The 44 Phonemes Following is a list of the 44 phonemes along with by listmaster

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 3

									                                             The 44* Phonemes

Following is a list of the 44 phonemes along with the letters of groups of letters that represent
those sounds.

       Phoneme                         Graphemes**                                         Examples
      (speech sound)   (letters or groups of letters representing the most
                        common spellings for the individual phonemes)

Consonant Sounds:

1.            /b/      b, bb                                                 big, rubber

2.            /d/      d, dd, ed                                             dog, add, filled

3.            /f/      f, ph                                                 fish, phone

4.            /g/      g, gg                                                 go, egg

5.            /h/      h                                                     hot

6.            /j/      j, g, ge, dge                                         jet, cage, barge, judge

7.            /k/      c, k, ck, ch, cc, que                                 cat, kitten, duck, school, occur,
                                                                             antique, cheque

8.            /l/      l, ll                                                 leg, bell

9.           /m/       m, mm, mb                                             mad, hammer, lamb

10.           /n/      n, nn, kn, gn                                         no, dinner, knee, gnome

11.           /p/      p, pp                                                 pie, apple

12.           /r/      r, rr, wr                                             run, marry, write

13.           /s/      s, se, ss, c, ce, sc                                  sun, mouse, dress, city, ice,
                                                                             science

14.           /t/      t, tt, ed                                             top, letter, stopped

15.           /v/      v, ve                                                 vet, give

16.           /w/      w                                                     wet, win, swim

17            /y/      y, i                                                  yes, onion

18.           /z/      z, zz, ze, s, se, x                                   zip, fizz, sneeze, laser, is, was,
                                                                             please, Xerox, xylophone



Source: Orchestrating Success in Reading by Dawn Reithaug (2002)
       Phoneme                           Graphemes**                                          Examples
      (speech sound)     (letters or groups of letters representing the most
                          common spellings for the individual phonemes)

Consonant Digraphs:

19.          /th/        th                                                    thumb, thin, thing
         (not voiced)

20.          /th/        th                                                    this, feather, then
           (voiced)

21.          /ng/        ng, n                                                 sing, monkey, sink

22.          /sh/        sh, ss, ch, ti, ci                                    ship, mission, chef, motion,
                                                                               special

23.          /ch/        ch, tch                                               chip, match

24.          /zh/        ge, s                                                 garage, measure, division

25.          /wh/        wh                                                    what, when, where, why
         (with breath)

Short Vowel Sounds:

26.           /a/        a, au                                                 hat, laugh

27.           /e/        e, ea                                                 bed, bread

28.           /i/        i                                                     if

29.           /o/        o, a, au, aw, ough                                    hot, want, haul, draw, bought

30.           /u/        u, o                                                  up, ton

Long Vowel Sounds:

                                                                               bacon, late, day, train, they, eight,
31.           /ā/        a, a_e, ay, ai, ey, ei
                                                                               vein

                                                                               me, these, beat, feet, key, chief,
32.           /ē/        e, e_e, ea, ee, ey, ie, y
                                                                               baby

33.           /ī/        i, i_e, igh, y, ie                                    find, ride, light, fly, pie

34.           /ō/        o, o_e, oa, ou, ow                                    no, note, boat, soul, row

35.           /ū/        u, u_e, ew                                            human, use, few, chew




Source: Orchestrating Success in Reading by Dawn Reithaug (2002)
       Phoneme                         Graphemes**                                         Examples
      (speech sound)   (letters or groups of letters representing the most
                        common spellings for the individual phonemes)

Other Vowel Sounds:

36.          /oo/      oo, u, oul                                            book, put, could

37.          /ōō/      oo, u, u_e                                            moon, truth, rule

Vowel Diphthongs:

38.          /ow/      ow, ou, ou_e                                          cow, out, mouse, house

39.          /oy/      oi, oy                                                coin, toy

Vowel Sounds Influenced by r:

40.          /a(r)/    ar                                                    car

41.          /ā(r)/    air, ear, are                                         air, chair, fair, hair, bear, care

42.          /i(r)/    irr, ere, eer                                         mirror, here, cheer

43.         /o(r)/     or, ore, oor                                          for, core, door

44.         /u(r)/     ur, ir, er, ear, or, ar                               burn, first, fern, heard, work, dollar

Source: Orchestrating Success in Reading by Dawn Reithaug (2002).

* The number of phonemes is different in some linguistics textbooks; this is evidence of the
difficulty of classifying ( Moats, 1998).

** This list does not include all possible graphemes for a given phoneme.




Source: Orchestrating Success in Reading by Dawn Reithaug (2002)

								
To top