and saved user or group ID kernel/sys.c 165 getresuid get real, effective and saved user or group ID kernel/sys.c 166 vm86 enter virtual 8086 mode arch/i386/kernel/vm86.c 167 query_module query the kernel for various bits pertain ing to modules kernel/module.c 168 poll wait for some event on a file descriptor fs/select.c 169 nfsservctl syscall interface to kernel nfs daemon fs/filesystems.c 170 setresgid set real, effective and saved user or group ID kernel/sys.c 171 getresgid get real, effective and saved user or group ID kernel/sys.c 172 prctl operations on a process

kernel/sys.c 173 rt_sigreturn arch/i386/kernel/signal.c 174 rt_sigaction kernel/signal.c 175 rt_sigprocmask kernel/signal.c 176 rt_sigpending kernel/signal.c 177 rt_sigtimedwait kernel/signal.c 178 rt_sigqueueinfo kernel/signal.c 179 rt_sigsuspend arch/i386/kernel/signal.c 180 pread read from a file descriptor at a given offset fs/read_write.c 181 sys_pwrite write to a file descriptor at a given offset fs/read_write.c 182 chown change ownership of a file fs/open.c 183 getcwd Get current working directory fs/dcache.c 184 capget get process capabilities kernel/capability.c 185 capset set process capabilities kernel/capability.c 186 sigaltstack set/get signal stack context arch/i386/kernel/signal.c 187 sendfile transfer data between file descriptors mm/filemap.c 188 getpmsg (unimplemented) 189 putpmsg (unimplemented) 190 vfork create a child process and block parent arch/i386/kernel/process.c

System Administration To look after everything about Linux system, called system administration which includes a. monitoring disk space and taking backup b. handling system problems which are unexpected c. to handle every eventuality. System administrator must have thorough practical knowledge of every system component d. he is responsible for installing all system peripherals e. he devise the scripts for automating some operations carried out regularly f. he must also be able to configure the system‘s initialization script logging into system administrator: login: root (press enter) passeord: _ (press enter after entering password) # (will appear not $ as for other users) Acquiring super user mode: $su (press enter) Password:_ # Change password: #passwd (will change password of root) $passwd rohit (will change password of user rohit) Date: #date MMDDhhmm (to set date, month,day,hour,minute) Calendar: #calendar (to see the scheduler of all users) Ulimit: To limit on file size #ulimit (press enter) 2079151 #ulimit 20791510 (press enter : this will change file size) Shutdown: $shutdown –g2 (shutdown after 2 minutes) $shutdown –y –g0 (shutdown immediately) $shutdown 17:30 (shutdown at 17:30) $shutdown –r now (shutdown and reboot now) $shutdown –h10 (halt after 10 minutes) Diskfree #df (will show how much disk free in each main directories) / --/home --/root --/stand --Disk usuage: #du /home/rohit (show in particular directory) /home/rohit/one ---

File compression: $compress foldername $uncompress foldername.z Gnu zip: $gzip foldername/filename $gunzip gzipfile Locating files: $find <pathlist> <selection criteria> <action> #find / -name a.txt –print (search file a.txt in / and then display) #find /home –atime +365 –mailroot (search file whose access time is more than 365 days and then mail it) #find / -size -2048 –print (search file whose size is below 2 mb) #find / -size +1024 –atime -365 –rm Copying diskettes and tapes Copy floppy to temp folder: #dd if=/dev/rdsk/f0q18dt of=/temp bs=147456 Input file name output file name block size Copy tape #dd if=/dev/rct0 of=/dev/rct1 bs=9K CPIO (copy input output) #ls | cpio –ov > /dev/rdsk/f0q18dt #cpio –iv < /dev/rdsk/f0q18dt For understanding: o- output i -input v- visually Tar: tape archieve program tar vs cpio - tar can take directories as input - it copies entire directory tee - it can create several versions in single archive - it can append without overwriting # tar –cvf /dev/fdsk/f0q18dt /home/rohit/* #tar –xvfb /dev/fdsk/f0q18dt x- extract c- copy mount and unmount: mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/flash (mount c:\ to /mnt/flash) unmount /dev/hda1 (for unmounting) or unmount /mnt/flash ( - - -) in later versions umount also works as unmount creating partitions #fdisk (it will give list of commands to perform)

Ques1: write any five function of a Linux system administrator. Ques2: how kernel access a file Ans: 1. kernel know inode of current directory, maintained in memory, with this, it first search inode blocks and find inode block of this directory and then fetch address of data block which contain directory file 2. open directory file and search for file ‗a.txt‘ and goes to inode and find inode for file ‗a.txt‘, reads its detail like size, indirect nodes etc. 3. instruct disk driver to move disk head to respective blocks and count the number of byte and match with file size and read till they match.

Shell Script 1) written in any editor 2) to run, we i. firstly change its mode 1. $chmod +x filename ii. then to run 1. ./filename a. b. c. d. e. to display: echo string name to read: read variablename to pick value of a variable: $variablename to put values in a variable: $variablename=value to solve expression: `expr 1+3`

example1: copy one file to other #!/bin/sh #this is comment cp $1 $2 #cp will copy first command line argumented file to other exit 0 example2: search a word in file #!/bin/sh #search a word echo "Enter strings" echo "if you have done, press ctrl + d" cat > str_file echo "e nter string to find" read str grep -s $str "/root/shell_scripts/str_file" exit 0 example3: sort n numbers #!/bin/sh #sort n numbers echo "enter n numbers" echo "after you have done, press ctrl+d" cat > n_num sort -n n_num exit 0

example4: to display date, process status and calendar of year #!/bin/sh date ps –a cal 2008 exit 0 example5: multiplication table #!/bin/sh echo “enter a number” read n i=1 while [$i –le 10 ] do echo “$n X $i = `expr $i \* $n`” i=`expr $i + 1` done exit 0 example6: fibnoccii series #!/bin/sh a=1 b=0 c=1 i=1 n=15 while [ $i –le $n ] do c=`expr $a + $b` echo $c a=$b b=$c i=`expr $i + 1` done exit 0 example7: count word, lines and characters #!/bin/sh echo “enter a string” read str echo $str > a.txt wc a.txt

example8: prime or not #!/bin/sh echo “enter a number” read num i=2 #counter k=1 #flag n=`expr $num / 2 ` echo “n=$n” while [ $i –le $n ] do echo “counter : $i” j=`expr $num % $i` echo “remainder: $j” if [ $j –eq 0 ] then echo “not a prime number” k=0 exit 0 fi i=`expr $i + 1` done if [ $k –eq 1] then echo “prime” else echo “not prime” fi exit 0 example9: use of for loop #!/bin/sh for i in 1 2 3 4 5 do echo “welcome $i” done

example10: use of case #!/bin/sh echo “enter a number” read a case $a in 1) echo “hello”;; 2) echo “hi”;; 3) echo “by”;; *) echo “else case” esac exit 0

shell script is a language that not ends here but it depends on your practice how much you can, try your c programs which you have done earlier.

Unit 4 Data Structure in Linux Kernel*: *- this unit is given as for crammers. If you want to understand this unit, you have to study at your own yet I have tried to make understandable. Intro to Linux kernel: Linux was not designed on drawing board, but developed in an evolutionary manner and is continued to develop. Every function of kernel has been repeatedly altered and expanded to get rid of bugs and incorporates new features. Linux kernel is not in every respect of a good model of Structured programming. There are magic numbers instead of constant declaration in header files, inline expansion of functions instead of function calls, goto instead of break, assembler instructions instead of c code. Large part of Kernel is time-critical, so kernel code is optimized for good running time rather than easy readability. This distinguishes Linux from Minix which was written as a ―Teaching Operating System‖ and never designed for everyday use. Data structure in Linux:  Task Structure  Process Table  Files and Inodes  Dynamic Memory Management  Queue and Semaphores  System time and timers System time and timers: In the Linux system there is just one internal time base. It is measured in ticks elapsed since the system was booted, with one tick equal to 10 millisecond. These ticks are generated by a timer chip in the hardware and counted by timer interrupt. Functions used are:  void add_timer(struct timer_list *timer);  int del_timer(struct timer_list *timer);  int mod_timer(struct timer_list *timer, unsigned long expires); add_timer : activates a timer by entering it to the global timer list del_timer : removes it from global timer list Mod_timer : modifies the expires time of an activated timer

Dynamic Memory Management: Under Linux, memory is managed on a page basis. One page contains 2 raised to 12 bytes. The basic operations to request a free page are the functions struct page * _alloc_pages(int gfp_mask, unsigned long order); unsigned long _get_free_pages(int gfp_mask,unsigned long order); (2) Fn gets free pages in memory and (1) Fn allocates pages to a process  gfp_mask need to control the pages and behavior of functions Like of C-functions, Kernel uses kmalloc() and kfree() for allocating small amount of memory and free(ing) that memory. void * kmalloc(size_t size,int flags) void kfree(void * object)

Process Table: Every process occupy exactly one entry in process table. INIT_TASK macro points at the first task in the system. It is initialized by starting the system using INIT_TASK macro. After the system has been booted, that is only responsible for the use of unclaimed system time (idle process : System idle process (pid:0)) Even if the process table has a dynamic structure, the number of tasks is restricted to max_threads in system. int max_thread; however it can be change by sysctl interface. for working with each process kernel use for_each_task() macro #define for_each_task(p) for (p=&init_task; p != &init_task; p=p->next_task)

Queue and Semaphores: struct list_head { struct list_head *next,*prev; }; struct _wait_queue { struct task_struct *task; struct list_head task_list; }; struct wait_queue_head { struct list_head task_list; }; add_wait_queue() and remove_wait_queue() are used for adding deleting in wait queue extern int sem->count=1; void down(struct semaphore *sem) { while(sem->count <= 0) sleep_on(&sem->wait); sem->count -= 1; } void up(struct semaphore *sem) { sem->count +=1; wake_up(&sem->wait); }

Files and inodes: struct file { … mode_t f_mode; //access mode in which file is opened loff_t f_pos; //pos of read/write pointer atomic_t f_count; //simple reference number(index) unsigned int f_flags; //additional flag for access struct dentry *fs_dentry; //reference to entry in directory cache // to access inode … }; struct inode { … kdev_t i_dev; //description of device (fd0,cdrom,hda,sda) unsigned long i_no; //identify file in device (fifth,100th) eg: index no off_t i_size; //size of file time_t i_mtime; //last modification time time_t i_atime; //last access time time_t i_ctime; //last modification to inode eg: file move, cut-paste. … };

Task Structure: One of the most important concept in a multitasking system such as Linux is the task : the data structure and algorithms for process management form the central core of Linux struct task_struct { volatile long state; //current state of process TASK_RUNNING //TASK_INTERRUPTABLE, TASK_UNINTERRUPTABLE unsigned long flags; //bit mask of system status (sys. Working, stand //by, logoff, switch user unsigned long ptrace; //process is monitored by another process/not long counter; //number of ticks assigned long nice; //priority default: {NZERO} unsigned long policy; //SCHED_FIFO,SCHED_RR,SCHED_OTHER unsigned long rt_priority; //real-time priority }; Process/ Task relations : * subpart of task structure § § § § § § struct task_struct *prev_task,*next_task;//for previous and next task struct task_struct *p_opptr; //pointer to original parent struct task_struct *p_pptr; //pointer to current parent struct task_struct *p_cptr; //current process : youngest child struct task_struct *p_ysptr; //pointer to younger child/ sibling struct task_struct *p_osptr; //pointer to older child/ sibling

Memory management: • The Architecture-independent Memory Model in LINUX • The Virtual Address Space for a Process • Block Device Caching • Paging Under LINUX

The architecture-independent memory model • Pages of Memory • Defined by the PAGE_SIZE macro in the asm/page.h • For X86, the size is 4k bytes • For Alpha uses 8K bytes • Virtual Address Space • Given by reference to a segment selector and the offset within the segment • C pointers hold the offsets • Defined in asm/segment.h • KERNERL_DS (segment selector for kernel data) • USER_DS (segment selector for user data) • By carrying out a conversion on the segment selector register, a system function can be given pointers to the kernel segment. • Used by UMSDOS file system to simulate a Unix file system • MMU of an x86 processor converts the virtual address to a linear address • 4 Gbytes by width of the linear address • 3 Gbytes for user segment • 1 Gbyte for kernel segment • Alpha does not support segmentation • Offset addresses for the user segment not permitted to overlap with the offset addresses for the kernel segment • Converting the Linear Address

• • •

The Page Directory The Page Middle Directory The Page Table

The virtual address space for a process • The User Segment o In user mode, access only in user segment o Individual page tables for different processes o system call fork o child and parent processes have different page directories and page tables o however, in the kernel segment page tables are shared by all processes o system call clone o old and new threads share the memory fully o Some explanation for shared libraries in the user segment  Originally, linked into one binary, lead to efficiency  Drawback is the growth of the length  Stored in separate files and loaded at program start  Linked to static addresses  With ELF, allowed shared libraries to be loaded during program execution  No absolute address references in the compiled code • Virtual Memory Areas o Process not use all functions at any time o Process can share codes if they are run by the same executable file o Copy-on-write strategy used for memory management • The System Call brk o The brk field points to the end of the BSS segment for non-statically initialized data o Used for allocating or releasing dynamic memory o The system call brk can be used to find the current value of the pointer or to set it to a new one under protection check o Rejected if the mem required exceeds the estimated size o function sys_brk() calls do_map() to map a private and anonymous area between the old & new values of brk • The Kernel Segment o In x86 architecture, a system call is generally initiated by the software interrupt 128 (0x80) being triggered. o Any processes in system mode will encounter the same kernel segment o Kernel segment in alpha architecture cannot start at addr 0 o A PAGE_OFFSET is provided between physical & virtual addrs • Static Memory Allocation in the Kernel Segment o Initialization routine for character-oriented devices is called as follows o memory_start = console_init(memory_start, memory_end); o Reserves memory by returning a value higher than the parameter memory_start o The memory between the return value and memory_start can be used as desired by the initialized component Dynamic Memory Allocation in the Kernel Segment


o In LINUX kernel, kmalloc() and kfree() used for dynamic memory allocation o void * kmalloc(size_t size, int priority); o void kfree(void *obj); o To increase efficiency, the memory reserved is not initialized o In LINUX kernel 1.2, __get_free_pages() only to reserve contiguous areas of memory of 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 Kbytes in size o kmalloc() can reserve far smaller areas of memory o Sizes[] contains descriptors for different for different sizes of memory area  one manages memory suitable for DMA  the other is responsible for ordinary memory

o Kmalloc() and kfree() restricted to the size of one page of mem o vmalloc() and vfree() improved to multiple of the size of one page of mem o The max of value of size is limited by the amount of physical memory available o Memory reserved by vmalloc() won‘t be copied to external storage

Block Device Caching: • Block Buffering o Block size may be 512, 1024, 2048, or 4096 bytes o Held in memory via a buffering system o A special case applies for blocks taken from files opened with the flag 0_SYNC o Transferred to disk every time their contents are modified o Data is organized as frequently requested data lie every close together & can be kept in the processor cache • The update and bdflush Processes o At periodic intervals, update process calls the system call bdflush with an parameter o All modified buffer blocks are written back to disk with all superblock and inode information o bdflush, writes back the number of blocks buffers marked ―dirty‖ given in the bdflush parameter o Always activated when a block is released by means of brelse() o Also activated when new block buffers are requested or the size of the buffer cache needs to be reduced • List Structures for the Buffer Cache o LINUX manages its block buffers via a number of different doubly linked lists o Block buffers in use are managed in a set of special LRU lists LRU list(index) Description Block buffers not managed in other lists content matches relevant block on hard disk BUF_CLEAN BUF_UNSHARED Block buffers formerly (but no longer) managed in BUF_SHARED BUF_LOCKED Locked block buffers (b_lock != 0 ) BUF_LOCKED1 Locked block buffers for inodes and superblocks BUF_DIRTY Block buffers with contents not matching the relevant block on hard disk BUF_SHARED Block buffers situated in a page of memory mapped to the user segment of a process The various LRU lists • Using the Buffer Cache o Function bread() is called for block read o Variance of bread(), breada(), reads not the block requested into the buffer cache but a number of following blocks Paging under Linux: • Page Cache and Management


LINUX can save pages to extenral media in 2 ways a complete block device as the external medium, typically a partition on a hard disk • fixed-length files on a file system for its external storage • Data that belong together are stored in a cache line (16 bytes) Finding a Free Page • __get_free_pages() is called after physical pages of mem reserved • unsigned long __get_free_pages(int priority, unsigned long order, int dma) Priority Description Free page to be returned only if free pages are still available in physical mem GFP_BUFFER GFP_ATOMIC The function __get_free_page must not interrupt the current process, but a page should be returned if possible GFP_USER The current process may be interrupted to swap pages GFP_KERNEL This para is the same as GFP_USER GFP_NOBUFFER The buffer cache won‘t be reduced by an attempt to find a free page in mem GFP_NFS The difference between this & GFP_USER is that the # of pages reserved for GFP_ATOMIC is reduced from min_free_pages to five. Will speed up NFS operations Priorities for the function __get_free_page()

• •


Page Errors and Reloading a Page • do_page_fault() is called when there generates a page fault interrupt • void do_page_fault(struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned long error_code); • do_no_page() or do_wp_page() is called when the address is in a virtual memory area, the legality of the read or write operation is checked by reference to the flags for the virtual mem

Linux File System: In the PC field, variety in a file system is common: practically every OS has its own file system and each of these of course claims to be faster, better and more secure than its predecessors. The large number of file systems supported by Linux is undoubtly one of the main reasons why Linux has gained acceptance so quickly in its short life. Not every user is in a position to put in the time and effort to convert his or her old data to a new file system. The range of file system supported is made possible by the unified interface of Linux kernel. This is virtual file system switch (VFS). Note that it is not a file system on its own but an interface providing a clearly defined link between the OS kernel and the different file system. The virtual file system supplies the applications with the system calls for the management, maintains internal structures and passes tasks on to the appropriate actual file system. Another important task of the VFS is the performance of default actions. As a rule, no file system implementation will actually provide an lseek() function which is provided by VFS as a default. So, VFS is commonly known as virtual file system. A central demand of file system is purposeful structuring, speed of access and facility for random access. Random access is made possible by block oriented devices, which are divided into a specific number of equal sized blocks. Using the functions of buffer cache to access any of the sequentially numbered blocks in a given device. The file system itself must be capable of ensuring unique allocation of the data to the hardware blocks. In Unix, the information required for management is kept strictly apart from the data and collected in separate inode structures for each file. This information includes access time, access rights, pointers to data blocks, indirect pointers to data blocks, double indirect pointers, triplet indirect pointers, owner, size etc. Access to larger files is provided via indirect blocks which also contain block numbers. Each file is represented by just one inode, which means that within a file system, each inode has a unique number and the file itself and the file itself can also be accessed using this number. Directories allow the file system to be given a hierarchical structure. These are also implemented as files, but the kernel assumes them to contain pairs consisting of a file name and its inode number. The basic structure is the same for all the different Unix file systems. Each file system starts with a boot block. This block is reserved for the code required for the code required to boot the operating system. The boot block will be present whether or not the computer is booted from the device or not. All the information which is essential for managing the file system is held in the super block. This is followed by a number of inode blocks containing the inode structures for the file system. The remaining blocks for the device provide the space for the data. The data blocks thus contain ordinary files along with the directory entries and indirect blocks. A new file system can be mounted onto any directory. This orginal directory is then known as the mount point and is occupied by the root directory of new file system along with its subdirectories and files. Unmouting the file system releases the hidden directory structure again.

