Indo-European Italic 12 other families Faliscan (extinct 100 BCE) Latin (Romance:47 lgs.) Eastern Italo-Western Romanian (4 lgs.) Italo-Dalmatian Italian & al. (6 lgs) Gallo-Iberian Gallo-Romance French & 12 others Catalán Pyrenean-Mozarabic Ibero-Romance E. Iberian Oc W. Iberian Southern Corsican & Sardinian (5 lgs.) Western (32 lgs.) Provençal & al Portuguese-Galician Asturo-Leonese Castilian Today there are 9 (Western) Romance languages in Spain: Western Romance (32 lgs.) Gallo-Iberian Pyrenean-Mozarabic (2 lgs.) Gallo-R. Ibero-R. Aragonese (11K native speakers) E. Iberian Oc W. Iberian Catalán (6.5 million) Castilian Asturo-Leonese Portuguese-Galician Gascon (4K) Asturian (100K) Fala (10K) Caló (Gitano; 65K+) Galician (3-4 million) Extremaduran (200K) Castillian Spanish (28 million+ in Spain, 322+ million worldwide) What’s in a name?: “español” vs. “castellano” History of Spanish Latin—Influenced by Iberian, Celtic, Basque, and later Arabic in Spain. Influence from Iberian (an extinct, non-IE language of unknown affiliation) • Words not of Basque or IE (Celtic or Romance) origin, e.g. cama Influence from Celtic • -ez ending in names like in Welsh names like Jones, Davis Influence from Basque • • Place names: Bilbao, Vizcaya Surnames: Azcona, Echevarría, Aguirre, Carranza, Landa, Mendoza, Olazabal, Uribe, Zárate, Zúñiga Influence from Arabic Moors were in Spain for 800 years, until 1492 Ojalá means ‘god-willing’ or ‘Allah-willing’ Many words beginning with al- like alcalde are loans from Arabic Alcatraz---pelican, origin of english albatross, naranja ‘orange’ Guad- words from [wadi] ‘river or valley’ e.g. Guadalajara. Original Spanish place names re-applied to new American settlements Usted (respectful 2nd person pronoun) is often said to be from ‘vuestras mercedes’ but awfully familiar to Arabic Usta-edh ‘professor’ Dialectology Lexical (word) differences • melocotón, durazno < Lat., albaricoque < Arabic • guisante<Mozarabe<Lat., chícharo < Lat. • Jalisco ey • Archaisms: ¿Mande?, lindo, cobija, platicar Mexicanisms: ándale ‘all right’, chamaco ‘kid,’ gavacho ‘American,’ híjole (exclamation), padre ‘cool,’ pinche ‘fucking,’ popote ‘straw,’ elote ‘corn on the cob’ Central Americanisms: chucho ‘dog,’ pisto ‘money,’ chompique ‘turkey,’ Peruvianisms: escobilla ‘brush, toothbrush,’ ancheta ‘a good bargain,’ choclo ‘corn on the cob’ Venezuelanisms: cambur ‘banana,’ cepillado ‘snow cone,’ jojoto ‘corn on the cob’ ‘fair-complected’: canche (Guatemala), chele (Nicaragua), güero (Mexico), fulo (Panama), musiú (‘foreigner of Nordic appearance’ in Venezuela), gringo (‘white foreigner’ in Ecuador), macho (Costa Rica), mono (Colombia) Phonological differences • • • • • Working-class Mexico: ps>ks peksi, reseksionista, diksi American devoicing of final /l/ and /r/ Reduction or loss of syllable-final /s/: Central America, parts of N. Mexico, Colorado and S. America, also older speakers in Veracruz. Stop pronunciation of medial /b/, /d/, /g/ in Yucatán z&eismo in Argentina, Northern Oaxaca, elsewhere Andalusian Spanish is often said to be the variety that was dominant during the early colonial period in the Americas. There are many phonetic similarities, but many of these could also have come about independently. • • • • Yeismo---the delateralization of <ll>, can also be attributed to dialect levelling. Seseo---the use of /s/ where Castilian has theta. This actually didn’t develop in Castille until after colonization was underway here. Velarization of final /n/---this holds for the coast but the interior has alveolar Lack of Vosotros Early colonists often spent a year in Cadiz or Seville around sailors and then 2+ months at sea. In the Americas many terms are used in daily life that in Spain are only used as nautical terms: • Botar---to throw out • Amarrar---to tie