History of the Internet by historyman

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									                History of the Internet
• Mid 1960’s During the Cold War – need for bomb proof
  communications system.
• Government Agency and few Universities
• Emergency military communications system operated by
  Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Project Agency
  (ARPA) – ARPANET system
• Eventually all Universities with defense related projects
  connected to ARPANET
• Military pipeline and communication tool for scientists. ARPA
  transferred to National Science Foundation.
• Years later businesses began using the internet and the
  administrative responsiblilities were again transferred.
    – No one party operates the internet, but there are several
      entities that oversee the system and the protocols involved
          A Basic Guide to the Internet
What is the Internet ?
   • Network of Networks

   • Computers communicate over the internet using TCP/IP
     (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)

   • Client / Server Architecture


Funding the Internet
   • Funded through Agencies ( National Science Foundation,
   Government agencies pay for some high speed backbones)
Who Runs the Internet – overseen by a variety of groups to
establish standards

   • Internet Society (A private non-profit organisation)
   • IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) TCP/IP
   • W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) MIT
   • Private Companies oversee the registering of Internet
     Domains.
       Underlying Architecture of the Internet

We are going to look at the following Architectures
   – How computers send data across the internet
   – How TCP/IP works
   – How Internet Addresses and Domain Names Work
   – How Routers Work

How Computers send data across the Internet
   – TCP/IP
      • Hubs
      • Bridges
      • Gateways
      • Repeaters
      • Routers
                 How Computers Send Data
• TCP – breaks the data into packets
• Computer sends those packets – local Network, Internet Service
  Provider (ISP), or On-Line Service
• Packets then travel through many levels of networks, computers,
  and communication lines before reaching their final destination.
• Variety of hardware transmits the data between various networks.
  Five most important pieces of hardware are:
   – Hubs used to link groups of computers to one another and let
     computers communicate with each other.
   – Bridges Links one LAN with another LAN
   – Gateways like Bridges but allow communication between
     different types of networks
   – Repeaters - when data travels over long distances, the signal
     sending the data can weaken over long distances, repeaters are
     used to amplify the data at intervals
   – Routers come into play when data is being sent between two
     different networks. It examines packets for destination and
     selects the quickest route taking into account traffic on the
     internet.
                       How TCP/IP Works
• The Internet is a packet switched network
   – Messages broken into a number of packets + data to help the
     packet find its way through the Internet (TCP)
   – Series of switchs called routers (IP) ensure that the packages
     arrive at their correct destination
   – Packets are sent over many different routes at the same time
       • Hardware restriction – data broken into packets of 1,500
         bytes each.
       • Packet given header with order of packet & checksum
         (based on the amount of data in packet)
       • Each packet is put into separate IP envelopes, which
         contain addressing information telling the Internet where to
         send the packet
       • IP envelopes contain headers that contain information:
           – Senders Address
           – Destination Address
           – Amount of time packet should be kept
   – As packets sent across Internet, routers examine IP envelope
     destination addresses and determine the most efficient route
     for sending each packet. (Packets can arrive out of order)
   – Packets arrive at their destination and TCP calculates the
     checksum for each packet (error checking)
   – When all noncorrupt packets arrive at their destination TCP
     assembles them into their original form

• Winsock software (TCP/IP stack or Socket) serves as an
  intermediary between the Internet and PC

• Two ways to connect to the Internet and use the TCP/IP protocol
   – Direct connection (via LAN, cable modem, Digital Subscriber
     Line (DSL) line – needs a network card & hardware driver)
   – Dialing connection (Modem)
       • Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
       • Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
        Sample Internet Connections


The basic idea of communication via the internet is to have two
remote sites or computers connected together via a network or
transmission line
          Internet Addresses and Domain Names

The heart of how the Internet works is the Domain Name System (DNS),
the way in which computers can contact each other and do things such
as e-mail or display web pages. If a user wants to contact a specific
location – e.g. visit Web pages they type in the address (URL) –
                         www.computing.dcu.ie
While numbers are convenient for machines, they are not for human
beings, therefore humans use names for addresses and TCP/IP uses
the DNS (Domain Name System) application (Name Servers) to provide
name-to-address translation.
The DNS translates the plain english address into a series of numbers
called an IP address,
                             136.2.6.11.XXX