Representation of File System in kernel: Every file system need to be made known to the VFS via the following register_filesystem()

int register_filesystem(struct file_system_type *fs) { int res=0; struct file_system_type **P; … write_lock(&file_system_lock); p=find_filesystem(fs->name); if(*p) res=-EBUSY; else *p=fs; write_unlock(&file_system_type); return res; }

Mounting: Before a file can be accessed, the file system containing the file must be mounted. This can be done using either the system call mount or the function mount_root(). Every mounted file system is represented by a super_block structure. These structures are placed in a dynamic table super_blocks held by the struct list_head type. The maximum length of this list is limited by the max_super_blocks variable. The function read_super() of VFS is used to initialize the superblock. It creates an empty superblock, puts it in the superblock list and calls the function provided by every file system implementation to create the superblock.

Superblock: The file system specific function read_super() reads information from the corresponding block device. This is also the reason why a process is necessary for mounting file system. struct super_block { struct list_head s_list; //list of super blocks kdev_t s_dev; //device unsigned long s_blocksize; //block size unsigned char s_dirt; //if superblock has been changed wait_queue_hed_t s_wait; //waiting queue … }; struct super_operations { void (*read_inode)(struct inode *); //inode structure is initialized by this function void (*write_inode)(struct inode *); //save info of inode void (*write_super)(struct super_block *); //save info of super block void (*delete_inode)(struct inode *); //delete inode … }; Inode: struct inode { struct list_head i_list; //chaining unsigned long i_ino; //inode number uid_t i_uid; //user id gid_t i_gid; //group id kdev_t i_rdev; //real device time_t i_atime; //last access time off_t i_size; //size of file time_t i_mtime; //last modification time time_t i_ctime; //last change to inode … }; struct inode_operations { int (*create) ( . . .); //create the inode int (*mkdir)(. . .); //creates a directory int (*rmdir)(. . .); //removes a directory


int (*rename)(. . .); //move a file or rename it int (*set_attr)(. . .); //to set attributes of a inode int (*get_attr)(. . .); //to get attributes of a inode …

File Structure: struct list_head { struct list_head f_list; mode_t f_mode; loff_t f_pos; unsigned int f_uid,f_gid; … }; //chaining //access type //position in file //owner

struct file_operation { loff_t (*llseek)( . . .); //to deal with positioning with in the file ssize_t (*read)(. . .); //reads count bytes from the file and copies them into the buffer ssize_t (*write)(. . .); //write count bytes int (*open)( . . .); //to open a file ... };

Proc file system: Linux supports different filesystem. Each process in the system which is currently running is assigned a directory /proc/pid where pid is the process identification number of the relevant process. This directory contains files holding information on certain characterstics of the process. When proc file system is mounted, the VFS function read_super() is called by do_mount() and in turn calls the function proc_read_super() for the proc file system in the file_system list. iget() generate the indoe for the proc root directory, which is entered in the superblock_parse_options() then processes the mount options data that have been provided and sets the owner of the root inode. Accessing the file system is always carried out by accessing the root inode of the file system. The first access is made by calling iget(). If the inode does not exists, this function then calls the proc_read_inode() function entered in the proc_sops structure The inode describe the directory with read and execute permissions for all processes. The proc_root_inode_operations only provides two functions: readdir in form of proc_readroot() function and lookup as proc_lookuproot(). Both functions operate using the table root_dir[], which contains the different entries for the root directory struct proc_dir_entry { const char *name; mode_t mode; uid_t uid; gid_t gid; unsigned long size; struct proc_dir_entry *next,*parent; void *data; ... };

//name of entry //mode //user id //group id //size of file //chaining

Ext2 file system: As Linux was initially developed under MINIX, it is hardly surprising that first Linux file system was minix file system. However, this file system restricts partitions to 64 MB and file names to 14 chars, so the search for a better file system was obvious. Although this allowed partitions of up to 2GB and filename up to 255 chars. It included several signigicant extensions but offered unsatisfactory performance. The second extended file system (Ext2) was introduced in 1994. Features: i) ii) iii) iv)

Block Fragmentation: it allows different sized blocks to be allocated. Access Control List: allows ACL to be associated with each file Handles compressed and encrypted files Logical Deletion: an undelete option will allow users to easily recover removed files.

Structure: Ext2 file system has blocks and each block has a. a copy of file system‘s super block b. a copy of group of block group descriptors c. a data block bitmap d. a group of inode e. an inode bitmap f. a chunk of data belonging to a file/ data block An ext2 disk super block is stored in ext2_super_block structure which contains the total number of inodes, file system size, number of reserved blocks, free blocks counter, free inodes counter, block size, fragment size and other important information. Directories: are maintained by singly link list. struct ext2_dir_entry_2 { _u32 inode; _u16 rec_len; _u8 name_len; _u8 file_type; Char name[EXT2_NAME_LEN]; };

//inode number // length of directory entry //length of file name //type of file //file name

Block allocation: a. Target oriented: This algo looks for target block if that not found then look with in 32 blocks near target block if no one is free, then find block at least in same block group and even if that is not found search else where and allocate that. b. Pre allocation: If a free block is found, up to eight following blocks are reserved. When the file is closed, the remaining blocks still reserved are released. This also guarantees that as many data blocks as possible are collected into one cluster.

Proc vs ext2:

Proc 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. procedure oriented file name length=14 chars max. partition=512MB mounted on /proc currently running process assigned /proc/pid.

ext2 Access oriented 255 2 GB on / all files stored on it

Unit5: Multiprocessing: More advance and faster processors are entering in market; there will always be applications that require still more processor power. A multitasking system, solution is to employ several processors in order to achieve true parallel processing of tasks. Performance doesn‘t increase linearly with number of processors, rather, OS bears an increased responsibility to distribute all task among processors in such a way that few processors as possible hamper each other. Intel Multiprocessor Specification: Pentium already has some internal function which supports multiprocessor operation such as cache synchronization, interrupt handling and atomic operations for checking, setting and exchanging values in main memory. Cache synchronization facilitates symmetric multiprocessing implementation in kernel. Intel multiprocessor specification version 1.4 defines the interaction between hardware and software in order to facilitate the development of SMP – capable OS and to create possibility of these systems run on new hardware. It defines a highly symmetric architecture in term of Memory Symmetry: same main memory, same data/code, same OS and application I/O Symmetry: All processor share I/O subsystem to reduce possible I/O bottleneck. The following diagram shows a typical SMP system with two processors connected via Interrupt Controller Communications (ICC) bus with one/more Advance Programmable Interrupt Controller (APIC) Pentium Processors also have Local APIC + I/O APIC constitute a unit which deals with distribution of incoming interrupts.

One processor is chosen by BIOS called Boot Processor (BSP) and used for system initialization. All other Application Processors (AP) are initially halted by BIOS. The Multi Processor (MP) specification filled in BIOS and informs OS about existing multiprocessor system. BIOS initially forwards all interrupts only to boot processor, so that single processor system see no difference and run only on BSP. Problems with multiprocessor systems: For correct functioning of multitasking system, it is important that data in kernel can only be changed by one processor, so that identical resources cannot be allocated twice.

Unix system: a) Coarse granted locking: lock whole kernel b) Finer grained locking: reduce time that a lock must keep => reduce particularly critical latency time Linux system: Rules were established i. no process running in kernel mode interrupted by other process running in kernel mode except when it releases control and steps ii. an interrupt handling can interrupt a process in kernel mode but in end control return back to same process iii. interrupt handling will be processed completely and interrupt cannot be by process in kernel mode and be by interrupt of higher priority Initially, a semaphore was used by all processes to monitor transition to kernel mode which obey all rules => low performance. Later, finer grained locking was used. The transition can be carried out hierarchically by substituting one semaphore with several others which cover smaller area of Linux kernel this guarantees higher parallelism and higher system performance. Symmetric Multiprocessing: There are two processors and kernel decides which process should be allocated to the processor. Memory is shared b/w processors. When there is some updation in the process, then they will be stored in process only. This will not be reflected back which will create problem. We use shared memory because changes are reflected. SMP denote a multiprocessor architecture in which low CPU is selected as a Master CPU but rather all of these cooperate on an equal basis. When kernel is to be loaded, the basic processor CMOS is set which loads the kernel. Features of SMP: 1. Shared Memory 2. Shared IO Port 3. Hardware Cache Synchronization: Synchronization means providing a cache at time to process one by one. Suppose both processes are working on same program and storing variables in different cache and they are doing same modifications at same time, which is not safe and therefore only one cache is provided at a time. 4. SMP is provided by atomic operation like read/write back to disk, modification 5. Distributed Interrupt Handling: Every process has been provided by its own interrupt controller known as APIC

Changes to kernel: In order to implement SMP in Linux, changes have to be made to both portable and processor specific implementations. Kernel Initialization: All processors must be started because BIOS has halted all APs and only boot processor is running. Only this processor enters start_kernel(), then smp_init() for normal initialization then smp_boot_cpus(). This activates all other processors. Each processor receives its own stack. Each processor execute code and jump to start_kernel(). Once exception handling and interrupt handling are initialized, processors trapped by smp_callin() inside start_secondary(). asmlinkage void start_secondary(void) { trap_init(); init_IRQ(); smp_callin(); cpu_idle(NULL); } void smp_callin(void) { … celibrate_delay(); //determine processor‘s bogomips smp_store_cpu_info(cpuid); //save processors parameters … while(!smp_commenced); … } How a halted processor is started: This is served by APIC which allows to send Interprocessor Interrupt (IPI) and InitIPI to all processors. This INIT signal works like reset and via this reset flag, processor jump to BIOS. Then startupIPI is send to begin execution of real mode routine. After all processors are started, smp_num_cpus contains number of currently running processors. Then an idle task is created for each processes in order not to blick kernel mode for all other processors. After smp_init(), smp_commence() is called which sets smp_commenced flag where all APs can quit smp_callin() and process their individual idle task.

Spooling: This is about OS concept: where input is written on magnetic tape and then processed and latterly output is again written on tape and when printer will free, that will pick and print. Rest of this topic I leave on you as you r home work

Scheduling: Linux scheduler shows only slightly changes. Task structure now has processor; NO_PROC_ID; //if no processor has assigned as yet last_processor; number/ID of processor processes last task Every processor is assigned a new task which is executable and not been assigned to any other processor. Those task are preferred that last ran on currently available processor. This led to improvement in system performance when internal processor caches still contain data valid for selected processes. current_set(smp_processor_id()); // to set process to current processor Message exchange between processors: Message in form of inter processor interrupt (IPI) are handled via interrupts 13 and 16. Interrupt 13 is fast interrupt and not require kernel lock and not disturb scheduler and is used to deliver message only ex: KB interrupt. Interrupt 16 is slow interrupt, wait for kernel lock, and trigger scheduler. It is used to start scheduler on other processors. ex: timer interrupts. Interrupt Handling: Interrupt are distributed by I/O APIC. As system part, all interrupts are forwarded only to BSP. Each SMP OS switch APIC to SMP mode, so that other processors can handle interrupts. Linux not use this Operating Mode, interrupt only deliver to BSP. This compromises the latency time, since incoming interrupts can only be handled when no processor in kernel and only BSP in kernel. If there is an AP in kernel, interrupt handling routine must wait until the AP has left kernel. In order to use APIC‘s SMP mode, changes must be made to current interrupt handling.

DEBUGGING: Every significant piece of s/w will contain defects, typical 2-5 per100 loc. Because of these mistakes, s/w does not behave as it is suppose to. Bug Tracking, identification and removal can consume a large amount of programmer‘s time during s/w development. Debugging is not testing (the task of verifying the program‘s operation in all possible condition) although testing and debugging are related and many bugs are discovered during testing process. Types of errors: Specification errors: If a program is incorrectly specified, it will inevitably fail to perform as required. Even the best programmer in the world can write the wrong program. Before starting programming. Programmer must understand hat the program needs to do you can detect and remove many specification errors by removing requirement and agreeing with person who will use this. Design errors: Programs of any size need to be designing before they are created. Take time to think about how you will construct the program, hat data structure you ill need and how they will be used Codding errors: Every one makes typing errors. Creating source code from design in an imperfect process, if you find a bug. Instead of rereading or asking other one to read,. It is surprisingly just how many bugs you can detect and remove by talking through implementation with someone else. Note: compiler (like c) can caught errors at compile time while interpreter (Linux shell) caught at run time NOTE: try executing, core program on a paper, called dry running

The five stages of debugging are:      Testing : find out what defects or bugs exist Stabilization : making bugs reproducible Localization : identity lines responsible Correction: fixing code Verification : making sure the fix work

In brief, following approach used for debugging and testing a Linux program 1. code inspection change program and run it 2. instrumentation gain more info, what is happening inside program 3. controlled execution inspect program operation directly Example: Sometime , a segmentation fault occurs , os send s a signal to program saying it has detected an illegal memory access and is terminating program to prevent memory from being corrupted, the ability of os to detect illegal memory access depends on its h/w configuration and its memory management,

Code inspection:

reread program. Tools available for this: compiler ex: gcc –wall –pedanit -ansi This enables warnings. Additional checks for c standards and wall for helpful information. is adding of code to program for purpose of collecting more info about the behavior of program as its runs. Ex: printf statement


#ifdef DEBUG printf(―x=%d‖,x); # endif

compile with gcc-DEBUG

__LINE__ for current line __FILE__ for current file __DATE__ current date __TIME__ current time Controlled execution:

# ifdef debug printf(―line‖__LINE__―date‖__DATE__); #endif $cc –o cfile DEBUG cfile1.c add extra lines or use a debugger like gnu debugger (gdb), xxgdb,tgdb. The emcas editor also has a facility that allows u to run gdb on your program, set breakpoints and see which line is being executed.

Working with gdb: $cc –g –o file1 file1.c (press enter) $gdb file1 (press enter) ... ... (gdb) help (press enter) For displaying commands (gdb)run (press enter) Starting program : /root/file1 ... Program received signal . . ., segmentation fault ... (gdb) print j $1 = 4 (gdb) print a[3] $2 = { . . . } (gdb) help breakpoint ... (gdb) break 20 To insert breakpoint at line 20 (gdb) run To continue running (gdb) print a[0] @ 5 Print data from a[0] to a[5] (gdb) cont To continue execution (gdb) diable break1 To disable first break point (gdb) commands 2 those commands are written here which are run on second break point > set variable m=m+1 > cont >end

Other debuggers: 1. $ valgrind -leak –check=yes –v ./file1 2. printk: in printk debugger, code is checked and an error occurred create the check points and print an appropriate alarm message. ex: whenever a kernel segment process wish to call the data and code of user segment process, verify_area() is fired, which check all area related to process and if any error is occurred, calls the printk debugger, which print appropriate message.

Modules: Modules are components of Linux kernel that can be loaded and attached to it as needed. To add support for a new device, you can now simply instruct a kernel to load its module. In some cases, you may have to recompile only that module to provide support for your device. The use of modules has the added advantage of reducing the size if the kernel program. The kernel can load modules in memory only as they are needed. ex: the module for the BLOCK devices and FILE SYSTEM . Implementation of modules in kernel: Linux provides three system calls: create_module, init_module and delete_module for implementation of Linux modules. A further system call is used by the user process to obtain a copy of kernel‘s symbol table. The administration of modules under Linux makes use of a list in which all the modules loaded are included. The list also administers the modules‘s symbol tables and references. As far as the kernel is concerned, modules are loaded in two steps corresponding to system calls create_module and init_modules. For the user process, this procedure divides into four phases. 1. The process fetches the content of the object file into its own address space. To get the code and data into a form in which they can actually be exec uted, the actual load address must be added at various points. This process is called relocating. 2. The system call create_module is now used, firstly to obtain the final address of the object module and secondary tor eserve memory for it. To do this, a structure module is entered for the module in the list of modules and the memory is allocated. The return value gives us the address to which the module will later be copied. 3. The load address received by create_module is used to relocate the object file. This procedure takes place in a memory area belonging to the process – if process is a user process, then load in user area and if kernel process then load in kernel segment When a module is already used in a process and other process wish to use this then it uses the module which earlier loaded. This mechanism is known as module stacking. 4. Once the preliminary work is complete, we can load the object module. This uses the system call init_modules(). Cleanup() ios called when the module is deinstalled. 5. By using the system call delete_module(), a module that has been loaded can be removed again. Two precondition need to be met for this a. There must be no reference to the modules b. module‘s use_counter must hold a value zero. Select: the select function checks whether data can be read from the device or written to it. If the device is free or argument wait is NULL, the device will only be checked. If it is ready for function concerned, select() will return 1 otherwise a 0. If wait is not NULL, the processes must be held up until the device become available.

Kernel daemon: The kernel daemon is a process which automatically carries out loading and removing of modules without user noticing it. ex: whenever a file is accessed by floppy, so kernel daemon load the block device module for handling the block device and load the file system modules for particular system. But how does the kernel daemon know that modules need to be loaded. Communication between the Linux kernel and kernel daemon is carried out by means of IPC. The kernel daemon opens a message queue with the new flag IPC_KERNELD. The kernel sends the message to the kernel daemon by kerneld_send function. Request is stored in kerneld_msg structure, which includes different information. mtype: component contains the message id: indicate whether the kernel expects an answer pid: component holds the PID of the process that triggered the kernel request responsibility for loading and releasing modules lies with the functions: a) request_module: kernel requests the loading of a module and waits until the operation has been carried out. b) release_module: removes a module c) delayed_release_module: allows a module to be removed with a specific delay d) cancel_release_module: allows a module to be removed with a specified condition.

