Applied Control Systems Robotics Robotic Control

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Applied Control Systems Robotics Robotic Control Powered By Docstoc
					Applied Control Systems


      Robotics
          &
    Robotic Control
DC Motors
• Most common and cheapest
• Powered with two wires from source
• Draws large amounts of current
• Cannot be wired straight from a PIC
• Does not offer accuracy or speed control
Stepper Motors
• Stepper has many electromagnets
• Stepper controlled by sequential turning on and off of
  magnets
• Each pulse moves another step, providing a step angle
• Example shows a step angle of 90°




•Poor control with a large angle
•Better step angle achieved with the toothed disc
Stepper motor operation


  Step1
Stepper motor operation




Step 2
Stepper motor operation




 Step 3
Stepper motor operation




Step 4
 Stepper Motors

• 3.6 degree step angle => 100 steps per revolution
• 25 teeth, 4 step= 1 tooth => 100 steps for 25teeth
• Controlled using output Blocks on a PIC
• Correct sequence essential
• Reverse sequence - reverse motor
    Servo motors
• Servo offers smoothest control
• Rotate to a specific point
• Offer good torque and control
• Ideal for powering robot arms etc.



However:
• Degree of revolution is limited
• Not suitable for applications which require
  continuous rotation
     Servo motors
• Contain motor, gearbox, driver controller and potentiometer
• Three wires - 0v, 5v and PIC signal
• Potentiometer connected to gearbox - monitors movement
• Provides feedback
• If position is distorted - automatic correction

         + 5V
Servo motors Operation

• Pulse Width Modulation (0.75ms to 2.25ms)
• Pulse Width takes servo from 0° to 150° rotation
• Continuous stream every 20ms
• On programming block, pulse width and output pin
  must be set.
• Pulse width can also be expressed as a variable
   Open and Closed Loop Control
     All control systems contain three elements:
                 (i) The control
                 (ii) Current Amplifiers
                 (iii) Servo Motors




• The control is the Brain - reads instruction
• Current amplifier receives orders from brain and sends
  required signal to the motor
• Signal sent depends on the whether Open or Closed loop
   control is used.
  Open Loop Control

For Open Loop Control:
• The controller is told where the output device needs to be
• Once the controller sends the signal to motor it does not
  receive feedback to known if it has reached desired position
•Open loop much cheaper than closed loop but less accurate
Open Loop Control
     Closed Loop Control
• Provided feedback to the control unit telling it the actual
  position of the motor.
• This actual position is found using an encoder.
• The actual position is compared to the desired.
• Position is changed if necessary
     The Encoder

• Encoders give the control unit information as to the actual
  position of the motor.
• Light shines through a slotted disc, the light sensor counts
  the speed and number of breaks in the light.
• Allows for the calculation of speed, direction and distance
  travelled.
 Closed Loop Control

• The desired value is compared to the actual value.
• Comparator subtracts actual from desired.
• The difference is the error which is fed to the controller
  which generates a control action to eliminate the error.