up (compare Spanish atar) • Abarrotes---provisions • Balde---bucket • Chicote---whip Contact with Indigenous Americans and their languages • • • maní < Carib vs. cacahuate < Nahuatl ‘peanut’ cuerda <Lat. vs. mecate < Nahuatl ‘rope’ buho <Lat., lechuza< Old Sp. nechuza, influenced by leche, tecolote<Nahuatl Maya loans: food--- cochinita en pibil, cacao < Maya kakaw ‘cocoa’ place names---Tulum, Cancun, Oxcutzcab, Xelha’, Chetumal syntax/semantics---de donde se quitaron phonology---final m Nahuatl: • food---aguacate, tomate, chocolate, guacamole, pozole, mole, chile, huachinango, tamal, elote, nixtamalizadas, atole • places---Miahuatlán, Coatlán, Pochutla, Mixtepec, Mazatlán, Xalisco, Teotihuacán, Sontecomapan, Ajijic, Oaxaca, Tlaxcala • animals--- coyote, guajolote, costoche, ocelote, tecolote • plants---cemposúchitl, nanacate • stuff---popote, cuate from guate ‘twin’, tocayo, metate, metlapil, petate, jicalpextle, molcajete, ixtle, temascal Taíno: barbacoa, batata, canoa, casabe, hamaca, huracán, iguana, maiz, papaya Quechua: coca, condor, chirimoya, guano, llama Mapuche and Guarani are two other languages with major influence on Spanish -Guarani especially, being one of the official languages in Paraguay, and spoken by virtually everyone there. (There are more monolingual Guarani speakers there than Spanish speakers.) Unique varieties of local Indigenous Spanish have… More loanwords than in standard varieties: • from local languages: el biche pobre, ojos bichos, biuxar, bilolo (from Zapotec in Oaxaca) • from indigenous colonial administrative languages: chacal, chicalmata, costoche (from Nahuatl in Oaxaca) Archaisms: some words reflect earlier forms which in Standard Spanish have undergone sound changes, e.g. flama llama L1 effects • • Phonological: pañuelo [paynuelo], hombre Syntactic: ¿Que le gusta la piña? [ombre ~ ombra ~ ombr] Contact with Spanish can be dated with loanwords into Indigenous languages Earlier Spanish S > x Juan(a)Std.Sp. [xwan(a)] vs. Zapotec [ßwan] yeismo vs. lleismo: Is <ll> borrowed as /l/ or /y/? • silla Modern American Spanish [siya] vs. Zapotec xil • Castilla [kastiya] vs. Zapotec di7zh xtil Not only can contact be dated but we can learn about earlier forms of these languages by how they borrowed words (e.g. note above s was borrowed as ß in Zap) Yowlumne • Lámesa ‘table’ (no articles in Yolumne) • Itpane ‘Spanish’ or ‘Spain,’(came through other tribe) • Kalne ‘meat’ (no r in Yowlumne, olo for ‘oro’) means animal meat as opposed to fish which was the traditional diet • Simiya ‘seed for planting’ native word was for eating. (Note it must be a late borrowing because of /y/) • Gatu ‘cat’ Spanish in the USA Early exploration and Spanish-named places in the US Florida (a flowery place), California (island of Calafía), El Paso (where Cabeza de Vaca turned South), New Mexico, Colorado (color of the river north of Hopi country in the rainy season), La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco, L.A. is also a shortening The US is the 2nd largest Latin or Spanish-speaking country in the world, after México. In the U.S. Spanish was spoken before English in Florida, Louisiana, Texas, CA and the southwest. Isleño Spanish in LA came from the Canary Islands in the late XVIII century, then the people were fairly isolated farmers until the XX century • • • σ-final s h: mucho[h] <muchos> r > l next to consonants: [lalgo] <largo>, [maltijo] <martillo>, [sjemple] <siempre>, [templano] <temprano> d > Ø except word-initially: [ruija] <rodilla>, [venao] <venado>, [naa] <nada>, [pjera] <piedra> (Campbell p. 52) Quite different from Colorado-NM Spanish both because of different origin and also because it has picked up a lot of French loanwords and constructions from its Cajun neighbors.
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