Unit6: InterProcessCommunication(IPC)* *-This unit is totally written by me after working with IPC however contents are copied but that are changed to make proper understanding. For any queries regarding this unit just write to my email. All queries asked within support period will be answered and explained in detail. There are many applications in which process need to cooperate with each other. If a process want to share a resource, it is important to make sure that no other process is accessing that resource. This situation called race condition. To eliminate the race conditions is the only use of IPC. A variety of forms of IPC can be used under Linux. These supports resource sharing, synchronization, connectionless and connection oriented exchange of data or combination of all of above. 1. Resource Sharing: resources like printer sharing and sharing memory need communication. These two techniques should be taken care while communication, so that no process can modify other process or access other process. 2. Connection less/oriented: In connection oriented, two processes must set up a connection before communicating ex: you use telephone call, in Linux we use pipes. In connectionless, we send a packet and leave it to infrastructure to deliver them. Like for sending letter. 3. Synchronization: are used to eliminate race conditions.

Synchronization in kernel: Because kernel manages the system, access by processes to these resources must be synchronized. Normally, a process will not be interrupted by schedule() unless it explicitly allows the execution of other processes by calling schedule(). Process in kernel can be interrupted by interrupt handling routine: this may result in race condition even if process is not executing any function that can lock file. In Linux kernel, process are locked and particular events are waited for via waiting queues. A process can sit on waiting queue and will not be interrupted until processes in waiting queue are reactivated by interrupt handling routine/ another process. Make the structure of wait_queue and wait_queue_head and list_head. These are already given in unit4. For adding and removing tasks from wait queue, we use add_wait_queue() and remove_wait_queue(). A process can be moved to TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE and TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE state. In first case, a task can be interrupted while not in II case. Note that, both processes can be written in same wait queue. A process can be sleep using sleep_on function and wake by wake_up macro. sleep_on(struct wait_queue **p) { struct wait_queue wait; wait.task=current; current->state=TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE;

add_wait_queue(p,&wait); schedule(); remove_wait_queue(p,&wait); } Synchronization in kernel is done by semaphores. explain up and down functions of semaphore.

Communication via files: is the oldest way of exchanging data between programs. Program A writes data to a file and B read data. In a multitasking system, both programs could be run as processes at least quasi parallel to each other. Race condition then usually produce inconsistencies in the file data. Program B reads data before A finished modifying it. In Linux, there are two ways of locking: mandatory: lock whole kernel and advisory: locking file records; reading / writing to file will continue even after lock has been set. Mandatory: It blocks r/w operations through out entire area. There are two methods for locking entire area a) lock whole file by means of fcntl() system call. This function is invoked by flock(). Flock() are not defined as POSIX standard, so programmers are advised against using it. b) in addition to files to be locked, there is an auxiliary file known as lock file is created which refuses access to the file when it is present. a. link: create a lock file if it does not exist. On a failure, it calls sleep() b. create: abort with an error code if process which is being called does not possess the appropriate access right c) open lock file, if it not exist else error message will appear to all these three points is that after a failure, process must repeat its attempt to set a lock file. The process will call sleep() to wait for 1 sec and then try again. + process can work so that no other process can modify it or write data in file + no more than one process can excess same data. It means that reading can be done but writing cannot be done on any area of file Advisory locking: with advisory locking, all processes accessing the file for r/w operations have to set the appropriate lock and release it again. Locking file area is usually referred as record locking. Advisory locking of file area is achieved by system call fcntl(). If there is no existing lock, then both r/w operations are possible If more than one read lock exist, then read is possible while write not If one write lock exists, then r/w both are illegal - deadlock + more than one process work on different area in a single file -

Pipes: Are the ways in which, one process can communicate with other processes in fifo manner, that is pipe, is a one way flow of data b/w processes, all the data written by a process to the pipe, is routed by the kernel to another process, which can thus read it. In Linux shell, pipes can be created by means of |(pipe) operator
Pipes are very simple way of IPC. And thus I leave it to you to understand and make your own notes.

/* pipe example send a message from one process to another*/ #include <unistd.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <sys/types.h> main ( ) { int fd[2]; /* pipe */ int n; /* no. of char. to be sent */ char line[4000]; /* data buffer */ pid_t pid; if ( pipe(fd) <0 ) /* create pipe */ { printf ("error when open pipe \n"); exit (1); } if ( (pid = fork()) <0 ) { printf("error creating a new process\n"); exit (1); } if (pid > 0 ) /* parent process */ { close(fd[0]); /* close read channel */ write(fd[1], "Hello my child!\n", 17); /*write to pipe */ } else /* child process */ { close (fd[1]); /* close write channel */ n = read(fd[0], line, 4000); /* read a message */ line[n] = '\0'; printf("A messige from the parent process: %s",line);

} }

Named pipes: Named pipes allow two unrelated processes to communicate with each other. They are also known as FIFOs (first-in, first-out) and can be used to establish a one-way (halfduplex) flow of data. Named pipes are identified by their access point, which is basically in a file kept on the file system. Because named pipes have the pathname of a file associated with them, it is possible for unrelated processes to communicate with each other; in other words, two unrelated processes can open the file associated with the named pipe and begin communication. Unlike anonymous pipes, which are process-persistent objects, named pipes are file system-persistent objects, that is, they exist beyond the life of the process. They have to be explicitly deleted by one of the processes by calling "unlink" or else deleted from the file system via the command line. In order to communicate by means of a named pipe, the processes have to open the file associated with the named pipe. By opening the file for reading, the process has access to the reading end of the pipe, and by opening the file for writing, the process has access to the writing end of the pipe. A named pipe supports blocked read and write operations by default: if a process opens the file for reading, it is blocked until another process opens the file for writing, and vice versa. However, it is possible to make named pipes support non-blocking operations by specifying the O_NONBLOCK flag while opening them. A named pipe must be opened either read-only or write-only. It must not be opened for read-write because it is halfduplex, that is, a one-way channel. Shells make extensive use of pipes; for example, we use pipes to send the output of one command as the input of the other command. In real-life UNIX® applications, named pipes are used for communication, when the two processes need a simple method for synchronous communication. Creating a Named Pipe A named pipe can be created in two ways -- via the command line or from within a program. From the Command Line A named pipe may be created from the shell command line. For this one can use either the "mknod" or "mkfifo" commands. Example: To create a named pipe with the file named "npipe" you can use one of the following commands:

% mknod npipe p or % mkfifo npipe You can also provide an absolute path of the named pipe to be created. Now if you look at the file using "ls ?l", you will see the following output: prw-rw-r-- 1 secf other 0 Jun 6 17:35 npipe The 'p' on the first column denotes that this is a named pipe. Just like any file in the system, it has access permissions that define which users may open the named pipe, and whether for reading, writing, or both. Within a Program The function "mkfifo" can be used to create a named pipe from within a program. The signature of the function is as follows: int mkfifo(const char *path, mode_t mode) The mkfifo function takes the path of the file and the mode (permissions) with which the file should be created. It creates the new named pipe file as specified by the path. The function call assumes the O_CREATE|O_EXCL flags, that is, it creates a new named pipe or returns an error of EEXIST if the named pipe already exists. The named pipe's owner ID is set to the process' effective user ID, and its group ID is set to the process' effective group ID, or if the S_ISGID bit is set in the parent directory, the group ID of the named pipe is inherited from the parent directory. Opening a Named Pipe A named pipe can be opened for reading or writing, and it is handled just like any other normal file in the system. For example, a named pipe can be opened by using the open() system call, or by using the fopen() standard C library function. As with normal files, if the call succeeds, you will get a file descriptor in the case of open(), or a 'FILE' structure pointer in the case of fopen(), which you may use either for reading or for writing, depending on the parameters passed to open() or to fopen(). Therefore, from a user's point of view, once you have created the named pipe, you can treat it as a file so far as the operations for opening, reading, writing, and deleting are concerned.

Reading From and Writing to a Named Pipe Reading from and writing to a named pipe are very similar to reading and writing from or to a normal file. The standard C library function calls read( ) and write( ) can be used for reading from and writing to a named pipe. These operations are blocking, by default. The following points need to be kept in mind while doing read/writes to a named pipe: A named pipe cannot be opened for both reading and writing. The process opening it must choose either read mode or write mode. The pipe opened in one mode will remain in that mode until it is closed. Read and write operations to a named pipe are blocking, by default. Therefore if a process reads from a named pipe and if the pipe does not have data in it, the reading process will be blocked. Similarly if a process tries to write to a named pipe that has no reader, the writing process gets blocked, until another process opens the named pipe for reading. This, of course, can be overridden by specifying the O_NONBLOCK flag while opening the named pipe. Seek operations (via the Standard C library function lseek) cannot be performed on named pipes. Full-Duplex Communication Using Named Pipes Although named pipes give a half-duplex (one-way) flow of data, you can establish fullduplex communication by using two different named pipes, so each named pipe provides the flow of data in one direction. However, you have to be very careful about the order in which these pipes are opened in the client and server, otherwise a deadlock may occur. For example, let us say you create the following named pipes: NP1 and NP2 In order to establish a full-duplex channel, here is how the server and the client should treat these two named pipes: Let us assume that the server opens the named pipe NP1 for reading and the second pipe NP2 for writing. Then in order to ensure that this works correctly, the client must open the first named pipe NP1 for writing and the second named pipe NP2 for reading. This way a full-duplex channel can be established between the two processes. Failure to observe the above-mentioned sequence may result in a deadlock situation. Benefits of Named Pipes Named pipes are very simple to use. mkfifo is a thread-safe function. No synchronization mechanism is needed when using named pipes.

Write (using write function call) to a named pipe is guaranteed to be atomic. It is atomic even if the named pipe is opened in non-blocking mode. Named pipes have permissions (read and write) associated with them, unlike anonymous pipes. These permissions can be used to enforce secure communication. Limitations of Named Pipes Named pipes can only be used for communication among processes on the same host machine. Named pipes can be created only in the local file system of the host, that is, you cannot create a named pipe on the NFS file system. Due to their basic blocking nature of pipes, careful programming is required for the client and server, in order to avoid deadlocks. Named pipe data is a byte stream, and no record identification exists. Code Samples The code samples given here were compiled using the GNU C compiler version 3.0.3 and were run and tested on a SPARC processor-based Sun Ultra 10 workstation running the Solaris 8 Operating Environment. The following code samples illustrate half-duplex and full-duplex communication between two unrelated processes by using named pipes. Example of Half-Duplex Communication In the following example, a client and server use named pipes for one-way communication. The server creates a named pipe, opens it for reading and waits for input on the read end of the pipe. Named-pipe reads are blocking by default, so the server waits for the client to send some request on the pipe. Once data becomes available, it converts the string to upper case and prints via STDOUT. The client opens the same named pipe in write mode and writes a user-specified string to the pipe (see Figure 1). The following table shows the contents of the header file used by both the client and server. It contains the definition of the named pipe that is used to communicate between the client and the server.

Filename : half_duplex.h #define HALF_DUPLEX #define MAX_BUF_SIZE> 255 "/tmp/halfduplex"

Server Code The following table shows the contents of Filename : hd_server.c. #include <stdio.h> #include <errno.h> #include <ctype.h> #include <unistd.h> #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/stat.h> #include <fcntl.h> #include <halfduplex.h> /* For name of the named-pipe */

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int fd, ret_val, count, numread; char buf[MAX_BUF_SIZE];

/* Create the named - pipe */ ret_val = mkfifo(HALF_DUPLEX, 0666);

if ((ret_val == -1) && (errno != EEXIST)) { perror("Error creating the named pipe"); exit (1);


/* Open the pipe for reading */ fd = open(HALF_DUPLEX, O_RDONLY);

/* Read from the pipe */ numread = read(fd, buf, MAX_BUF_SIZE);

buf[numread] = '0';

printf("Half Duplex Server : Read From the pipe : %sn", buf);

/* Convert to the string to upper case */ count = 0; while (count < numread) { buf[count] = toupper(buf[count]); count++; }

printf("Half Duplex Server : Converted String : %sn", buf); }

Client Code The following table shows the contents of Filename : hd_client.c. #include <stdio.h> #include <errno.h>

#include <ctype.h> #include <unistd.h> #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/stat.h> #include <fcntl.h> #include <halfduplex.h> /* For name of the named-pipe */

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int fd;

/* Check if an argument was specified. */

if (argc != 2) { printf("Usage : %s <string to be sent to the server>n", argv[0]); exit (1); }

/* Open the pipe for writing */ fd = open(HALF_DUPLEX, O_WRONLY);

/* Write to the pipe */ write(fd, argv[1], strlen(argv[1])); }

Running the Client and the Server

When you run the server, it will block on the read call and will wait until the client writes something to the named pipe. After that it will print what it read from the pipe, convert the string to upper case, and then terminate. In a typical implementation this server will be either an iterative or a concurrent server. But for simplicity and to demonstrate the communication through the named pipe, we have kept the server code very simple. When you run the client, you will need to give a string as an argument. Make sure you run the server first, so that the named pipe gets created. Expected output: 1. Run the server:
% hd_server &

The server program will block here, and the shell will return control to the command line. 2. Run the client:
% hd_client hello

3. The server prints the string read and terminates:
Half Duplex Server : Read From the pipe : hello Half Duplex Server : Converted String : HELLO

Example of Full-Duplex Communication In the following example, a client and server use named pipes for two-way communication. The server creates two named pipes. It opens the first pipe for reading and the second pipe for writing to communicate back to the client. It then waits for input on the read pipe. Once data is available, it converts the string to upper case and writes the converted string to the write pipe, which the client will read and print. The client opens the first pipe for writing, and it sends data through this pipe to the server. The client opens the second pipe for reading, and through this pipe, it reads the server's response (see Figure 2). The following table shows the contents of the header file used by both the client and server. It contains the definition of the two named pipes that are used to communicate between the client and the server.

Filename : fullduplex.h #define NP1 #define NP2 "/tmp/np1" "/tmp/np2" 255

#define MAX_BUF_SIZE

Server Code The following table shows the contents of Filename : fd_server.c. #include <stdio.h> #include <errno.h> #include <ctype.h> #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/stat.h> #include <fcntl.h> #include <fullduplex.h> /* For name of the named-pipe */

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int rdfd, wrfd, ret_val, count, numread; char buf[MAX_BUF_SIZE];

/* Create the first named - pipe */ ret_val = mkfifo(NP1, 0666);

if ((ret_val == -1) && (errno != EEXIST)) { perror("Error creating the named pipe"); exit (1); }

ret_val = mkfifo(NP2, 0666);

if ((ret_val == -1) && (errno != EEXIST)) { perror("Error creating the named pipe"); exit (1); }

/* Open the first named pipe for reading */ rdfd = open(NP1, O_RDONLY);

/* Open the second named pipe for writing */ wrfd = open(NP2, O_WRONLY);

/* Read from the first pipe */ numread = read(rdfd, buf, MAX_BUF_SIZE);

buf[numread] = '0';

printf("Full Duplex Server : Read From the pipe : %sn", buf);

/* Convert to the string to upper case */ count = 0; while (count < numread) { buf[count] = toupper(buf[count]); count++;


/* * Write the converted string back to the second * pipe */ write(wrfd, buf, strlen(buf)); }

Client Code The following table shows the contents of Filename : hd_client.c. #include <stdio.h> #include <errno.h> #include <ctype.h> #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/stat.h> #include <fcntl.h> #include <fullduplex.h> /* For name of the named-pipe */

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int wrfd, rdfd, numread; char rdbuf[MAX_BUF_SIZE];

/* Check if an argument was specified. */

if (argc != 2) {

printf("Usage : %s <string to be sent to the server>n", argv[0]); exit (1); }

/* Open the first named pipe for writing */ wrfd = open(NP1, O_WRONLY);

/* Open the second named pipe for reading */ rdfd = open(NP2, O_RDONLY);

/* Write to the pipe */ write(wrfd, argv[1], strlen(argv[1]));

/* Read from the pipe */ numread = read(rdfd, rdbuf, MAX_BUF_SIZE);

rdbuf[numread] = '0';

printf("Full Duplex Client : Read From the Pipe : %sn", rdbuf); }

Running the Client and the Server When you run the server, it will create the two named pipes and will block on the read call. It will wait until the client writes something to the named pipe. After that it will convert the string to upper case and then write it to the other pipe, which will be read by

the client and displayed on STDOUT. When you run the client you will need to give a string as an argument. Make sure you run the server first, so that the named pipe gets created. Expected output: 1. Run the server:
% fd_server &

The server program will block here, and the shell will return control to the command line. 2. Run the client:
% fd_client hello

The client program will send the string to server and block on the read to await the server's response. 3. The server prints the following:
Full Duplex Server : Read From the pipe : hello

The client prints the following:
Full Duplex Client : Read From the pipe : HELLO

Shared memory: Shared Memory is an efficeint means of passing data between programs. One program will create a memory portion which other processes (if permitted) can access. In the Solaris 2.x operating system, the most efficient way to implement shared memory applications is to rely on the mmap() function and on the system's native virtual memory facility. Solaris 2.x also supports System V shared memory, which is another way to let multiple processes attach a segment of physical memory to their virtual address spaces. When write access is allowed for more than one process, an outside protocol or mechanism such as a semaphore can be used to prevent inconsistencies and collisions. A process creates a shared memory segment using shmget()|. The original owner of a shared memory segment can assign ownership to another user with shmctl(). It can also revoke this assignment. Other processes with proper permission can perform various control functions on the shared memory segment using shmctl(). Once created, a shared segment can be attached to a process address space using shmat(). It can be detached using shmdt() (see shmop()). The attaching process must have the appropriate permissions for shmat(). Once attached, the process can read or write to the segment, as allowed by the permission requested in the attach operation. A shared segment can be attached multiple times by the same process. A shared memory segment is described by a control structure with a unique ID that points to an area of physical memory. The identifier of the segment is called the shmid. The structure definition for the shared memory segment control structures and prototypews can be found in <sys/shm.h>. Accessing a Shared Memory Segment
shmget() is used to obtain access to a shared memory segment. It is prottyped by:

int shmget(key_t key, size_t size, int shmflg); The key argument is a access value associated with the semaphore ID. The size argument is the size in bytes of the requested shared memory. The shmflg argument specifies the initial access permissions and creation control flags. When the call succeeds, it returns the shared memory segment ID. This call is also used to get the ID of an existing shared segment (from a process requesting sharing of some existing memory portion). The following code illustrates shmget(): #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/ipc.h> #include <sys/shm.h>

... key_t key; /* key to be passed to shmget() */ int shmflg; /* shmflg to be passed to shmget() */ int shmid; /* return value from shmget() */ int size; /* size to be passed to shmget() */ ... key = ... size = ... shmflg) = ... if ((shmid = shmget (key, size, shmflg)) == -1) { perror("shmget: shmget failed"); exit(1); } else { (void) fprintf(stderr, "shmget: shmget returned %d\n", shmid); exit(0); } ... Controlling a Shared Memory Segment
shmctl() is used to alter the permissions and other characteristics of a shared memory

segment. It is prototyped as follows: int shmctl(int shmid, int cmd, struct shmid_ds *buf); The process must have an effective shmid of owner, creator or superuser to perform this command. The cmd argument is one of following control commands:

-- Lock the specified shared memory segment in memory. The process must have the effective ID of superuser to perform this command.

