www.ces.purdue.edu/eden/educators/Edsagroterrorism.ppt by historyman

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    Agroterrorism
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What is it?
 Agroterrorism involves the act
 of any person knowingly or
 maliciously using biological
 agents as weapons against the
 agricultural industry and the
 food supply.

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People and Animal Problems
Anthrax
Brucellosis
Glanders



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Animal Problems
Rinderpest
Newcastle disease
Fowl plague



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Crop Problems
Late blight of potato
Rice blast
Brown spot of rice
Rubber leaf blight
Southern blight
Wheat rusts.
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Agroterrorism
 Possibility?
 Probability?




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Possibility or Probability:
 The critical issue with
 agroterrorism is the low
 level of technical knowledge
 required to use it.

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Possibility or Probability:
 Before Sept. 11 -- the
 federal government
 allocated almost $40 million
 to the USDA for
 agroterrorism.

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Motives include
Profit
Anti-GMO
Foreign terrorists


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Concerns before Sept. 11
Indiana – PL156
Pennsylvania – SB816




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Indiana Law recognizes
  agroterrorism as
 A crime – Class C Felony
 A weapon of mass destruction



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Pennsylvania Law
 Mandates payment to the owner of the
 afflicted animal for:
 – Value of the animal
 – Disposal
 – Testing of the diseased animals
 – Cost of clean up, including soil testing
 – Lost value of production


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Costs?
 Foot and Mouth -- $2 billion to
 $24 billion. The problem is that
 this is based on a natural
 outbreak. A terrorist would aim
 for maximum damage.

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Costs?
 Dioxin contaminated animal
 feed in Belgium -- $ 1 billion
 in damages and trade
 sanctions. If it had been in
 the US, $140 billion.

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Costs?
 Leaf blight caused $1 billion
 in crop damages. But if
 something like it had halted
 US crop exports, it could
 cost $100 billion.

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Experts agree
 The cost in terms of
 damages is directly
 proportional to the time it
 takes to diagnose the
 problem.

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Proof?
It has rarely been proven that
  terrorism has been used
  against agricultural targets.
But let’s look at history…

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History of agroterrorism
 WWI – Germany spread
 glanders disease on mules
 and horses destined for
 Europe.

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History of agroterrorism
WWII
 – Canada, Great Britain, Japan, the
  United States, and the USSR had
  offensive programs.
 – Germany had no offensive program.


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History of agroterrorism
 Japan is alleged to have used
 animal and plant pathogens,
 including rinderpest and
 anthrax, against Russia and
 Mongolia in 1940s.

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History of agroterrorism
 The U.S. scrubbed its
 biological weapons program
 in 1969. But, it continued
 defensive research.

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History of agroterrorism
 In 1972, the US, Soviet
 Union, Great Britain, and
 Canada agreed to the
 Biological Weapons
 Convention (BWC).

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History of agroterrorism
 Soviet BW program grew
 during the 1970s and 1980s to
 include more than 30,000
 scientists and workers, as well
 as seven production and two
 storage facilities.

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History of agroterrorism
 Iraq is also known to have
 developed a BW potential
 recently, including anti-
 personnel, animal and crop
 agents.

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History of agroterrorism
 Since 1915, there have been
 19 acts of agroterrorism
 around the world, five of
 which have taken place in the
 U.S.  Source:http://cns.miis.edu/ Center for Nonproliferation Studies




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Five cases in the US:
1915-1917 Military animals
1970 Ashville, Alabama
1989 Southern California
1996 Florida
1996 Berlin, Wisconsin

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Conducted by the US:
1950 East Germany
1952 Korea
1962-1970 Vietnam
1962-1997 Cuba

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Counterattack
Geography
Timing
Strategy


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USDA Counterattack
Organism Level
Farm Level
National Level


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Organism level
Continue defensive research
 on agroterrorism.




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Farm Level
Biosecurity education
 - farmers
  - crop and livestock
 diagnosticians.


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National Level
Disease eradication
Compensation costs
Restore public confidence


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Counterattack:
Cooperation and
 consolidation of efforts
 between all agencies and
 organizations involved.


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Sources:
 Anne Kohnen “Responding to the Threat of
  Agroterrorism: Specific recommendations for the
  United States Department of Agriculture.”
 May 2001 issue of Purdue Agricultural Economics
  Report (PAER).
 Center For Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey
  Institute of International Studies




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