"PGT 303 PENGANTAR PENYELIDIKAN DAN KAJIAN TINDAKAN"
PGT 303 PENGANTAR PENYELIDIKAN DAN KAJIAN TINDAKAN DR HASHIMAH MOHD YUNUS KULIAH 2 Kaedah, Teknik dan Proses Penyelidikan Pendidikan Kuantitatif Dan Kualitatif Approaches to Research Quantitative: involves collection of objective numerical data. Qualitative: Involves collection of rich descriptive data. Characteristics of Quantitative Research: Uses deductive reasoning. Starts with questions that are formulated into testable hypotheses (predictions). Uses two or more variables and asserts a relationship between them. Based on positive facts and measurable phenomena. Uses interventions (experiments). Research Strategies Formulation of laws that are generalisable Jill Taylor to other situations. Characteristics of Qualitative Research: Uses inductive reasoning Moves from the particular to the general. Considers every phenomenon to be unique and must be observed. Conclusions developed during the investigation. Natural "everyday" settings without intervention. Descriptive outcomes Results not generalisable Research Strategies Jill Taylor The Research Process: Inductive V Deductive reasoning INDUCTIVE DEDUCTIVE State Problem State Problem Review Literature Review Literature Select Method Identify Theoretical Framework Collect data State Hypothesis Analyses Data Select Method Interpret Results Collect Data Develop Concepts Analyse Data Draw Conclusions Accept/Reject Hypothesis Examine Universality Interpret results Create Hypothesis Examine Generalisability Communicate Results Communicate Results The Research Process 1. Initial Steps: Selecting a research topic Initial search for information Formulating and delimiting the problem Posing a research question Focused search for information Formulating a hypothesis (if appropriate) Choosing a Research Topic Your interests and skills. Ethical Considerations Practicalities Problem Identification A novel idea or replication or extension of previous work. Initial search for information to point areas of uncertainty and controversy. Step 2: Problem Identification Sources of ideas: Student projects theses: suggestions for follow up work. Books and Periodicals: include recommendations for further work e.g. BMJ and Lancet. Government reports: identify current issues The Internet: electronic journals, charities, and other recognised organisations. Posing a Research Question This is the key step that will define and dictate the research approach and design to be used. Having a clear focused research question and if appropriate a testable hypothesis is essential to the success of your research project. The Research Process 2. Designing your investigation: Selecting a research design Specifying the sample Specifying the method of data collection Conducting a pilot study Refining the process Selecting a Research Design Your question will dictate whether a quantitative or qualitative approach is appropriate. You must then devise a detailed methodology describing exactly what you intend to do. This is only possible if you have a full understanding of different types of study design. The Research Process 3. Data collection, analysis & dissemination Data collection Preparing data for analysis Analysing the data Interpreting the results Communicating the findings. Data Collection & Analysis Familiarity with both quantitative and qualitative approaches to data collection. Comfortable with the techniques used for data analysis and presentation appropriate to your study design. This will allow you to reach valid and reliable conclusions.