-- Unlock the shared memory segment. The process must have the effective ID of superuser to perform this command.

-- Return the status information contained in the control structure and place it in the buffer pointed to by buf. The process must have read permission on the segment to perform this command.

-- Set the effective user and group identification and access permissions. The process must have an effective ID of owner, creator or superuser to perform this command.

-- Remove the shared memory segment.

The buf is a sructure of type struct shmid_ds which is defined in <sys/shm.h> The following code illustrates shmctl(): #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/ipc.h> #include <sys/shm.h> ... int cmd; /* command code for shmctl() */ int shmid; /* segment ID */ struct shmid_ds shmid_ds; /* shared memory data structure to hold results */ ... shmid = ... cmd = ... if ((rtrn = shmctl(shmid, cmd, shmid_ds)) == -1) { perror("shmctl: shmctl failed"); exit(1); } ... Attaching and Detaching a Shared Memory Segment
shmat() and shmdt() are used to attach and detach shared memory segments. They are

prototypes as follows: void *shmat(int shmid, const void *shmaddr, int shmflg); int shmdt(const void *shmaddr);
shmat() returns a pointer, shmaddr, to the head of the shared segment associated with a valid shmid. shmdt() detaches the shared memory segment located at the address indicated by shmaddr

. The following code illustrates calls to shmat() and shmdt(): #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/ipc.h> #include <sys/shm.h> static struct state { /* Internal record of attached segments. */ int shmid; /* shmid of attached segment */

char *shmaddr; /* attach point */ int shmflg; /* flags used on attach */ } ap[MAXnap]; /* State of current attached segments. */ int nap; /* Number of currently attached segments. */ ... char *addr; /* address work variable */ register int i; /* work area */ register struct state *p; /* ptr to current state entry */ ... p = &ap[nap++]; p->shmid = ... p->shmaddr = ... p->shmflg = ... p->shmaddr = shmat(p->shmid, p->shmaddr, p->shmflg); if(p->shmaddr == (char *)-1) { perror("shmop: shmat failed"); nap--; } else (void) fprintf(stderr, "shmop: shmat returned %#8.8x\n", p->shmaddr); ... i = shmdt(addr); if(i == -1) { perror("shmop: shmdt failed"); } else { (void) fprintf(stderr, "shmop: shmdt returned %d\n", i); for (p = ap, i = nap; i--; p++) if (p->shmaddr == addr) *p = ap[--nap]; } ... Example two processes comunicating via shared memory: shm_server.c, shm_client.c We develop two programs here that illustrate the passing of a simple piece of memery (a string) between the processes if running simulatenously:

-- simply creates the string and shared memory portion.


-- attaches itself to the created shared memory portion and uses the string (printf. The code listings of the 2 programs no follow: shm_server.c #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/ipc.h> #include <sys/shm.h> #include <stdio.h> #define SHMSZ main() { char c; int shmid; key_t key; char *shm, *s; /* * We'll name our shared memory segment * "5678". */ key = 5678; /* * Create the segment. */ if ((shmid = shmget(key, SHMSZ, IPC_CREAT | 0666)) < 0) { perror("shmget"); exit(1); } /* * Now we attach the segment to our data space. */ if ((shm = shmat(shmid, NULL, 0)) == (char *) -1) { perror("shmat"); exit(1); } /* * Now put some things into the memory for the * other process to read. */ 27

s = shm; for (c = 'a'; c <= 'z'; c++) *s++ = c; *s = NULL; /* * Finally, we wait until the other process * changes the first character of our memory * to '*', indicating that it has read what * we put there. */ while (*shm != '*') sleep(1); exit(0); } shm_client.c /* * shm-client - client program to demonstrate shared memory. */ #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/ipc.h> #include <sys/shm.h> #include <stdio.h> #define SHMSZ main() { int shmid; key_t key; char *shm, *s; /* * We need to get the segment named * "5678", created by the server. */ key = 5678; /* * Locate the segment. */ if ((shmid = shmget(key, SHMSZ, 0666)) < 0) { perror("shmget"); 27

exit(1); } /* * Now we attach the segment to our data space. */ if ((shm = shmat(shmid, NULL, 0)) == (char *) -1) { perror("shmat"); exit(1); } /* * Now read what the server put in the memory. */ for (s = shm; *s != NULL; s++) putchar(*s); putchar('\n'); /* * Finally, change the first character of the * segment to '*', indicating we have read * the segment. */ *shm = '*'; exit(0); }

Semaphore: Explain p/up and v/down function Semaphore Example 1: Locking The most typical use of a semaphore is to protect a chunk of code that can only be executed by one thread at a time. The semaphore acts as a lock; acquire_sem() locks the code, release_sem() releases it. Semaphores that are used as locks are (almost always) created with a thread count of 1. As a simple example, let's say you keep track of a maximum value like this: /* max_val is a global. */ uint32 max_val = 0; ... /* bump_max() resets the max value, if necessary. */ void bump_max(uint32 new_value) { if (new_value > max_value) max_value = new_value; } bump_max() isn't thread safe; there's a race condition between the comparison and the assignment. So we protect it with a semaphore: sem_id max_sem; uint32 max_val = 0; ... /* Initialize the semaphore during a setup routine. */ status_t init() { if ((max_sem = create_sem(1, "max_sem")) < B_NO_ERROR) return B_ERROR; ... } void bump_max(uint32 new_value) { if (acquire_sem(max_sem) != B_NO_ERROR) return; if (new_value > max_value) max_value = new_value; release_sem(); } ________________________________________ Semaphore Example 2: Benaphores A "benaphore" is a combination of an atomic variable and a semaphore that can improve locking efficiency. If you're using a semaphore as shown in the previous example, you should consider using a benaphore instead (if you can).

Here's the example re-written to use a benaphore: sem_id max_sem; uint32 max_val = 0; int32 ben_val = 0; status_t init() { /* This time we initialized the semaphore to 0. */ if ((max_sem = create_sem(0, "max_sem")) < B_NO_ERROR) return B_ERROR; ... } void bump_max(uint32 new_value) { int32 previous = atomic_add(&ben_val, 1); if (previous >= 1) if (acquire_sem(max_sem) != B_NO_ERROR) goto get_out; if (new_value > max_value) max_value = new_value; get_out: previous = atomic_add(&ben_val, -1); if (previous > 1) release_sem(max_sem); } The point, here, is that acquire_sem() is called only if it's known (by checking the previous value of ben_val) that some other thread is in the middle of the critical section. On the releasing end, the release_sem() is called only if some other thread has since entered the function (and is now blocked in the acquire_sem() call). An important point, here, is that the semaphore is initialized to 0. ________________________________________ Semaphore Example 3: Imposing an Execution Order Semaphores can also be used to coordinate threads that are performing separate operations, but that need to perform these operations in a particular order. In the following example, we have a global buffer that's accessed through separate reading and writing functions. Furthermore, we want writes and reads to alternate, with a write going first. We can lock the entire buffer with a single semaphore, but to enforce alternation we need two semaphores: sem_id write_sem, read_sem; char buffer[1024]; /* Initialize the semaphores */

status_t init() { if ((write_sem = create_sem(1, "write")) < B_NO_ERROR) { return; if ((read_sem = create_sem(0, "read")) < B_NO_ERROR) { delete_sem(write_sem); return; } } status_t write_buffer(const char *src) { if (acquire_sem(write_sem) != B_NO_ERROR) return B_ERROR; strncpy(buffer, src, 1024); release_sem(read_sem); } status_t read_buffer(char *dest, size_t len) { if (acquire_sem(read_sem) != B_NO_ERROR) return B_ERROR; strncpy(dest, buffer, len); release_sem(write_sem); } The initial thread counts ensure that the buffer will be written to before it's read: If a reader arrives before a writer, the reader will block until the writer releases the read_sem semaphore.

Message queue: The basic idea of a message queue is a simple one. Two (or more) processes can exchange information via access to a common system message queue. The sending process places via some (OS) message-passing module a message onto a queue which can be read by another process (Figure 24.1). Each message is given an identification or type so that processes can select the appropriate message. Process must share a common key in order to gain access to the queue in the first place (subject to other permissions -- see below).

Fig. Basic Message Passing IPC messaging lets processes send and receive messages, and queue messages for processing in an arbitrary order. Unlike the file byte-stream data flow of pipes, each IPC message has an explicit length. Messages can be assigned a specific type. Because of this, a server process can direct message traffic between clients on its queue by using the client process PID as the message type. For single-message transactions, multiple server processes can work in parallel on transactions sent to a shared message queue. Before a process can send or receive a message, the queue must be initialized (through the msgget function see below) Operations to send and receive messages are performed by the msgsnd() and msgrcv() functions, respectively. When a message is sent, its text is copied to the message queue. The msgsnd() and msgrcv() functions can be performed as either blocking or non-blocking operations. Nonblocking operations allow for asynchronous message transfer -- the process is not suspended as a result of sending or receiving a message. In blocking or synchronous message passing the sending process cannot continue until the message has been transferred or has even been acknowledged by a receiver. IPC signal and other mechanisms can be employed to implement such transfer. A blocked message operation remains suspended until one of the following three conditions occurs:

• The call succeeds. • The process receives a signal. • The queue is removed. Initialising the Message Queue The msgget() function initializes a new message queue: int msgget(key_t key, int msgflg) It can also return the message queue ID (msqid) of the queue corresponding to the key argument. The value passed as the msgflg argument must be an octal integer with settings for the queue's permissions and control flags. The following code illustrates the msgget() function. #include <sys/ipc.h>; #include <sys/msg.h>; ...

key_t key; /* key to be passed to msgget() */ int msgflg /* msgflg to be passed to msgget() */ int msqid; /* return value from msgget() */ ... key = ... msgflg = ... if ((msqid = msgget(key, msgflg)) == &ndash;1) { perror("msgget: msgget failed"); exit(1); } else (void) fprintf(stderr, &ldquo;msgget succeeded"); ... IPC Functions, Key Arguments, and Creation Flags: <sys/ipc.h> Processes requesting access to an IPC facility must be able to identify it. To do this, functions that initialize or provide access to an IPC facility use a key_t key argument. (key_t is essentially an int type defined in <sys/types.h> The key is an arbitrary value or one that can be derived from a common seed at run time. One way is with ftok() , which converts a filename to a key value that is unique within the system. Functions that initialize or get access to messages (also semaphores or shared memory see later) return an ID number of type int. IPC functions that perform read, write, and control operations use this ID. If the key argument is specified as IPC_PRIVATE, the call initializes a new instance of an IPC facility that is private to the creating process. When the IPC_CREAT flag is supplied in the flags argument appropriate to the call, the function tries to create the facility if it does not exist already. When called with both the IPC_CREAT and IPC_EXCL flags, the function fails if the facility already exists. This can be useful when more than one process might attempt to initialize the facility. One such case might involve several server processes having access

to the same facility. If they all attempt to create the facility with IPC_EXCL in effect, only the first attempt succeeds. If neither of these flags is given and the facility already exists, the functions to get access simply return the ID of the facility. If IPC_CREAT is omitted and the facility is not already initialized, the calls fail. These control flags are combined, using logical (bitwise) OR, with the octal permission modes to form the flags argument. For example, the statement below initializes a new message queue if the queue does not exist. msqid = msgget(ftok("/tmp", key), (IPC_CREAT | IPC_EXCL | 0400)); The first argument evaluates to a key based on the string ("/tmp"). The second argument evaluates to the combined permissions and control flags. Controlling message queues The msgctl() function alters the permissions and other characteristics of a message queue. The owner or creator of a queue can change its ownership or permissions using msgctl() Also, any process with permission to do so can use msgctl() for control operations. The msgctl() function is prototypes as follows: int msgctl(int msqid, int cmd, struct msqid_ds *buf ) The msqid argument must be the ID of an existing message queue. The cmd argument is one of: IPC_STAT -- Place information about the status of the queue in the data structure pointed to by buf. The process must have read permission for this call to succeed. IPC_SET -- Set the owner's user and group ID, the permissions, and the size (in number of bytes) of the message queue. A process must have the effective user ID of the owner, creator, or superuser for this call to succeed. IPC_RMID -- Remove the message queue specified by the msqid argument. The following code illustrates the msgctl() function with all its various flags: #include<sys/types.h> #include <sys/ipc.h> #include <sys/msg.h> ... if (msgctl(msqid, IPC_STAT, &buf) == -1) { perror("msgctl: msgctl failed"); exit(1); } ... if (msgctl(msqid, IPC_SET, &buf) == -1) { perror("msgctl: msgctl failed"); exit(1); } ... Sending and Receiving Messages The msgsnd() and msgrcv() functions send and receive messages, respectively: int msgsnd(int msqid, const void *msgp, size_t msgsz, int msgflg);

int msgrcv(int msqid, void *msgp, size_t msgsz, long msgtyp, int msgflg); The msqid argument must be the ID of an existing message queue. The msgp argument is a pointer to a structure that contains the type of the message and its text. The structure below is an example of what this user-defined buffer might look like: struct mymsg { long mtype; /* message type */ char mtext[MSGSZ]; /* message text of length MSGSZ */ } The msgsz argument specifies the length of the message in bytes. The structure member msgtype is the received message's type as specified by the sending process. The argument msgflg specifies the action to be taken if one or more of the following are true: • The number of bytes already on the queue is equal to msg_qbytes. • The total number of messages on all queues system-wide is equal to the systemimposed limit. These actions are as follows: • If (msgflg & IPC_NOWAIT) is non-zero, the message will not be sent and the calling process will return immediately. • If (msgflg & IPC_NOWAIT) is 0, the calling process will suspend execution until one of the following occurs: o The condition responsible for the suspension no longer exists, in which case the message is sent. o The message queue identifier msqid is removed from the system; when this occurs, errno is set equal to EIDRM and -1 is returned. o The calling process receives a signal that is to be caught; in this case the message is not sent and the calling process resumes execution. Upon successful completion, the following actions are taken with respect to the data structure associated with msqid: o msg_qnum is incremented by 1. o msg_lspid is set equal to the process ID of the calling process. o msg_stime is set equal to the current time. The following code illustrates msgsnd() and msgrcv(): #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/ipc.h> #include <sys/msg.h> ... int msgflg; /* message flags for the operation */ struct msgbuf *msgp; /* pointer to the message buffer */ int msgsz; /* message size */ long msgtyp; /* desired message type */ int msqid /* message queue ID to be used */

... msgp = (struct msgbuf *)malloc((unsigned)(sizeof(struct msgbuf) - sizeof msgp->mtext + maxmsgsz)); if (msgp == NULL) { (void) fprintf(stderr, "msgop: %s %d byte messages.\n", "could not allocate message buffer for", maxmsgsz); exit(1); ... msgsz = ... msgflg = ... if (msgsnd(msqid, msgp, msgsz, msgflg) == -1) perror("msgop: msgsnd failed"); ... msgsz = ... msgtyp = first_on_queue; msgflg = ... if (rtrn = msgrcv(msqid, msgp, msgsz, msgtyp, msgflg) == -1) perror("msgop: msgrcv failed"); ... POSIX Messages: <mqueue.h> The POSIX message queue functions are: mq_open() -- Connects to, and optionally creates, a named message queue. mq_close() -- Ends the connection to an open message queue. mq_unlink() -- Ends the connection to an open message queue and causes the queue to be removed when the last process closes it. mq_send() -- Places a message in the queue. mq_receive() -- Receives (removes) the oldest, highest priority message from the queue. mq_notify() -- Notifies a process or thread that a message is available in the queue. mq_setattr() -- Set or get message queue attributes. The basic operation of these functions is as described above. For full function prototypes and further information see the UNIX man pages Example: Sending messages between two processes The following two programs should be compiled and run at the same time to illustrate basic principle of message passing: message_send.c -- Creates a message queue and sends one message to the queue. message_rec.c -- Reads the message from the queue. message_send.c -- creating and sending to a simple message queue The full code listing for message_send.c is as follows: #include <sys/types.h>

#include <sys/ipc.h> #include <sys/msg.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> #define MSGSZ 128

/* * Declare the message structure. */ typedef struct msgbuf { long mtype; char mtext[MSGSZ]; } message_buf; main() { int msqid; int msgflg = IPC_CREAT | 0666; key_t key; message_buf sbuf; size_t buf_length; /* * Get the message queue id for the * "name" 1234, which was created by * the server. */ key = 1234; (void) fprintf(stderr, "\nmsgget: Calling msgget(%#lx,\ %#o)\n", key, msgflg); if ((msqid = msgget(key, msgflg )) < 0) { perror("msgget"); exit(1); } else (void) fprintf(stderr,"msgget: msgget succeeded: msqid = %d\n", msqid);

/* * We'll send message type 1

*/ sbuf.mtype = 1; (void) fprintf(stderr,"msgget: msgget succeeded: msqid = %d\n", msqid); (void) strcpy(sbuf.mtext, "Did you get this?"); (void) fprintf(stderr,"msgget: msgget succeeded: msqid = %d\n", msqid); buf_length = strlen(sbuf.mtext) ;

/* * Send a message. */ if (msgsnd(msqid, &sbuf, buf_length, IPC_NOWAIT) < 0) { printf ("%d, %d, %s, %d\n", msqid, sbuf.mtype, sbuf.mtext, buf_length); perror("msgsnd"); exit(1); } else printf("Message: \"%s\" Sent\n", sbuf.mtext); exit(0); } The essential points to note here are: • The Message queue is created with a basic key and message flag msgflg = IPC_CREAT | 0666 -- create queue and make it read and appendable by all. • A message of type (sbuf.mtype) 1 is sent to the queue with the message ``Did you get this?'' message_rec.c -- receiving the above message The full code listing for message_send.c's companion process, message_rec.c is as follows: #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/ipc.h> #include <sys/msg.h> #include <stdio.h> #define MSGSZ 128

/* * Declare the message structure.

