PGT 303 PENGANTAR PENYELIDIKAN DAN KAJIAN TINDAKAN

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					PGT 303 PENGANTAR
PENYELIDIKAN
DAN
KAJIAN TINDAKAN


DR HASHIMAH MOHD YUNUS
KULIAH 2
 Kaedah, Teknik dan Proses
 Penyelidikan Pendidikan
 Kuantitatif Dan Kualitatif
Approaches to Research

    Quantitative: involves collection of
     objective numerical data.

    Qualitative: Involves collection of rich
     descriptive data.
Characteristics of
Quantitative Research:
          Uses deductive reasoning.
          Starts with questions that are formulated into
           testable hypotheses (predictions).
          Uses two or more variables and asserts a
           relationship between them.
          Based on positive facts and measurable
           phenomena.
          Uses interventions (experiments).
Research Strategies
    Formulation            of laws that are generalisable
Jill Taylor
              to other situations.
Characteristics of
Qualitative Research:
               Uses inductive reasoning
               Moves from the particular to the general.
               Considers every phenomenon to be unique and
                must be observed.
               Conclusions developed during the investigation.
               Natural "everyday" settings without intervention.
               Descriptive outcomes

               Results not generalisable
Research Strategies
Jill Taylor
The Research Process:
Inductive V Deductive reasoning

  INDUCTIVE              DEDUCTIVE
  State Problem          State Problem
  Review Literature      Review Literature
  Select Method          Identify Theoretical Framework
  Collect data           State Hypothesis
  Analyses Data          Select Method
  Interpret Results      Collect Data
  Develop Concepts       Analyse Data
  Draw Conclusions       Accept/Reject Hypothesis
  Examine Universality   Interpret results
  Create Hypothesis      Examine Generalisability
  Communicate Results    Communicate Results
The Research Process

 1. Initial Steps:
  Selecting a research topic
  Initial search for information
  Formulating and delimiting the problem
  Posing a research question
  Focused search for information
  Formulating a hypothesis (if appropriate)
Choosing a Research Topic

  Your interests and skills.
  Ethical Considerations
  Practicalities
Problem Identification

  A novel idea or replication or extension of
   previous work.
  Initial search for information to point
   areas of uncertainty and controversy.
Step 2: Problem
Identification
Sources of ideas:

 Student projects theses: suggestions for follow up
  work.
 Books and Periodicals: include recommendations for
  further work e.g. BMJ and Lancet.
 Government reports: identify current issues
 The Internet: electronic journals, charities, and other
  recognised organisations.
Posing a Research Question

  This is the key step that will define and
   dictate the research approach and design
   to be used.

  Having a clear focused research
   question and if appropriate a testable
   hypothesis is essential to the success of
   your research project.
The Research Process

 2. Designing your investigation:
  Selecting a research design
  Specifying the sample
  Specifying the method of data collection
  Conducting a pilot study
  Refining the process
Selecting a Research Design

  Your question will dictate whether a
   quantitative or qualitative approach is
   appropriate.
  You must then devise a detailed
   methodology describing exactly what
   you intend to do.
  This is only possible if you have a full
   understanding of different types of study
   design.
The Research Process

 3. Data collection, analysis &
   dissemination
  Data collection
  Preparing data for analysis
  Analysing the data
  Interpreting the results
  Communicating the findings.
Data Collection & Analysis

  Familiarity with both quantitative and
   qualitative approaches to data collection.
  Comfortable with the techniques used for
   data analysis and presentation
   appropriate to your study design.
  This will allow you to reach valid and
   reliable conclusions.