An IP address marks the location on the internet similar to a house
number and street address. All computers connected to the Internet
must have an IP address.
Two types of IP address exist
   – Static IP Addresses
   – Dynamic IP Addresses
                 Dynamic IP Addresses      DHCP
                                           Server
                        DHCPDISCOVER

                            DHCPOFFER


                             DHCPREQUEST


                             DHCPPACK
Domains can be organised in hierarchy
    – Major Domains and minor domains
       • www.computing.dcu.ie
           – .ie is the major domain
           – .dcu is the Dublin City University Domain
           – .computing is the computer applications server

    – Some Common Major Domain Names in the United States are:
      .edu   for educational institution, usually a university
      .com   for a commercial business
      .gov   for a government department or agency
      .mil   for a military unit
      .org   for a non-profit organisation
Following introduced to reduce the load on .com domain. Not all are in
use yet but they officially registered.
      .areo     for aviation industry    .info    for general use
      .biz      for business             .coop    for cooperatives
      .museum   for museums              .name    for individuals
      .pro      for professionals
  As networks in other countries were connected to the Internet, they
  were assigned their own domain names
  –       ie      Ireland
  –       ca      Canada
  –       au      Australia
  –       uk      United Kingdom
  –       de      Germany
In total there are more than 250 top-level domain names

The IP address is a 32 bit number but is now being expanded to a
128 bit number to allow for more IP addresses to be accommodated.

Since networks vary in size, there are four different address formats
or classes to consider when applying for a network number:
Class A addresses are for large networks with many devices.
Class B addresses are for medium-sized networks.
Class C addresses are for small networks (fewer than 256 devices).
The IP address is usually made up of two parts, 1st part identifies the
network, the 2nd the node (host or actual computer).
An IP address is expressed as four decimal numbers (octets), each
representing eight bits, separated by periods. The first few bits of
each IP address indicate which of the address class formats it is
using. The address structures look like this:
                               130.5.5.25
Each of the decimal digits represents a string of four binary digits.
Thus, the above IP address really is this string of 0s and 1s:
              10000010.00000101.00000101.00011001
Class A
0      Network (7 bits values 1-126) Local address (24 bits, 3
remaining octets used to identify host)
Class B
10     Network (14 bits first octet 128-191 + second octet used to
identify network) Local address (16 bits, 2 octets used to identify
host)
Class C
110 Network (21 bits, first octet 192-223, 1st , 2nd and 3rd octet
identify network) Local address (8 bits, 1 octet identifies host)
              URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
URLs uniquely identify each file on the web by specifying its name,
what server it is on, and where it resides in the server’s directory
structure and how the page can be accessed.
        http://www.computing.dcu.ie/NT_Software/index.html

•The http:// tells the browser which protocol to use to access the web
page. In this case the protocol is “hypertext transfer protocol”.
This protocol is the set of rules by which a HTML document is
transferred over.
•Next www.computing.dcu.ie is the name of the Internet host at
which the resource is located.

•Following this you specify a path to a particular directory, in this case
you start at the root directory and go down one level to the
NT_Software directory.
•Finally index.html is the file holding the page you seek.
           Protocols that may appear in URL’s

       Protocols Names          Use
       ftp://                   File transfer

       http://                  Hypertext
       https://                 Hypertext Secure

       Mailto:                  Sending email
       News:                    Requesting news
       telnet://                Remote login

Much of the power of browsers is that they are multiprotocol.
That is, they can retrieve and render information from a variety of
servers and sources.
                        How Routers Work
Routers are traffic cops of the Internet. They ensure that data gets to
its final destination via the most efficient route.

•Routers check the IP envelopes for the destination address
•Calculate the best route and then send the package on its way
    – Router sends packet to another router closer to its final
      destination. This router in turns forwards the packet on to a
      router closer to the final destination (hops).
    – Each router has to consider factors such as
        • Traffic congestion
        • Number of hops (IP packets carry a segment that holds the
          max hop count)
• Routers have two or more physical ports
   – Input port (routing process run, routing table)
   – Output port (results from the routing process defines with
     output port the routes the packets should follow)
   – Input queue (holding area for input port, queue capacity
     exceeded – lost data)

Routing Table
   – Static – simpler and specifies specific paths for packets
   – Dynamic – packets can have multiple routes to their final
      destination (table changes as network conditions change).

Two broad type of routing protocols exist
   – Interior (Gateway Routing Information Protocol (IGRP))
   – Exterior (Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP))

								
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