*/ typedef struct msgbuf { long mtype; char mtext[MSGSZ]; } message_buf;

main() { int msqid; key_t key; message_buf rbuf; /* * Get the message queue id for the * "name" 1234, which was created by * the server. */ key = 1234; if ((msqid = msgget(key, 0666)) < 0) { perror("msgget"); exit(1); }

/* * Receive an answer of message type 1. */ if (msgrcv(msqid, &rbuf, MSGSZ, 1, 0) < 0) { perror("msgrcv"); exit(1); } /* * Print the answer. */ printf("%s\n", rbuf.mtext); exit(0); } The essential points to note here are: • The Message queue is opened with msgget (message flag 0666) and the same key as message_send.c. • A message of the same type 1 is received from the queue with the message ``Did you get this?'' stored in rbuf.mtext.

Some further example message queue programs The following suite of programs can be used to investigate interactively a variety of massage passing ideas (see exercises below). The message queue must be initialised with the msgget.c program. The effects of controlling the queue and sending and receiving messages can be investigated with msgctl.c and msgop.c respectively. msgget.c: Simple Program to illustrate msget() /* * msgget.c: Illustrate the msgget() function. * This is a simple exerciser of the msgget() function. It prompts * for the arguments, makes the call, and reports the results. */ #include <stdio.h> #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/ipc.h> #include <sys/msg.h> extern void exit(); extern void perror(); main() { key_t key; /* key to be passed to msgget() */ int msgflg, /* msgflg to be passed to msgget() */ msqid; /* return value from msgget() */ (void) fprintf(stderr, "All numeric input is expected to follow C conventions:\n"); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\t0x... is interpreted as hexadecimal,\n"); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\t0... is interpreted as octal,\n"); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\totherwise, decimal.\n"); (void) fprintf(stderr, "IPC_PRIVATE == %#lx\n", IPC_PRIVATE); (void) fprintf(stderr, "Enter key: "); (void) scanf("%li", &key); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\nExpected flags for msgflg argument are:\n"); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\tIPC_EXCL =\t%#8.8o\n", IPC_EXCL); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\tIPC_CREAT =\t%#8.8o\n", IPC_CREAT); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\towner read =\t%#8.8o\n", 0400); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\towner write =\t%#8.8o\n", 0200); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\tgroup read =\t%#8.8o\n", 040); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\tgroup write =\t%#8.8o\n", 020); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\tother read =\t%#8.8o\n", 04); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\tother write =\t%#8.8o\n", 02);

(void) fprintf(stderr, "Enter msgflg value: "); (void) scanf("%i", &msgflg); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\nmsgget: Calling msgget(%#lx, %#o)\n", key, msgflg); if ((msqid = msgget(key, msgflg)) == -1) { perror("msgget: msgget failed"); exit(1); } else { (void) fprintf(stderr, "msgget: msgget succeeded: msqid = %d\n", msqid); exit(0); } } msgctl.cSample Program to Illustrate msgctl() /* * msgctl.c: Illustrate the msgctl() function. * * This is a simple exerciser of the msgctl() function. It allows * you to perform one control operation on one message queue. It * gives up immediately if any control operation fails, so be careful * not to set permissions to preclude read permission; you won't be * able to reset the permissions with this code if you do. */ #include <stdio.h> #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/ipc.h> #include <sys/msg.h> #include <time.h> static void do_msgctl(); extern void exit(); extern void perror(); static char warning_message[] = "If you remove read permission for \ yourself, this program will fail frequently!"; main() { struct msqid_ds buf; /* queue descriptor buffer for IPC_STAT and IP_SET commands */ int cmd, /* command to be given to msgctl() */

msqid; /* queue ID to be given to msgctl() */ (void fprintf(stderr, "All numeric input is expected to follow C conventions:\n"); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\t0x... is interpreted as hexadecimal,\n"); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\t0... is interpreted as octal,\n"); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\totherwise, decimal.\n"); /* Get the msqid and cmd arguments for the msgctl() call. */ (void) fprintf(stderr, "Please enter arguments for msgctls() as requested."); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\nEnter the msqid: "); (void) scanf("%i", &msqid); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\tIPC_RMID = %d\n", IPC_RMID); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\tIPC_SET = %d\n", IPC_SET); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\tIPC_STAT = %d\n", IPC_STAT); (void) fprintf(stderr, "\nEnter the value for the command: "); (void) scanf("%i", &cmd); switch (cmd) { case IPC_SET: /* Modify settings in the message queue control structure. */ (void) fprintf(stderr, "Before IPC_SET, get current values:"); /* fall through to IPC_STAT processing */ case IPC_STAT: /* Get a copy of the current message queue control * structure and show it to the user. */ do_msgctl(msqid, IPC_STAT, &buf); (void) fprintf(stderr, ] "msg_perm.uid = %d\n", buf.msg_perm.uid); (void) fprintf(stderr, "msg_perm.gid = %d\n", buf.msg_perm.gid); (void) fprintf(stderr, "msg_perm.cuid = %d\n", buf.msg_perm.cuid); (void) fprintf(stderr, "msg_perm.cgid = %d\n", buf.msg_perm.cgid); (void) fprintf(stderr, "msg_perm.mode = %#o, ", buf.msg_perm.mode); (void) fprintf(stderr, "access permissions = %#o\n", buf.msg_perm.mode & 0777); (void) fprintf(stderr, "msg_cbytes = %d\n", buf.msg_cbytes); (void) fprintf(stderr, "msg_qbytes = %d\n",

buf.msg_qbytes); (void) fprintf(stderr, "msg_qnum = %d\n", buf.msg_qnum); (void) fprintf(stderr, "msg_lspid = %d\n", buf.msg_lspid); (void) fprintf(stderr, "msg_lrpid = %d\n", buf.msg_lrpid); (void) fprintf(stderr, "msg_stime = %s", buf.msg_stime ? ctime(&buf.msg_stime) : "Not Set\n"); (void) fprintf(stderr, "msg_rtime = %s", buf.msg_rtime ? ctime(&buf.msg_rtime) : "Not Set\n"); (void) fprintf(stderr, "msg_ctime = %s", ctime(&buf.msg_ctime)); if (cmd == IPC_STAT) break; /* Now continue with IPC_SET. */ (void) fprintf(stderr, "Enter msg_perm.uid: "); (void) scanf ("%hi", &buf.msg_perm.uid); (void) fprintf(stderr, "Enter msg_perm.gid: "); (void) scanf("%hi", &buf.msg_perm.gid); (void) fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", warning_message); (void) fprintf(stderr, "Enter msg_perm.mode: "); (void) scanf("%hi", &buf.msg_perm.mode); (void) fprintf(stderr, "Enter msg_qbytes: "); (void) scanf("%hi", &buf.msg_qbytes); do_msgctl(msqid, IPC_SET, &buf); break; case IPC_RMID: default: /* Remove the message queue or try an unknown command. */ do_msgctl(msqid, cmd, (struct msqid_ds *)NULL); break; } exit(0); } /* * Print indication of arguments being passed to msgctl(), call * msgctl(), and report the results. If msgctl() fails, do not * return; this example doesn't deal with errors, it just reports * them. */ static void do_msgctl(msqid, cmd, buf) struct msqid_ds *buf; /* pointer to queue descriptor buffer */ int cmd, /* command code */ msqid; /* queue ID */

{ register int rtrn; /* hold area for return value from msgctl() */ (void) fprintf(stderr, "\nmsgctl: Calling msgctl(%d, %d, %s)\n", msqid, cmd, buf ? "&buf" : "(struct msqid_ds *)NULL"); rtrn = msgctl(msqid, cmd, buf); if (rtrn == -1) { perror("msgctl: msgctl failed"); exit(1); } else { (void) fprintf(stderr, "msgctl: msgctl returned %d\n", rtrn); } }

Sockets The client server model Most interprocess communication uses the client server model. These terms refer to the two processes which will be communicating with each other. One of the two processes, the client, connects to the other process, the server, typically to make a request for information. A good analogy is a person who makes a phone call to another person. Notice that the client needs to know of the existence of and the address of the server, but the server does not need to know the address of (or even the existence of) the client prior to the connection being established. Notice also that once a connection is established, both sides can send and receive information. The system calls for establishing a connection are somewhat different for the client and the server, but both involve the basic construct of a socket. A socket is one end of an interprocess communication channel. The two processes each establish their own socket. The steps involved in establishing a socket on the client side are as follows: 1. Create a socket with the socket() system call 2. Connect the socket to the address of the server using the connect() system call 3. Send and receive data. There are a number of ways to do this, but the simplest is to use the read() and write() system calls. The steps involved in establishing a socket on the server side are as follows: 1. Create a socket with the socket() system call 2. Bind the socket to an address using the bind() system call. For a server socket on the Internet, an address consists of a port number on the host machine. 3. Listen for connections with the listen() system call 4. Accept a connection with the accept() system call. This call typically blocks until a client connects with the server. 5. Send and receive data Socket Types When a socket is created, the program has to specify the address domain and the socket type. Two processes can communicate with each other only if their sockets are of the same type and in the same domain. There are two widely used address domains, the unix domain, in which two processes which share a common file system communicate, and the Internet domain, in which two processes running on any two hosts on the Internet communicate. Each of these has its own address format. The address of a socket in the Unix domain is a character string which is basically an entry in the file system. The address of a socket in the Internet domain consists of the Internet address of the host machine (every computer on the Internet has a unique 32 bit address, often referred to as its IP address). In addition, each socket needs a port number on that host. Port numbers are 16 bit unsigned integers. The lower numbers are reserved in Unix for standard services. For example, the port number for the FTP server is 21. It is important that standard services be at the same port on all computers so that clients will know their addresses. However, port numbers above 2000 are generally available. There are two widely used socket types, stream sockets, and datagram sockets. Stream sockets treat communications as a continuous stream of characters, while datagram sockets have to read entire messages at once. Each uses its own communciations protocol. Stream sockets use TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), which is a reliable,

stream oriented protocol, and datagram sockets use UDP (Unix Datagram Protocol), which is unreliable and message oriented. The examples in this tutorial will use sockets in the Internet domain using the TCP protocol. Sample code C code for a very simple client and server are provided for you. These communicate using stream sockets in the Internet domain. The code is described in detail below. However, before you read the descriptions and look at the code, you should compile and run the two programs to see what they do. Click here for the server program Click here for the client program Download these into files called server.c and client.c and compile them separately into two executables called server and client. They probably won't require any special compiling flags, but on some solaris systems you may need to link to the socket library by appending -lsocket to your compile command. Ideally, you should run the client and the server on separate hosts on the Internet. Start the server first. Suppose the server is running on a machine called cheerios. When you run the server, you need to pass the port number in as an argument. You can choose any number between 2000 and 65535. If this port is already in use on that machine, the server will tell you this and exit. If this happens, just choose another port and try again. If the port is available, the server will block until it receives a connection from the client. Don't be alarmed if the server doesn't do anything; it's not supposed to do anything until a connection is made. Here is a typical command line: server 51717 To run the client you need to pass in two arguments, the name of the host on which the server is running and the port number on which the server is listening for connections. Here is the command line to connect to the server described above: client cheerios 51717 The client will prompt you to enter a message. If everything works correctly, the server will display your message on stdout, send an acknowledgement message to the client and terminate. The client will print the acknowledgement message from the server and then terminate. You can simulate this on a single machine by running the server in one window and the client in another. In this case, you can use the keyword localhost as the first argument to the client. Server code The server code uses a number of ugly programming constructs, and so we will go through it line by line. #include <stdio.h> This header file contains declarations used in most input and output and is typically included in all C programs. #include <sys/types.h> This header file contains definitions of a number of data types used in system calls. These types are used in the next two include files.

#include <sys/socket.h> The header file socket.h includes a number of definitions of structures needed for sockets. #include <netinet/in.h> The header file netinet/in.h contains constants and structures needed for internet domain addresses. void error(char *msg) { perror(msg); exit(1); } This function is called when a system call fails. It displays a message about the error on stderr and then aborts the program. The perror man page gives more information. int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int sockfd, newsockfd, portno, clilen, n; sockfd and newsockfd are file descriptors, i.e. array subscripts into the file descriptor table . These two variables store the values returned by the socket system call and the accept system call. portno stores the port number on which the server accepts connections. clilen stores the size of the address of the client. This is needed for the accept system call. n is the return value for the read() and write() calls; i.e. it contains the number of characters read or written. char buffer[256]; The server reads characters from the socket connection into this buffer. struct sockaddr_in serv_addr, cli_addr; A sockaddr_in is a structure containing an internet address. This structure is defined in <netinet/in.h>. Here is the definition: struct sockaddr_in { short sin_family; /* must be AF_INET */ u_short sin_port; struct in_addr sin_addr; char sin_zero[8]; /* Not used, must be zero */ }; An in_addr structure, defined in the same header file, contains only one field, a unsigned long called s_addr. The variable serv_addr will contain the address of the server, and cli_addr will contain the address of the client which connects to the server. if (argc < 2) { fprintf(stderr,"ERROR, no port provided\n"); exit(1);

} The user needs to pass in the port number on which the server will accept connections as an argument. This code displays an error message if the user fails to do this. sockfd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0); if (sockfd < 0) error("ERROR opening socket"); The socket() system call creates a new socket. It takes three arguments. The first is the address domain of the socket. Recall that there are two possible address domains, the unix domain for two processes which share a common file system, and the Internet domain for any two hosts on the Internet. The symbol constant AF_UNIX is used for the former, and AF_INET for the latter (there are actually many other options which can be used here for specialized purposes). The second argument is the type of socket. Recall that there are two choices here, a stream socket in which characters are read in a continuous stream as if from a file or pipe, and a datagram socket, in which messages are read in chunks. The two symbolic constants are SOCK_STREAM and SOCK_DGRAM. The third argument is the protocol. If this argument is zero (and it always should be except for unusual circumstances), the operating system will choose the most appropriate protocol. It will choose TCP for stream sockets and UDP for datagram sockets. The socket system call returns an entry into the file descriptor table (i.e. a small integer). This value is used for all subsequent references to this socket. If the socket call fails, it returns -1. In this case the program displays and error message and exits. However, this system call is unlikely to fail. This is a simplified description of the socket call; there are numerous other choices for domains and types, but these are the most common. The socket() man page has more information. bzero((char *) &serv_addr, sizeof(serv_addr)); The function bzero() sets all values in a buffer to zero. It takes two arguments, the first is a pointer to the buffer and the second is the size of the buffer. Thus, this line initializes serv_addr to zeros. portno = atoi(argv[1]); The port number on which the server will listen for connections is passed in as an argument, and this statement uses the atoi() function to convert this from a string of digits to an integer. serv_addr.sin_family = AF_INET; The variable serv_addr is a structure of type struct sockaddr_in. This structure has four fields. The first field is short sin_family, which contains a code for the address family. It should always be set to the symbolic constant AF_INET. serv_addr.sin_port = htons(portno); The second field of serv_addr is unsigned short sin_port , which contain the port number. However, instead of simply copying the port number to this field, it is necessary to

convert this to network byte order using the function htons() which converts a port number in host byte order to a port number in network byte order. serv_addr.sin_addr.s_addr = INADDR_ANY; The third field of sockaddr_in is a structure of type struct in_addr which contains only a single field unsigned long s_addr. This field contains the IP address of the host. For server code, this will always be the IP address of the machine on which the server is running, and there is a symbolic constant INADDR_ANY which gets this address. if (bind(sockfd, (struct sockaddr *) &serv_addr, sizeof(serv_addr)) < 0) error("ERROR on binding"); The bind() system call binds a socket to an address, in this case the address of the current host and port number on which the server will run. It takes three arguments, the socket file descriptor, the address to which is bound, and the size of the address to which it is bound. The second argument is a pointer to a structure of type sockaddr, but what is passed in is a structure of type sockaddr_in, and so this must be cast to the correct type. This can fail for a number of reasons, the most obvious being that this socket is already in use on this machine. The bind() man page has more information. listen(sockfd,5); The listen system call allows the process to listen on the socket for connections. The first argument is the socket file descriptor, and the second is the size of the backlog queue, i.e., the number of connections that can be waiting while the process is handling a particular connection. This should be set to 5, the maximum size permitted by most systems. If the first argument is a valid socket, this call cannot fail, and so the code doesn't check for errors. The listen() man page has more information. clilen = sizeof(cli_addr); newsockfd = accept(sockfd, (struct sockaddr *) &cli_addr, &clilen); if (newsockfd < 0) error("ERROR on accept"); The accept() system call causes the process to block until a client connects to the server. Thus, it wakes up the process when a connection from a client has been successfully established. It returns a new file descriptor, and all communication on this connection should be done using the new file descriptor. The second argument is a reference pointer to the address of the client on the other end of the connection, and the third argument is the size of this structure. The accept() man page has more information. bzero(buffer,256); n = read(newsockfd,buffer,255); if (n < 0) error("ERROR reading from socket"); printf("Here is the message: %s\n",buffer); Note that we would only get to this point after a client has successfully connected to our server. This code initializes the buffer using the bzero() function, and then reads from the socket. Note that the read call uses the new file descriptor, the one returned by accept(),

not the original file descriptor returned by socket(). Note also that the read() will block until there is something for it to read in the socket, i.e. after the client has executed a write(). It will read either the total number of characters in the socket or 255, whichever is less, and return the number of characters read. The read() man page has more information. n = write(newsockfd,"I got your message",18); if (n < 0) error("ERROR writing to socket"); Once a connection has been established, both ends can both read and write to the connection. Naturally, everything written by the client will be read by the server, and everything written by the server will be read by the client. This code simply writes a short message to the client. The last argument of write is the size of the message. The write() man page has more information. return 0; } This terminates main and thus the program. Since main was declared to be of type int as specified by the ascii standard, some compilers complain if it does not return anything. Client code As before, we will go through the program client.c line by line. #include <stdio.h> #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/socket.h> #include <netinet/in.h> #include <netdb.h> The header files are the same as for the server with one addition. The file netdb.h defines the structure hostent, which will be used below. void error(char *msg) { perror(msg); exit(0); } int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int sockfd, portno, n; struct sockaddr_in serv_addr; struct hostent *server; The error() function is identical to that in the server, as are the variables sockfd, portno, and n. The variable serv_addr will contain the address of the server to which we want to connect. It is of type struct sockaddr_in. The variable server is a pointer to a structure of type hostent. This structure is defined in the header file netdb.h as follows: struct hostent { char *h_name; /* official name of host */

char **h_aliases; /* alias list */ int h_addrtype; /* host address type */ int h_length; /* length of address */ char **h_addr_list; /* list of addresses from name server */ #define h_addr h_addr_list[0] /* address, for backward compatiblity */ }; It defines a host computer on the Internet. The members of this structure are: h_name Official name of the host. h_aliases A zero terminated array of alternate names for the host. h_addrtype The type of address being returned; currently always AF_INET. h_length The length, in bytes, of the address.

