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1 Plant Propagation History of Propagation Sexual Propagation- by historyman

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									  Plant Propagation




         From This            To This




  History of Propagation
  n Greece, Middle East,
    Egypt, China
  n Middle ages
  n Victorian




  Sexual Propagation- Uniting of
  gametes by fertilization
  n Flower is fertilized by
    pollen and seed is
    produced




                              Wild Watermelon
                                 Life Cycle
Flower
 parts




                                                1
    Seeds- A packaged plant surrounded by
    endosperm (food) and protective seed coat




                              Germination of a Bean Seed


Check for seed viability!




    Spores- A reproductive unit found on ferns,
    mosses, and mushrooms




              Sporangia in
                  sori


                   Underside of pinnae




    Asexual Propagation- Also known as
    vegetative propagation.

    n Leaf Cuttings and Leaf-bud Cuttings
    n Stem Cuttings
    n Root Cuttings
    n Division
    n Layering
      n Tip Layering
      n Air Layering

    n Grafting
    n Bulbs, Corms, Rhizomes, Tubers, Stolons




                                                           2
Leaf Cuttings- Use only the leaf




     Vein
   cutting                                   African violet
  from leaf


                                              Remember
                                               Polarity!
                      Leaf Section Cutting




How do leaf cuttings grow?
n Origins of roots and
  shoots varies
   n Embryonic cells are
     involved in
                                Root apical meristematic tissue of
     meristematic activity
                                             onion
n Compounds trigger
  growth of roots and
  shoots




                         Shoot apical meristematic tissue




Stem Cuttings- Use the stem and leaves
or just the stem.

              Cuttings should be 6-10” long & between nodes




 Dibble, then place
   cutting in soil




                                                                     3
    How Do Stem Cuttings Work?
    n How roots develop
      n Response to wounding-dedifferentiation
      n Cells begin to divide
      n Callus begins to form
      n Certain cells begin to divide and initiate root
        development




    Root, Cane Cuttings- Uses roots or
    shoots


      Blackberry root




                                                           Cane
                                                          cutting
            Stokesia Root




    Bulbs and Corms-                         Specialized roots
    and stems
    n Bulbs-     Underground organ
       with scales and basal plate
        n   Tunicate-     onion, garlic,
            daffodil, tulip
        n   Non-Tunicate- Lily
    n Corms-      Swollen base of
       stem axis- Solid- Gladiolus,
       Crocus




Gladiolus
  corm
                                           Tulip- Tunicate Lily-Non -tunicate
                                                bulb                bulb




                                                                                4
            Rhizomes, Tubers, Stolons




                                                                Dahlia tuber
                      Iris rhizome




                                             Rhizome
                           Stolon                              Potato Tuber




            Division- To separate a clump into individual
            plants-Used for perennials and some houseplants




                                        Clean off root ball   Separate roots to find
         Dig up Mother Plant
                                                              individual plants and
                                                                      plant
Photos from Garden Gate Magazine




            Layering- Growing new plants while attached
            to the mother plant. They are later separated.




                                                              Air layering

                           Ground layering




                                                                                       5
Grafting and Budding- Used to attach
one plant to the other for strength or variety




    Bud-grafting
                               Whip Grafting




How can I propagate my bulbs?
n Tunicate Bulbs
   n Cuttage (8 Sections)
   n Scooping
   n Scoring
   n Coring
   n Sectioning (5-10)


n Non-tunicate Bulbs



                                    Bulb Scales




When to propagate
n Late spring and early summer= optimal
  growing time
n Type of cutting
n Need to check resources for specific plants.
  Each one may have an optimal time
n Some seeds need to go through
  stratification or period of cold
n Some seeds need to be scarified




                                                  6
Propagation Environment
n Aerial Environment
  n Humidity
  n Light
  n Temperature
  n Air quality
n Growing Medium
  n Moisture level
  n Temperature
  n Aeration
  n pH
  n Nutrient level




Equipment and Hygiene- Keep
everything clean so disease is not spread




         Pruning knife



                                                      Hand cutters

                                                 Sterilize all tools
                                                 with alcohol after
                                                        use!
                                Watering Can
         Liners
       and Light




Soil
n Purpose of soil
   n   Larger particles (sand) holds plant in place
   n   Smaller particles hold water and nutrients
n Ingredients in soil
   n Vermiculite= Holds moisture
   n Perlite= Increases aeration
   n Peat=Moisten –Helps stop decomposition
   n Sand=Drainage
   n Sphagnum Moss= Holds water well, light in weight
n Recipes and proportions vary depending on plant




                                                                       7
When can I plant it?

n Gently tug on the
  cutting to see if your
  plant has developed a
  good root system
n Repot in larger pot if
  necessary




    Have fun and enjoy your
          new plants!




                              8

								
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