Developments of the Semantic Web at the Museum of the History of by historyman

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									Developments of the Semantic Web at
the Museum of the History of Science



            Florence, 16 June 2003

                 Marco Berni
                         Main question:


       How can we go ahead on Semantic Web
        and ontologies at IMSS?




Florence, 16 June 2003       Semantic web at IMSS   2
                         Try to answer:
       Evaluation of the achieved outcome
       How we can make an ontology
            Mesmuses experience
            Beyond Mesmuses
       Resources to make the ontology run
       Critical points
       Hypothesis on achievable results


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           Evaluation of the achieved
                    outcome
   Mesmuses prototypes are very useful
    samples of Semantic Web application
   Allows data browsing with “intelligent”
    search
         Opportunity to make searches not only on
          words, but on the meaning of words too
          (semantic search)
   Test semantic search on a history of
    science domain

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    How we can make an ontology
      Mesmuses experience 1
   First try
   Theoretical approach
         Ontology was designed in
          order to model domain of
          historic science knowledge
         No data were available. Need
          for a totally manual data input
         Schema and instances were
          very subjective
         Useful for itineraries, not for
          search


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    How we can make an ontology
      Mesmuses experience 2
   Second try
   Bottom-up approach
         Ontology was designed just looking to
          available databases
         Deep analysis of databases structure in
          order to map relational structure on
          ontology concept/property
         Data input from relational databases
          with little manual attendance
         Schema and instances are quite
          “objective”, but at the moment don’t
          cover all the history of science domain
         Useful for search

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        How we can make an ontology
            Beyond Mesmuses 1
IMSS Database
 ARAM – Multimedia Archive

 STS – Scientific Instruments

 ICONA – Ichonographic Archive
                                                  IMSS        IMSS
 BIBLIO – Catalogue of the Library
                                               Ontology     Itineraries
 ARMU – Historical archives
                                               Extended
 GT@ – GalileoTek@
                                              Dublin Core
 etc.



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        How we can make an ontology
            Beyond Mesmuses 2
IMSS Database
 ARAM – Multimedia Archive                                  IMSS Ontology
                                                        Extended Dublin Core
 STS – Scientific Instruments      DCTitle                                 DCrelation
                                   DCCreator                                IsVersionOf
                                     Creator
 ICONA – Ichonographic Archive       Inventor
                                                                            HasVersion
                                                                            IsReplacedBy
                                   DCSubject                                IsRequiredBy
 BIBLIO – Books Catalogue          DCDescription
                                   DCPublisher
                                                                            Requires
                                                                            IsPartOf
                                   DcContributor.PersonalName               HasPart
 ARMU – Historical archives        DcContributor.CorporatelName             IsReferencedBy
                                     User                                   References
                                     Receiver                               IsFormatOf
 GT@ – GalileoTek@                   Giver                                  HasFormat
                                     Purchaser
                                     IsDedicated                           .....
 etc.                              .....




  Florence, 16 June 2003         Semantic web at IMSS                                        8
    How we can make an ontology
        Beyond Mesmuses 3
                          Scientific Places in Tuscany
                          Old version
                              Plain hypertext
                              Links have not any semantics




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    How we can make an ontology
        Beyond Mesmuses 4
                          Scientific Places in Tuscany
                          Forthcoming version
                              Structured hypertext
                              Links have a semantics
                                   e.g. Brunelleschi MAKER Dome

                                                Brun.    Maker   Dome




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    How we can make an ontology
        Beyond Mesmuses 5

                                     History of science community
                                            shared ontology

           IMSS              Institution 2        Institution 3         Institution 4      Institution n
       ontology               ontology             ontology              ontology            ontology




  Web               Web          Web           Web             Web           Web          Web             Web
resource          resource     resource      resource        resource      resource     resource        resource




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    How we can make an ontology
        Beyond Mesmuses 6
   Start to re-design database for ontology and semantic
    search
   Mapping of existing database schemas into classes
    and properties
         Extended Dublin Core
         IMSS specifics
   Partial automatic indexing of data according to the
    mapping rules
   Manual actions required to complete indexing process
   Design an ontology valid for the whole history of
    science community

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                         Resources to make
                          the ontology run
   Domain experts to map database to ontology
   Software for data harvesting
   Operators to manually adjust data
   Portal
         Schema / data loader
         Browsing / searching engine
         Graphical user interface
   Set up a community-web and coordinate it
         Produce (and agree on) a shared ontology
         Share resources

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                         Critical points
   Ontology production
         Integration between ontology and itineraries
         Iterative construction of new ontology to make a better coverage
          of domain and data
   User interface usability
         Test of existing interfaces
         Requirements to improve interaction effectiveness
         Iterates many times this step
   Agreement on a community web ontology for history of
    science
   Impact of a schema modification on existing data
         Have mapping of data to be redone?


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Hypothesis on achievable results
   Strongly improve access to IMSS documents
    and database

   Provide a framework for history of science e-
    learning

   Share navigable data with the community
         Create an access point to the history of science
          resources on the web
         Create a virtual museum of history of science on the
          web independently from the physical location of the
          objects

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