h_addr_list A pointer to a list of network addresses for the named host. Host addresses are returned in network byte order. Note that h_addr is an alias for the first address in the array of network addresses. char buffer[256]; if (argc < 3) { fprintf(stderr,"usage %s hostname port\n", argv[0]); exit(0); } portno = atoi(argv[2]); sockfd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0); if (sockfd < 0) error("ERROR opening socket"); All of this code is the same as that in the server. server = gethostbyname(argv[1]); if (server == NULL) { fprintf(stderr,"ERROR, no such host\n"); exit(0); } argv[1] contains the name of a host on the Internet, e.g. cheerios@cs.rpi.edu. The function: struct hostent *gethostbyname(char *name) Takes such a name as an argument and returns a pointer to a hostent containing information about that host. The field char *h_addr contains the IP address. If this structure is NULL, the system could not locate a host with this name. In the old days, this function worked by searching a system file called /etc/hosts but with the explosive growth of the Internet, it became impossible for system administrators to

keep this file current. Thus, the mechanism by which this function works is complex, often involves querying large databases all around the country. The gethostbyname() man page has more information. bzero((char *) &serv_addr, sizeof(serv_addr)); serv_addr.sin_family = AF_INET; bcopy((char *)server->h_addr, (char *)&serv_addr.sin_addr.s_addr, server->h_length); serv_addr.sin_port = htons(portno); This code sets the fields in serv_addr. Much of it is the same as in the server. However, because the field server->h_addr is a character string, we use the function: void bcopy(char *s1, char *s2, int length) which copies length bytes from s1 to s2. if (connect(sockfd,&serv_addr,sizeof(serv_addr)) < 0) error("ERROR connecting"); The connect function is called by the client to establish a connection to the server. It takes three arguments, the socket file descriptor, the address of the host to which it wants to connect (including the port number), and the size of this address. This function returns 0 on success and -1 if it fails. The connect() man page has more information. Notice that the client needs to know the port number of the server, but it does not need to know its own port number. This is typically assigned by the system when connect is called. printf("Please enter the message: "); bzero(buffer,256); fgets(buffer,255,stdin); n = write(sockfd,buffer,strlen(buffer)); if (n < 0) error("ERROR writing to socket"); bzero(buffer,256); n = read(sockfd,buffer,255); if (n < 0) error("ERROR reading from socket"); printf("%s\n",buffer); return 0; } The remaining code should be fairly clear. It prompts the user to enter a message, uses fgets to read the message from stdin, writes the message to the socket, reads the reply from the socket, and displays this reply on the screen. Enhancements to the server code The sample server code above has the limitation that it only handles one connection, and then dies. A "real world" server should run indefinitely and should have the capability of handling a number of simultaneous connections, each in its own process. This is typically done by forking off a new process to handle each new connection.

The following code has a dummy function called dostuff(int sockfd). This function will handle the connection after it has been established and provide whatever services the client requests. As we saw above, once a connection is established, both ends can use read and write to send information to the other end, and the details of the information passed back and forth do not concern us here. To write a "real world" server, you would make essentially no changes to the main() function, and all of the code which provided the service would be in dostuff(). To allow the server to handle multiple simultaneous connections, we make the following changes to the code: 1. Put the accept statement and the following code in an infinite loop. 2. After a connection is established, call fork() to create a new process. 3. The child process will close sockfd and call dostuff, passing the new socket file descriptor as an argument. When the two processes have completed their conversation, as indicated by dostuff() returning, this process simply exits. 4. The parent process closes newsockfd. Because all of this code is in an infinite loop, it will return to the accept statement to wait for the next connection. Here is the code. while (1) { newsockfd = accept(sockfd, (struct sockaddr *) &cli_addr, &clilen); if (newsockfd < 0) error("ERROR on accept"); pid = fork(); if (pid < 0) error("ERROR on fork"); if (pid == 0) { close(sockfd); dostuff(newsockfd); exit(0); } else close(newsockfd); } /* end of while */ Click here for a complete server program which includes this change. This will run with the program client.c. The zombie problem The above code has a problem; if the parent runs for a long time and accepts many connections, each of these connections will create a zombie when the connection is terminated. A zombie is a process which has terminated but but cannot be permitted to fully die because at some point in the future, the parent of the process might execute a wait and would want information about the death of the child. Zombies clog up the process table in the kernel, and so they should be prevented. Unfortunately, the code which prevents zombies is not consistent across different architectures. When a child dies, it sends a SIGCHLD signal to its parent. On systems such as AIX, the following code in main() is all that is needed. signal(SIGCHLD,SIG_IGN);

This says to ignore the SIGCHLD signal. However, on systems running SunOS, you have to use the following code: void *SigCatcher(int n) { wait3(NULL,WNOHANG,NULL); } ... int main() { ... signal(SIGCHLD,SigCatcher); ... The function SigCatcher() will be called whenever the parent receives a SIGCHLD signal (i.e. whenever a child dies). This will in turn call wait3 which will receive the signal. The WNOHANG flag is set, which causes this to be a non-blocking wait (one of my favorite oxymorons). Alternative types of sockets This example showed a stream socket in the Internet domain. This is the most common type of connection. A second type of connection is a datagram socket. You might want to use a datagram socket in cases where there is only one message being sent from the client to the server, and only one message being sent back. There are several differences between a datagram socket and a stream socket. 1. Datagrams are unreliable, which means that if a packet of information gets lost somewhere in the Internet, the sender is not told (and of course the receiver does not know about the existence of the message). In contrast, with a stream socket, the underlying TCP protocol will detect that a message was lost because it was not acknowledged, and it will be retransmitted without the process at either end knowing about this. 2. Message boundaries are preserved in datagram sockets. If the sender sends a datagram of 100 bytes, the receiver must read all 100 bytes at once. This can be contrasted with a stream socket, where if the sender wrote a 100 byte message, the receiver could read it in two chunks of 50 bytes or 100 chunks of one byte. 3. The communication is done using special system calls sendto() and receivefrom() rather than the more generic read() and write(). 4. There is a lot less overhead associated with a datagram socket because connections do not need to be established and broken down, and packets do not need to be acknowledged. This is why datagram sockets are often used when the service to be provided is short, such as a time-of-day service. Click here for the server code using a datagram socket. Click here for the client code using a datagram socket. These two programs can be compiled and run in exactly the same way as the server and client using a stream socket. Server code with a datagram socket Most of the server code is similar to the stream socket code. Here are the differences. sock=socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0);

Note that when the socket is created, the second argument is the symbolic constant SOCK_DGRAM instead of SOCK_STREAM. The protocol will be UDP, not TCP. fromlen = sizeof(struct sockaddr_in); while (1) { n = recvfrom(sock,buf,1024,0,(struct sockaddr *)&from,&fromlen); if (n < 0) error("recvfrom"); Servers using datagram sockets do not use the listen() or the accept() system calls. After a socket has been bound to an address, the program calls recvfrom() to read a message. This call will block until a message is received. The recvfrom() system call takes six arguments. The first three are the same as those for the read() call, the socket file descriptor, the buffer into which the message will be read, and the maximum number of bytes. The fourth argument is an integer argument for flags. This is ordinarily set to zero. The fifth argument is a pointer to a sockaddr_in structure. When the call returns, the values of this structure will have been filled in for the other end of the connection (the client). The size of this structure will be in the last argument, a pointer to an integer. This call returns the number of bytes in the message. (or -1 on an error condition). The recvfrom() man page has more information. n = sendto(sock,"Got your message\n",17, 0,(struct sockaddr *) &from,fromlen); if (n < 0) error("sendto"); } } To send a datagram, the function sendto() is used. This also takes six arguments. The first three are the same as for a write() call, the socket file descriptor, the buffer from which the message will be written, and the number of bytes to write. The fourth argument is an int argument called flags, which is normally zero. The fifth argument is a pointer to a sockadd_in structure. This will contain the address to which the message will be sent. Notice that in this case, since the server is replying to a message, the values of this structure were provided by the recvfrom call. The last argument is the size of this structure. Note that this is not a pointer to an int, but an int value itself. The sendto() man page has more information. The Client Code The client code for a datagram socket client is the same as that for a stream socket with the following differences. • the socket system call has SOCK_DGRAM instead of SOCK_STREAM as its second argument. • there is no connect() system call • instead of read and write, the client uses recvfrom and sendto which are described in detail above. Sockets in the Unix Domain Here is the code for a client and server which communicate using a stream socket in the Unix domain. Click here for the server program Click here for the client program

The only difference between a socket in the Unix domain and a socket in the Internet domain is the form of the address. Here is the address structure for a Unix Domain address, defined in the header file sys/un.h. struct sockaddr_un short sun_family; /* AF_UNIX */ char sun_path[108]; /* path name (gag) */ }; The field sun_path has the form of a path name in the Unix file system. This means that both client and server have to be running the same file system. Note that on systems running AFS, such as the Rensselaer Computer System, these sockets must be created in the directory /tmp. Once a socket has been created, it remain until it is explicitly deleted, and its name will appear with the ls command, always with a size of zero. Sockets in the Unix domain are virtually identical to named pipes (FIFOs). Designing servers There are a number of different ways to design servers. These models are discussed in detail in a book by Douglas E. Comer and David L. Stevens entiteld Internetworking with TCP/IP Volume III:Client Server Programming and Applications published by Prentice Hall in 1996. These are summarized here. Concurrent, connection oriented servers The typical server in the Internet domain creates a stream socket and forks off a process to handle each new connection that it receives. This model is appropriate for services which will do a good deal of reading and writing over an extended period of time, such as a telnet server or an ftp server. This model has relatively high overhead, because forking off a new process is a time consuming operation, and because a stream socket which uses the TCP protocol has high kernel overhead, not only in establishing the connection but also in transmitting information. However, once the connection has been established, data transmission is reliable in both directions. Iterative, connectionless servers Servers which provide only a single message to the client often do not involve forking, and often use a datagram socket rather than a stream socket. Examples include a finger daemon or a timeofday server or an echo server (a server which merely echoes a message sent by the client). These servers handle each message as it receives them in the same process. There is much less overhead with this type of server, but the communication is unreliable. A request or a reply may get lost in the Internet, and there is no built-in mechanism to detect and handle this. Single Process concurrent servers A server which needs the capability of handling several clients simultaneous, but where each connection is I/O dominated (i.e. the server spends most of its time blocked waiting for a message from the client) is a candidate for a single process, concurrent server. In this model, one process maintains a number of open connections, and listens at each for a message. Whenever it gets a message from a client, it replies quickly and then listens for the next one. This type of service can be done with the select system call.

ptrace: Execution tracing is a technique that allows a program to monitor the execution of another program. The traced program can be executed step by step. Until a signal is received r until a system call is invoked. Execution tracing is widely used by debuggers, together with other techniques like the insertion of breakpoints in the debugged program and run time access to its variables. In Linux, execution tracing is performed through the ptrace() system call, which an handle the following commands: 1. PTRACE_TRACEME: start execution tracing for the current process 2. PTRACE_ATTACH: start execution tracing for another process 3. PTRACE_DETACH: terminate execution tracing 4. PTRACE_KILL: kill the traced process 5. PTRACE_PEEKTEXT: read a 32 bit value from the text segment 6. PTRACE_PEEKDATA: read a 32 bit value from data segment 7. PTRACE_POKETEXT: write a 32 bit value to text segment 8. PTRACE_POKEDATA: write a 32 bit value to data segment 9. PTRACE_CONT: resume execution Several monitored events can be associated with a traced program: - end of execution of a single assembly instruction - entering a system call - exiting from a system call - receiving a signal When a monitored event occurs, the traced program is stopped and a SIGCHLD signal is sent to its parent. When the parent wishes to resume the child‘s execution. T can use one of the PTRACE_CONT A process can also be traced using some debugging features of the intel processors. For example: the parent could set the value of the dr0 . . . dr7 debug registers. The cpu raises the ―debug‖ exception: the exception handler can then suspend the traced process and send the SIGCHLD signal to the parent.

Unit7: HAL: The greatest contributions of the Industrial Revolution were standardization and interchangeable parts. Open software and the APIs it embodies certainly capture the spirit of outward standardization, but the same can‘t be said for parts inside the box. Linux, for all its flexibility and portability, still feels like a flintlock factory when it comes to retargeting it across new systems, boards, and CPUs.In contrast, the BSP is solidly industrial. Twenty years ago, the BSP, which stands for Board Support Package, was coined to describe the abstraction of hardware dependencies in an embedded OS. More recent TLAs—three-letter acronyms—like HAL and OAL (Hardware and OEM Abstraction Layers) have joined BSP in the acronym hall of fame, but BSP in pervasive computing has stuck. Developers, partners, sales people, all call our company regularly to check on ―BSP availability.‖ A HAL, when implemented well, allows an OS to generalize many of the particulars of a system‘s CPU, cache, MMU/TLBs, serial ports, NICs, display device, interrupt controller, memory map, etc., both to allow the OS to focus on ―big issues‖ and to facilitate porting to new hardware configurations. The existence of Ready Systems‘ and Wind River‘s BSP/HAL specifications eased the migration of the VRTX and VxWorks kernels onto literally thousands of boards with dozens of architectures; the WindowsCE OAL helped Microsoft target over a hundred boards with dozens of different CPUs in a very short time. So, why doesn‘t Linux have a HAL? I can tell you the answer in one word – Tradition. The Linux kernel emanates from kernel.org, which essentially produces a white box OS, supporting x86/IA-32 compatible CPUs. With that Wintel architecture, things like code compatibility, BIOS, and chipsets come together to form what I call the PC/AT ―virtual machine.‖ Linux, like Windows, leverages basic knowledge about this platform, so that booting and hardware initialization are taken care of, leaving a kernel to worry about the more interesting things. As one hacker says, ―on x86, it just works!‖ Linux does have a HAL – it‘s the PC. Pervasive computing is not about the ubiquity of the PC. Architectures other than x86/IA-32, like PowerPC, ARM, MIPS, and SuperHitachi, dominate the space and each presents its own take on hardware configuration, while none offers a broadly accepted set of hardware support conventions. Some abstraction work is indeed under way. As each Linux architecture tree matures, conventions arise through the magic of Open Source cooperation. The PowerPC tree is a case in point. The PowerPC CPU family, while binary-compatible for user-space applications, diverges vastly among members in terms of MMU, cache, floating point, breakpoint registers, and with Book E, new instructions, and PowerPC boards present over half a dozen boot monitors. Porting to new PowerPC hardware might still not be for the faint of heart, but agreedupon abstractions have matured to the point that new boards can be added to the corpus of supported systems with modifications to as few as three files. Now, the MIPS folks are talking to the PowerPC maintainers and appear to be headed in the same direction. While these grass-roots efforts represent the best of Open Source, fragmentation across architectures, which still abounds, cannot be good for Linux overall. The current prediction is that Linux will truly triumph in embedded where it has not done so on the desktop. That means the Community needs to get together with both bottom-up and topdown initiatives to accelerate quick and easy porting to new hardware

POSIX: What is POSIX®? POSIX is the Portable Operating System Interface, the open operating interface standard accepted world-wide. It is produced by IEEE and recognized by ISO and ANSI. POSIX support assures code portability between systems and is increasingly mandated for commercial applications and government contracts. For instance, the USA's Joint Technical Architecture—Army (JTA-A) standards set specifies that conformance to the POSIX specification is critical to support software interoperability. POSIX conformance is worth more than POSIX compliance POSIX conformance is what real-time embedded developers are usually looking for. POSIX conformance means that the POSIX.1 standard is supported in its entirety. In the case of the LynxOS real-time operating system, the routines of the POSIX.1b and POSIX.1c subsets are also supported. Certified POSIX conformance exists when conformance is certified by an accredited, independent certification authority. For example, LynxOS has been certified conformant to POSIX 1003.1-1996 by Mindcraft, Inc. and tested against FIPS 151-2 (Federal Information Processing Standard). POSIX compliance is a less powerful label, and could merely mean that a product provides partial POSIX support. "POSIX compliance" means that documentation is available that shows which POSIX features are supported and which are not. Be wary of claims like POSIX operating system or 95% POSIX, which do not specify POSIX conformance. Remember that POSIX compliance does not always mean that all POSIX-defined features are supported.

Different Kernel Designs Overview: Kernel terminology gets tossed about quite a bit. One of the more common topics regarding operating system kernels is the overall design. In particular how the kernel is structured. Generally, there are three major types of kernels; monolithic, microkernel and hybrid/modular. Monolithic A monolithic kernel is one single program that contains all of the code necessary to perform every kernel related task. Most UNIX and BSD kernels are monolithic by default. Recently more UNIX and BSD systems have been adding the modular capability which is popular in the Linux kernel. The Linux kernel started off monolithic, however, it gravitated towards a modular/hybrid design for several reasons. In the monolithic kernel, some advantages hinge on these points: Since there is less software involved it is faster. As it is one single piece of software it should be smaller both in source and compiled forms. Less code generally means less bugs which can translate to fewer security problems. Those points are dependent upon how well the software is written in the first place. It can be assumed that a stable kernel that has modular capability added to it will, of course, grow both in raw software terms and regarding internal communications. Most work in the monolithic kernel is done via system calls. These are interfaces, usually kept in a tabular structure, that access some subsystem within the kernel such as disk operations. Essentially calls are made within programs and a checked copy of the request is passed through the system call. Hence, not far to travel at all. The disadvantages of the monolithic kernel are converse with the advantages. Modifying and testing monolithic systems takes longer than their microkernel counterparts. When a bug surfaces within the core of the kernel the effects can be far reaching. Also, patching monolithic systems can be more difficult (especially for source patching). Microkernel The microkernel architecture is very different from the monolithic. In the microkernel, only the most fundamental of tasks are are performed such as being able to access some (not necessarily all) of the hardware, manage memory and coordinate message passing between the processes. Some systems that use microkernels are QNX and the HURD. In the case of QNX and HURD, user sessions can be entire snapshots of the system itself or views as it is referred to. The very essence of the microkernel architecture illustrates some of its advantages:

Maintenance is generally easier. Patches can be tested in a separate instance, then swapped in to take over a production instance. Rapid development time, new software can be tested without having to reboot the kernel. More persistence in general, if one instance goes hay-wire, it is often possible to substitute it with an operational mirror. Again, all of the points are making certain assumptions about the code itself. Assuming the code is well formed, those points should stand reasonably well. Most microkernels use a message passing system of some sort to handle requests from one server to another. The message passing system generally operates on a port basis with the microkernel. As an example, if a request for more memory is sent, a port is opened with the microkernel and the request sent through. Once within the microkernel, the steps are similar to system calls. Disadvantages in the microkernel exist however. A few examples are: Larger running memory footprint More software for interfacing is required, there is a potential for performance loss (note, the QNX system is extraordinarily fast). Messaging bugs can be harder to fix due to the longer trip they have to take versus the one off copy in a monolithic kernel. Process management in general can be very complicated. The disadvantages for microkernels are extremely context based. As an example, they work well for small single purpose (and critical) systems because if not many processes need to run, then the complications of process management are effectively mitigated. Modular/Hybrid Kernels Many traditionally monolithic kernels are now at least adding (if not actively exploiting) the module capability. The most well known of these kernels is the Linux kernel. The modular kernel essentially can have parts of it that are built into the core kernel binary or binaries that load into memory on demand. It is important to note that a code tainted module has the potential to destabilize a running kernel. Many people become confused on this point when discussing microkernels. It is possible to write a driver for a microkernel in a completely separate memory space and test it before going live. When a kernel module is loaded, it accesses the monolithic portion's memory space by adding to it what it needs, therefore, opening the doorway to possible pollution. A few advantages to the modular kernel are: Faster development time for drivers that can operate from within modules. No reboot required for testing (provided the kernel is not destabilized). On demand capability versus spending time recompiling a whole kernel for things like new drivers or subsystems.

Faster integration of third party technology (related to development but pertinent unto itself nonetheless). Modules, generally, communicate with the kernel using a module interface of some sort. The interface is generalized (although particular to a given operating system) so it is not always possible to use modules. Often the device drivers may need more flexibility than the module interface affords. Essentially, it is two system calls and often the safety checks that only have to be done once in the monolithic kernel now may be done twice. Some of the disadvantages of the modular approach are: With more interfaces to pass through, the possibility of increased bugs exists (which implies more security holes). Maintaining modules can be confusing for some administrators when dealing with problems like symbol differences.

Booting process: 1. BIOS: The Basic Input/Output System is the lowest level interface between the computer and peripherals. The BIOS performs integrity checks on memory and seeks instructions on the Master Boor Record (MBR) on the floppy drive or hard drive. 2. The MBR points to the boot loader (GRUB or LILO: Linux boot loader). 3. Boot loader (GRUB or LILO) will then ask for the OS label which will identify which kernel to run and where it is located (hard drive and partition specified). The installation process requires to creation/identification of partitions and where to install the OS. GRUB/LILO are also configured during this process. The boot loader then loads the Linux operating system. o See the YoLinux tutorial on creating a boot disk for more information on GRUB and LILO and also to learn how to put the MBR and boot loader on a floppy for system recovery. 4. The first thing the kernel does is to execute init program. Init is the root/parent of all processes executing on Linux. 5. The first processes that init starts is a script /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit

Boot Script works as: Run /sbin/initlog Run devfs to generate/manage system devices Run network scripts: /etc/sysconfig/network Start graphical boot (If so configured): rhgb Start console terminals, load keymap, system fonts and print console greeting: mingetty, setsysfonts The various virtual console sessions can be viewed with the key-stroke: ctrlalt-F1 through F6. F7 is reserved for the GUI screen invoked in run level 5. Mount /proc and start device controllers. Done with boot configuration for root drive. (initrd) Unmount root drive. Re-mount root file system as read/write Direct kernel to load kernel parameters and modules: sysctl, depmod, modprobe Set up clock: /etc/sysconfig/clock Perform disk operations based on fsck configuration Check/mount/check/enable quotas non-root file systems: fsck, mount, quotacheck, quotaon Initialize logical volume management: vgscan, /etc/lvmtab Activate syslog, write to log files: dmesg Configure sound: sndconfig Activate PAM Active swqpping: swapon

More details on booting process: The process of booting a Linux® system consists of a number of stages. But whether you're booting a standard x86 desktop or a deeply embedded PowerPC® target, much of the flow is surprisingly similar. This article explores the Linux boot process from the initial bootstrap to the start of the first user-space application. Along the way, you'll learn about various other boot-related topics such as the boot loaders, kernel decompression, the initial RAM disk, and other elements of Linux boot. In the early days, bootstrapping a computer meant feeding a paper tape containing a boot program or manually loading a boot program using the front panel address/data/control switches. Today's computers are equipped with facilities to simplify the boot process, but that doesn't necessarily make it simple. Let's start with a high-level view of Linux boot so you can see the entire landscape. Then we'll review what's going on at each of the individual steps. Source references along the way will help you navigate the kernel tree and dig in further. Overview Figure 1 gives you the 20,000-foot view. Figure 1. The 20,000-foot view of the Linux boot process

When a system is first booted, or is reset, the processor executes code at a well-known location. In a personal computer (PC), this location is in the basic input/output system (BIOS), which is stored in flash memory on the motherboard. The central processing unit (CPU) in an embedded system invokes the reset vector to start a program at a known address in flash/ROM. In either case, the result is the same. Because PCs offer so much flexibility, the BIOS must determine which devices are candidates for boot. We'll look at this in more detail later. When a boot device is found, the first-stage boot loader is loaded into RAM and executed. This boot loader is less than 512 bytes in length (a single sector), and its job is to load the second-stage boot loader. When the second-stage boot loader is in RAM and executing, a splash screen is commonly displayed, and Linux and an optional initial RAM disk (temporary root file system) are loaded into memory. When the images are loaded, the second-stage boot loader passes control to the kernel image and the kernel is decompressed and initialized.

At this stage, the second-stage boot loader checks the system hardware, enumerates the attached hardware devices, mounts the root device, and then loads the necessary kernel modules. When complete, the first user-space program (init) starts, and high-level system initialization is performed. That's Linux boot in a nutshell. Now let's dig in a little further and explore some of the details of the Linux boot process.

System startup The system startup stage depends on the hardware that Linux is being booted on. On an embedded platform, a bootstrap environment is used when the system is powered on, or reset. Examples include U-Boot, RedBoot, and MicroMonitor from Lucent. Embedded platforms are commonly shipped with a boot monitor. These programs reside in special region of flash memory on the target hardware and provide the means to download a Linux kernel image into flash memory and subsequently execute it. In addition to having the ability to store and boot a Linux image, these boot monitors perform some level of system test and hardware initialization. In an embedded target, these boot monitors commonly cover both the first- and second-stage boot loaders. Extracting the MBR In a PC, booting Linux begins in the BIOS at address To see the contents of your 0xFFFF0. The first step of the BIOS is the power-on MBR, use this command: self test (POST). The job of the POST is to perform # dd if=/dev/hda of=mbr.bin a check of the hardware. The second step of the bs=512 count=1 # od -xa mbr.bin BIOS is local device enumeration and initialization. The dd command, which needs Given the different uses of BIOS functions, the to be run from root, reads the BIOS is made up of two parts: the POST code and first 512 bytes from /dev/hda runtime services. After the POST is complete, it is flushed from memory, but the BIOS runtime services (the first Integrated Drive Electronics, or IDE drive) and remain and are available to the target operating writes them to the mbr.bin file. system. The od command prints the To boot an operating system, the BIOS runtime searches for devices that are both active and bootable binary file in hex and ASCII formats. in the order of preference defined by the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) settings. A boot device can be a floppy disk, a CD-ROM, a partition on a hard disk, a device on the network, or even a USB flash memory stick. Commonly, Linux is booted from a hard disk, where the Master Boot Record (MBR) contains the primary boot loader. The MBR is a 512-byte sector, located in the first sector on the disk (sector 1 of cylinder 0, head 0). After the MBR is loaded into RAM, the BIOS yields control to it.

Stage 1 boot loader The primary boot loader that resides in the MBR is a 512-byte image containing both program code and a small partition table (see Figure 2). The first 446 bytes are the primary boot loader, which contains both executable code and error message text. The next sixty-four bytes are the partition table, which contains a record for each of four partitions (sixteen bytes each). The MBR ends with two bytes that are defined as the magic number (0xAA55). The magic number serves as a validation check of the MBR. Figure 2. Anatomy of the MBR

The job of the primary boot loader is to find and load the secondary boot loader (stage 2). It does this by looking through the partition table for an active partition. When it finds an active partition, it scans the remaining partitions in the table to ensure that they're all inactive. When this is verified, the active partition's boot record is read from the device into RAM and executed.

Stage 2 boot loader The secondary, or second-stage, boot loader could be more aptly called the kernel loader. The task at this stage is to load the Linux kernel and optional initial RAM disk.

The first- and second-stage boot loaders combined GRUB stage boot loaders are called Linux Loader (LILO) or GRand Unified The /boot/grub directory Bootloader (GRUB) in the x86 PC environment. contains the stage1, stage1.5, Because LILO has some disadvantages that were and stage2 boot loaders, as well corrected in GRUB, let's look into GRUB. (See as a number of alternate loaders many additional resources on GRUB, LILO, and (for example, CR-ROMs use related topics in the Resources section later in this the iso9660_stage_1_5). article.) The great thing about GRUB is that it includes knowledge of Linux file systems. Instead of using raw sectors on the disk, as LILO does, GRUB can load a Linux kernel from an ext2 or ext3 file system. It does this by making the two-stage boot loader into a threestage boot loader. Stage 1 (MBR) boots a stage 1.5 boot loader that understands the particular file system containing the Linux kernel image. Examples include reiserfs_stage1_5 (to load from a Reiser journaling file system) or e2fs_stage1_5 (to load from an ext2 or ext3 file system). When the stage 1.5 boot loader is loaded and running, the stage 2 boot loader can be loaded. With stage 2 loaded, GRUB can, upon request, display a list of available kernels (defined in /etc/grub.conf, with soft links from /etc/grub/menu.lst and /etc/grub.conf). You can select a kernel and even amend it with additional kernel parameters. Optionally, you can use a command-line shell for greater manual control over the boot process. With the second-stage boot loader in memory, the file system is consulted, and the default kernel image and initrd image are loaded into memory. With the images ready, the stage 2 boot loader invokes the kernel image.

Kernel Manual boot in GRUB From the GRUB commandline, you can boot a specific kernel with a named initrd image as follows: grub> kernel /bzImage2.6.14.2 [Linux-bzImage, setup=0x1400, size=0x29672e] grub> initrd /initrd2.6.14.2.img [Linux-initrd @ 0x5f13000, 0xcc199 bytes]

With the kernel image in memory and control given from the stage 2 boot loader, the kernel stage begins. grub> boot The kernel image isn't so much an executable kernel, but a compressed kernel image. Typically this is a Uncompressing Linux... Ok, zImage (compressed image, less than 512KB) or a booting the kernel. bzImage (big compressed image, greater than 512KB), that has been previously compressed with zlib. At the head of this kernel image is a routine that If you don't know the name of does some minimal amount of hardware setup and the kernel to boot, just type a then decompresses the kernel contained within the forward slash (/) and press the kernel image and places it into high memory. If an Tab key. GRUB will display initial RAM disk image is present, this routine the list of kernels and initrd moves it into memory and notes it for later use. The images. routine then calls the kernel and the kernel boot begins. When the bzImage (for an i386 image) is invoked, you begin at ./arch/i386/boot/head.S in the start assembly routine (see Figure 3 for the major flow). This routine does some basic hardware setup and invokes the startup_32 routine in ./arch/i386/boot/compressed/head.S. This routine sets up a basic environment (stack, etc.) and clears the Block Started by Symbol (BSS). The kernel is then decompressed through a call to a C function called decompress_kernel (located in ./arch/i386/boot/compressed/misc.c). When the kernel is decompressed into memory, it is called. This is yet another startup_32 function, but this function is in ./arch/i386/kernel/head.S. In the new startup_32 function (also called the swapper or process 0), the page tables are initialized and memory paging is enabled. The type of CPU is detected along with any optional floating-point unit (FPU) and stored away for later use. The start_kernel function is then invoked (init/main.c), which takes you to the non-architecture specific Linux kernel. This is, in essence, the main function for the Linux kernel. Figure 3. Major functions flow for the Linux kernel i386 boot

With the call to start_kernel, a long list of initialization functions are called to set up interrupts, perform further memory configuration, and load the initial RAM disk. In the end, a call is made to kernel_thread (in arch/i386/kernel/process.c) to start the init function, which is the first user-space process. Finally, the idle task is started and the scheduler can now take control (after the call to cpu_idle). With interrupts enabled, the pre-emptive scheduler periodically takes control to provide multitasking. During the boot of the kernel, the initial-RAM disk (initrd) that was loaded into memory by the stage 2 boot loader is copied into RAM and mounted. This initrd serves as a temporary root file system in RAM and allows the kernel to fully boot without having to mount any physical disks. Since the necessary modules needed to interface with peripherals can be part of the initrd, the kernel can be very small, but still support a large number of possible hardware configurations. After the kernel is booted, the root file system is pivoted (via pivot_root) where the initrd root file system is unmounted and the real root file system is mounted. The initrd function allows you to create a small decompress_kernel output Linux kernel with drivers compiled as loadable The decompress_kernel modules. These loadable modules give the kernel the function is where you see the means to access disks and the file systems on those usual decompression messages disks, as well as drivers for other hardware assets. emitted to the display: Because the root file system is a file system on a Uncompressing Linux... Ok, disk, the initrd function provides a means of booting the kernel. bootstrapping to gain access to the disk and mount the real root file system. In an embedded target without a hard disk, the initrd can be the final root file system, or the final root file system can be mounted via the Network File System (NFS).

Init After the kernel is booted and initialized, the kernel starts the first user-space application. This is the first program invoked that is compiled with the standard C library. Prior to this point in the process, no standard C applications have been executed.

In a desktop Linux system, the first application started is commonly /sbin/init. But it need not be. Rarely do embedded systems require the extensive initialization provided by init (as configured through /etc/inittab). In many cases, you can invoke a simple shell script that starts the necessary embedded applications.

Overview of Linux and compiling the kernel: WHAT IS LINUX? Linux is a clone of the operating system Unix, written from scratch by Linus Torvalds with assistance from a loosely-knit team of hackers across the Net. It aims towards POSIX and Single UNIX Specification compliance. It has all the features you would expect in a modern fully-fledged Unix, including true multitasking, virtual memory, shared libraries, demand loading, shared copy-on-write executables, proper memory management, and multistack networking including IPv4 and IPv6. It is distributed under the GNU General Public License - see the accompanying COPYING file for more details. ON WHAT HARDWARE DOES IT RUN? Although originally developed first for 32-bit x86-based PCs (386 or higher), today Linux also runs on (at least) the Compaq Alpha AXP, Sun SPARC and UltraSPARC, Motorola 68000, PowerPC, PowerPC64, ARM, Hitachi SuperH, Cell, IBM S/390, MIPS, HP PA-RISC, Intel IA-64, DEC VAX, AMD x86-64, AXIS CRIS, Xtensa, AVR32 and Renesas M32R architectures. Linux is easily portable to most general-purpose 32- or 64bit architectures as long as they have a paged memory management unit (PMMU) and a port of the GNU C compiler (gcc) (part of The GNU Compiler Collection, GCC). Linux has also been ported to a number of architectures without a PMMU, although functionality is then obviously somewhat limited. Linux has also been ported to itself. You can now run the kernel as a userspace application - this is called UserMode Linux (UML). DOCUMENTATION: - There is a lot of documentation available both in electronic form on the Internet and in books, both Linux-specific and pertaining to general UNIX questions. I'd recommend looking into the documentation subdirectories on any Linux FTP site for the LDP (Linux Documentation Project) books. This README is not meant to be documentation on the system: there are much better sources available. - There are various README files in the Documentation/ subdirectory: these typically contain kernel-specific installation notes for some drivers for example. See Documentation/00-INDEX for a list of what is contained in each file. Please read the Changes file, as it contains information about the problems, which may result by upgrading your kernel. - The Documentation/DocBook/ subdirectory contains several guides for kernel developers and users. These guides can be rendered in a number of formats: PostScript (.ps), PDF, and HTML, among others. After installation, "make psdocs", "make pdfdocs", or "make htmldocs" will render the documentation in the requested format. INSTALLING the kernel: - If you install the full sources, put the kernel tarball in a

directory where you have permissions (eg. your home directory) and unpack it: gzip -cd linux-2.6.XX.tar.gz | tar xvf or bzip2 -dc linux-2.6.XX.tar.bz2 | tar xvf Replace "XX" with the version number of the latest kernel. Do NOT use the /usr/src/linux area! This area has a (usually incomplete) set of kernel headers that are used by the library header files. They should match the library, and not get messed up by whatever the kernel-du-jour happens to be. - You can also upgrade between 2.6.xx releases by patching. Patches are distributed in the traditional gzip and the newer bzip2 format. To install by patching, get all the newer patch files, enter the top level directory of the kernel source (linux-2.6.xx) and execute: gzip -cd ../patch-2.6.xx.gz | patch -p1 or bzip2 -dc ../patch-2.6.xx.bz2 | patch -p1 (repeat xx for all versions bigger than the version of your current source tree, _in_order_) and you should be ok. You may want to remove the backup files (xxx~ or xxx.orig), and make sure that there are no failed patches (xxx# or xxx.rej). If there are, either you or me has made a mistake. Unlike patches for the 2.6.x kernels, patches for the 2.6.x.y kernels (also known as the stable kernels) are not incremental but instead apply directly to the base 2.6.x kernel. Please read Documentation/applying-patches.txt for more information. Alternatively, the script patch-kernel can be used to automate this process. It determines the current kernel version and applies any patches found. linux/scripts/patch-kernel linux The first argument in the command above is the location of the kernel source. Patches are applied from the current directory, but an alternative directory can be specified as the second argument. - If you are upgrading between releases using the stable series patches (for example, patch-2.6.xx.y), note that these "dot-releases" are not incremental and must be applied to the 2.6.xx base tree. For example, if your base kernel is 2.6.12 and you want to apply the patch, you do not and indeed must not first apply the and patches. Similarly, if you are running kernel version and want to jump to, you must first reverse the patch (that is, patch -R) _before_ applying the patch. You can read more on this in Documentation/applying-patches.txt - Make sure you have no stale .o files and dependencies lying around: cd linux make mrproper

You should now have the sources correctly installed. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS Compiling and running the 2.6.xx kernels requires up-to-date versions of various software packages. Consult Documentation/Changes for the minimum version numbers required and how to get updates for these packages. Beware that using excessively old versions of these packages can cause indirect errors that are very difficult to track down, so don't assume that you can just update packages when obvious problems arise during build or operation. BUILD directory for the kernel: When compiling the kernel all output files will per default be stored together with the kernel source code. Using the option "make O=output/dir" allow you to specify an alternate place for the output files (including .config). Example: kernel source code: /usr/src/linux-2.6.N build directory: /home/name/build/kernel To configure and build the kernel use: cd /usr/src/linux-2.6.N make O=/home/name/build/kernel menuconfig make O=/home/name/build/kernel sudo make O=/home/name/build/kernel modules_install install Please note: If the 'O=output/dir' option is used then it must be used for all invocations of make. CONFIGURING the kernel: Do not skip this step even if you are only upgrading one minor version. New configuration options are added in each release, and odd problems will turn up if the configuration files are not set up as expected. If you want to carry your existing configuration to a new version with minimal work, use "make oldconfig", which will only ask you for the answers to new questions. - Alternate configuration commands are: "make config" Plain text interface. "make menuconfig" Text based color menus, radiolists & dialogs. "make xconfig" X windows (Qt) based configuration tool. "make gconfig" X windows (Gtk) based configuration tool. "make oldconfig" Default all questions based on the contents of your existing ./.config file and asking about new config symbols. "make silentoldconfig"

Like above, but avoids cluttering the screen with questions already answered. "make defconfig" Create a ./.config file by using the default symbol values from arch/$ARCH/defconfig. "make allyesconfig" Create a ./.config file by setting symbol values to 'y' as much as possible. "make allmodconfig" Create a ./.config file by setting symbol values to 'm' as much as possible. "make allnoconfig" Create a ./.config file by setting symbol values to 'n' as much as possible. "make randconfig" Create a ./.config file by setting symbol values to random values. The allyesconfig/allmodconfig/allnoconfig/randconfig variants can also use the environment variable KCONFIG_ALLCONFIG to specify a filename that contains config options that the user requires to be set to a specific value. If KCONFIG_ALLCONFIG=filename is not used, "make *config" checks for a file named "all{yes/mod/no/random}.config" for symbol values that are to be forced. If this file is not found, it checks for a file named "all.config" to contain forced values. NOTES on "make config": - having unnecessary drivers will make the kernel bigger, and can under some circumstances lead to problems: probing for a nonexistent controller card may confuse your other controllers - compiling the kernel with "Processor type" set higher than 386 will result in a kernel that does NOT work on a 386. The kernel will detect this on bootup, and give up. - A kernel with math-emulation compiled in will still use the coprocessor if one is present: the math emulation will just never get used in that case. The kernel will be slightly larger, but will work on different machines regardless of whether they have a math coprocessor or not. - the "kernel hacking" configuration details usually result in a bigger or slower kernel (or both), and can even make the kernel less stable by configuring some routines to actively try to break bad code to find kernel problems (kmalloc()). Thus you should probably answer 'n' to the questions for "development", "experimental", or "debugging" features.

COMPILING the kernel: - Make sure you have at least gcc 3.2 available. For more information, refer to Documentation/Changes. Please note that you can still run a.out user programs with this kernel. - Do a "make" to create a compressed kernel image. It is also possible to do "make install" if you have lilo installed to suit the kernel makefiles, but you may want to check your particular lilo setup first. To do the actual install you have to be root, but none of the normal build should require that. Don't take the name of root in vain. - If you configured any of the parts of the kernel as `modules', you will also have to do "make modules_install". - Keep a backup kernel handy in case something goes wrong. This is especially true for the development releases, since each new release contains new code which has not been debugged. Make sure you keep a backup of the modules corresponding to that kernel, as well. If you are installing a new kernel with the same version number as your working kernel, make a backup of your modules directory before you do a "make modules_install". Alternatively, before compiling, use the kernel config option "LOCALVERSION" to append a unique suffix to the regular kernel version. LOCALVERSION can be set in the "General Setup" menu. - In order to boot your new kernel, you'll need to copy the kernel image (e.g. .../linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage after compilation) to the place where your regular bootable kernel is found. - Booting a kernel directly from a floppy without the assistance of a bootloader such as LILO, is no longer supported. If you boot Linux from the hard drive, chances are you use LILO which uses the kernel image as specified in the file /etc/lilo.conf. The kernel image file is usually /vmlinuz, /boot/vmlinuz, /bzImage or /boot/bzImage. To use the new kernel, save a copy of the old image and copy the new image over the old one. Then, you MUST RERUN LILO to update the loading map!! If you don't, you won't be able to boot the new kernel image. Reinstalling LILO is usually a matter of running /sbin/lilo. You may wish to edit /etc/lilo.conf to specify an entry for your old kernel image (say, /vmlinux.old) in case the new one does not work. See the LILO docs for more information. After reinstalling LILO, you should be all set. Shutdown the system, reboot, and enjoy! If you ever need to change the default root device, video mode, ramdisk size, etc. in the kernel image, use the 'rdev' program (or alternatively the LILO boot options when appropriate). No need to recompile the kernel to change these parameters.

- Reboot with the new kernel and enjoy. IF SOMETHING GOES WRONG: - If you have problems that seem to be due to kernel bugs, please check the file MAINTAINERS to see if there is a particular person associated with the part of the kernel that you are having trouble with. If there isn't anyone listed there, then the second best thing is to mail them to me (torvalds@linux-foundation.org), and possibly to any other relevant mailing-list or to the newsgroup. - In all bug-reports, *please* tell what kernel you are talking about, how to duplicate the problem, and what your setup is (use your common sense). If the problem is new, tell me so, and if the problem is old, please try to tell me when you first noticed it. - If the bug results in a message like unable to handle kernel paging request at address C0000010 Oops: 0002 EIP: 0010:XXXXXXXX eax: xxxxxxxx ebx: xxxxxxxx ecx: xxxxxxxx edx: xxxxxxxx esi: xxxxxxxx edi: xxxxxxxx ebp: xxxxxxxx ds: xxxx es: xxxx fs: xxxx gs: xxxx Pid: xx, process nr: xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx or similar kernel debugging information on your screen or in your system log, please duplicate it *exactly*. The dump may look incomprehensible to you, but it does contain information that may help debugging the problem. The text above the dump is also important: it tells something about why the kernel dumped code (in the above example it's due to a bad kernel pointer). More information on making sense of the dump is in Documentation/oops-tracing.txt - If you compiled the kernel with CONFIG_KALLSYMS you can send the dump as is, otherwise you will have to use the "ksymoops" program to make sense of the dump (but compiling with CONFIG_KALLSYMS is usually preferred). This utility can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.<country>.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/ksymoops/ . Alternately you can do the dump lookup by hand: - In debugging dumps like the above, it helps enormously if you can look up what the EIP value means. The hex value as such doesn't help me or anybody else very much: it will depend on your particular kernel setup. What you should do is take the hex value from the EIP line (ignore the "0010:"), and look it up in the kernel namelist to see which kernel function contains the offending address.

To find out the kernel function name, you'll need to find the system binary associated with the kernel that exhibited the symptom. This is the file 'linux/vmlinux'. To extract the namelist and match it against the EIP from the kernel crash, do: nm vmlinux | sort | less This will give you a list of kernel addresses sorted in ascending order, from which it is simple to find the function that contains the offending address. Note that the address given by the kernel debugging messages will not necessarily match exactly with the function addresses (in fact, that is very unlikely), so you can't just 'grep' the list: the list will, however, give you the starting point of each kernel function, so by looking for the function that has a starting address lower than the one you are searching for but is followed by a function with a higher address you will find the one you want. In fact, it may be a good idea to include a bit of "context" in your problem report, giving a few lines around the interesting one. If you for some reason cannot do the above (you have a pre-compiled kernel image or similar), telling me as much about your setup as possible will help. Please read the REPORTING-BUGS document for details. - Alternately, you can use gdb on a running kernel. (read-only; i.e. you cannot change values or set break points.) To do this, first compile the kernel with -g; edit arch/i386/Makefile appropriately, then do a "make clean". You'll also need to enable CONFIG_PROC_FS (via "make config"). After you've rebooted with the new kernel, do "gdb vmlinux /proc/kcore". You can now use all the usual gdb commands. The command to look up the point where your system crashed is "l *0xXXXXXXXX". (Replace the XXXes with the EIP value.) gdb'ing a non-running kernel currently fails because gdb (wrongly) disregards the starting offset for which the kernel is compiled.


Model Test Papers 1. Each model test paper is of 100 marks 2. time for solving is 3 hrs 3. MillnniumYear recommends to solve every question given in this unit to get good marks.

Model test paper Q1 O2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7

attempt all questions 3 3 3 3 3 5 5

what is Linux. write its features which makes it popular write difference b/w monolithic & modular kernel write short note on semaphores. what is kernel. Illustrate its function in Unix/Linux what is multiprocessing. Explain symmetric multiprocessing explain representation of file system in Linux. explain data structure in Linux kernel

Attempt one part in each question Each part is of 12.5 marks Q8 a) explain file system in Unix. b) What is BSD version of Unix, write advantage & disadvantage of Unix Explain kernel architecture a) when Linux born and how it is developed .writ difference of Unix vs. Linux and Linux vs. windows NT b) Explain any 25 commands in Linux a) explain Linux architecture and its editor b) Why system administration is necessary and also explains the concept of process and system calls. a) write short note on memory management b) What is the file system? What are the various types of file system? Discuss proc and ext2 a) explain changes to kernel in case of multiprocessing. b) Explain modules and debugging in brief. a) what is synchronization? Explain communication via files and debugging with ptrace. b)Explain the concept of pipe with help of c-programing.




Q12 Q13

Model Test Paper2: 1. a. what is file system in Linux (5) b. explain sockets (5) c. explain mjor and minor devices(5) d. explain chown,grave,chmod,telinit,pg,ps,top,head,tr,cut (5) e. working of fork,exec,wait,msg queues,shared memory (5)

attempt any six question from 2 to 9 2. a. what are character and block devices(4) b. what is arp and subnetting(2) c. symmetric multiprocessing(2.5) d. dirty block, sticky, suid, guid bit(4) 3. a) write a program via sockets where client send a number to server and server returns its square(6) b) i) demonstrate the use of pipes and fifo in a programs(6) ii) write difference b/w pipe and fifo

4. explain multiprocessing(12.5) 5. a. what are modules(6) b. what is debugging. explain GDB or SDB(1/2 + 6) a. name any five file systems and explain any one file system(6) b. name any six editors and explain any one (6.5) 7. explain booting process of Linux(12.5) 8. give answers a. write name of different environment variables (1.5) b. what is HAL(1.5) c. what is POSIX(1.5) d. what is IPC and race condition(2) e. explain concept of virtual address space(6) 9. give answers a. explain static and dynamic allocation(2.5) b. why cat and ls commands are used(2) c. what are – dd,uucp,gunzip,gzip,tar,wc,tty,echo,rm,mv(5) d. what is lp command(1) e. what is man command(1) f. what are internal and external commands(1) 6.

Model test paper 3: Attempt any eight questions 1. explain(12.5) shutdown,mount,unmount,mv,nice,kmalloc,bc,cal,cmp,comm.,whereis,zcat,zless,f ind,pause,wait4,access,diff,fsck,in,ni,pwd,su,tee,uniq 2. i. write shell scripts(10) a. to find factorial b. to check prime/not c. to display table d. to copy two files into third file e. take a number and show corresponding month ii. what is memory and i/o symmetry(2.5) 3. answer a. what is proc,explain(4) b. write difference b/w proc and ext2(2) c. what are modules(2.5) d. explain structure of inode,superblock and their operations(4) 4. explain a. explain process management(4) b. explain system calls(4.5) c. explain multiprocessing(4) 5. write c programs a. to demonstrate the use of shared memory(3) b. msg queue(3) c. write client server program using sockets(4.5) d. explain why pipe mechanisms is not efficient in client server application.(2) 6. write short note on system administration 7. what is architecture independent memory model 8. explain various data structures in Linux kernel 9. what are various IPC mechanisms and explain semaphores and explain use of semaphores in c program.

Unit9: Linux for competitors

Attempe all questiont Theory exam Prac exam Total

80 marks 20 marks 100 marks

5 hrs 3 hrs 8 hrs

Millennium year recommends to solve all question given in this unit to get good marks

MY Linux entrance 2007 (theory) Attempt all questions and each question carry 10 marks 1) answer a. linux is compatible with _____________ standard. b. Linux born in _____________ c. Linux is still a__________- bit os d. In ext2, file name length can be of________________e. ______________-fn, is I c fn. Called in booting of Linux f. loof _t structure use for ________________ g. max_thread can be altered by ___________ interface h. what is query_module i. what is gdb j. APIC stands for 2) explain any 10 features of Linux 3) explain any 20 commands 4) explain memory management 5) explain a. all six data structure in Linux(6) b. system administration(2) c. process management(2) 6) explain a. representation of file system in kernel with atleast of six structures(3) b. explain proc and ext2 and write difference b/w ntfs and ext2(4) c. explain any six system calls(3) 7) explain a. all ipc mechanisms with c examples(8) b. synchronization in kernel(2) 8) write short note on(10) a. HAL b. Compiling kernel c. POSIX d. Different types of kernel e. Booting up of linux

MY Linux entrance 2007 (practical) Attempt any 20 questions and each question carry 1 marks Write shell scripts for 1. to send o/p of date,cal,time,ps,who to a file ―a.txt‖ 2. change *c to *Farnehit 3. find even/odd 4. find leap/odd by taking year at command line 5. find prime/not by entering at run time 6. sort numbers 7. find/searching in a file 8. read a number and show month using case 9. find factorial of a number 10. display fibnoccii series 11. display multiplication table 12. find square of a number by calling a function 13. demonstrate the use of returning value by a function 14. show all parameters entered on command line 15. copy one file to other using command line 16. in above program, you have to make a file which have all the data that is copied using your program 17. compile Linux kernel 18. write a shelll script which mount USB and floppy and copy all the data of floppy to USB by making a folder 19. which deletes all the data, files on a floppy disk and all folders also 20. search a string in a directory and if found then deleres all that files. Note: string and directory are entered by user 21. display shellname,username,path where commands found,logging name,OS type, number of column on your screen, your home directory, number of rows on your scree,shell version.

Theory: 1 answers : a) POSIX-1003.1 b) 1991 c) 32 d) 255 e) start_kernel() f) telling f_pos g) sysctl j) Advance Programmable Interrupt controller Practical: 19: check if it is a folder, then move inside and delete files and then folder for file in * do if [ -d $file ] ; then cd $file rm * cd .. rm * else rm * done 20. echo $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $


Unit10: Example1: write a shell script to read name, grade, basic salary and display it #!/bin/sh echo ―enter name:‖ read name echo ―enter grade:‖ read gd echo ―enter basic salary:‖ read bs echo ―name: $name, grade: $grade, bs=$bs‖ exit 0 Example2: write a program in C to show use of message queue msg1.c #include <string.h> #include <stdio.h> #include<unistd.h> #include<sys/ipc.h> struct msg { long int msg_type; char text[100]; }; int main() { int msgid=(msgget(1234,0666|IPC_CREAT); struct msg data; strcpy(data.text,‖hello‖); msgsnd(msgid,(void *)&data,100,0); } msg2.c #include <string.h> #include <stdio.h> #include<unistd.h> #include<sys/ipc.h> struct msg { long int msg_type; char text[100]; }; int main() { int msgid=(msgget(1234,0666|IPC_CREAT); struct msg data; msgrcv(msgid,(void *)&data,100,0); puts(data.text); }

Example3: to show use of shared memory shm1.c #include<stdio.h> #include <string.h> #include <unistd.h> #include <sys/ipc.h> struct data { char text[100]; }; int main() { struct data *d; int shmid=shmget(1234,sizeof(struct data),0666|IPC_CREAT); void *shared_memory=(void *)0; shared_memory=shmat(shmid,(void *)0,0); d=(struct data *)shared_memory; strcpy(d->text, ―hello‖); return 0; } shm2.c #include<stdio.h> #include <string.h> #include <unistd.h> #include <sys/ipc.h> struct data { char text[100]; }; int main() { struct data *d; int shmid=shmget(1234,sizeof(struct data),0666|IPC_CREAT); void *shared_memory=(void *)0; shared_memory=shmat(shmid,(void *)0,0); d=(struct data *)shared_memory; puts(t->text); return 0; }

Example4: using FIFO #include <string.h> #include <stdio.h> #define fifo1 ―/home/fifo.1‖ int main() { int childpid,readfd,writefd; char msg[100]; mkfifo(fifo1,0777); childpid=fork(); if(childpid==0) { strcpy(msg, ―hello‖); writefd=open(fifo1,1); write(writefd,msg,strlen(msg)); } else { readfd=open(fifo1,2); read(readfd,msg,5); puts(msg); } } Example5: use of Pipes struct share { char string[10]; }; int main() { int pipe1[2]; pipe(pipe1); int pid=fork(); if(pid>0) { //parent struct share s; strcpy(s.string,‖hello‖); write(pipe1[1],(struct share *)&s,sizeof(struct share)); } else { //child struct share t; read(pipe1[0],(struct share *)&s,sizeof(struct share)); puts(t.string); } return 0; }

Example6: to check user is minor, young, old. #!/bin/sh echo ―enter age:‖ read age if [ $age –le 12 ] then echo ―minor‖ elif [ $age –le 18 ] then echo ―major‖ elif [ $age –le 25 ] then echo ―young‖ else echo ―old‖ fi exit 0

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