Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

The history of the Internet From ARPANET to Internet by historyman

VIEWS: 791 PAGES: 24

									       The history of the Internet
                   From ARPANET to Internet




November 9, 2006                              by Róbert Károly
Table of content


   1.   History of the Internet
   2.   A new protocol is needed
   3.   Further development
   4.   Services
   5.   Summary
   6.   Sources



                           1. History of the Internet >>   CONTENT
1. History of the Internet
<< Table of content



      A little excursion back to history lessons:

      After WW 2 the USA is the only country having nuclear weapons.

      1949 the Soviets did their first nuclear test.

      The arms race began.




                                     2. A new protocol is needed >>    01 / 22
1. History of the Internet
<< Table of content

      What‘s this?




      Sputnik 1 > The first satellite in orbit.
      Caused the Sputnik-shock.


                                     2. A new protocol is needed >>   02 / 22
1. History of the Internet
<< Table of content


      What has that all to do with the Internet?

      1. Sputnik was the worlds first satellite in orbit.

      2. The Ministry of Defense of the USA founded the ARPA (=
      Advanced Research Projects Agency).

      1965: Pentagon commissions the development of an fail-proof
      network.




                                     2. A new protocol is needed >>   03 / 22
1. History of the Internet
<< Table of content

      Example of an decentralised network:




                                 2. A new protocol is needed >>   04 / 22
1. History of the Internet
<< Table of content

      The ARPANET (1969) was born.
      University of Utah (Salt Lake City), Stanford Research Institute
      (Menlo Park) and the University of California of Los Angeles Santa
      Barbara.

      It looked like this:

      The connections were
      established by telephone lines.
      More universities and research
      facilities got connected soon.




                                  2. A new protocol is needed >>     05 / 22
1. History of the Internet
<< Table of content

      The ARPANET in December 1970:




                               2. A new protocol is needed >>   06 / 22
1. History of the Internet
<< Table of content

      The ARPANET in July 1975:




                                  2. A new protocol is needed >>   07 / 22
1. History of the Internet
<< Table of content


      1972 ARPA is being renamed to DARPA.


      Ray Tomlinson writes the first E-Mail
      program (1972).


      1973 the ARPANET is getting
      international: University College of
      London (England) and Royal Radar
      Establishment (Norway) joined.




                                   2. A new protocol is needed >>   08 / 22
2. A new protocol is needed
<< 1. History of the Internet


       The quick growth of the network and the upcoming of different
       systems made a new protocol necessary.

       What is a protocol?
       A protocol defines several rules for the communication in and
       between the networks.
       TCP/IP is beeing created.

       What does TCP/IP do?

       TCP/IP divides the data you want to send in several packages.



                                        3. Further development >>      09 / 22
2. A new protocol is needed
<< 1. History of the Internet

       Every package get‘s a unique number, an common checksum, an
       sender and an receiver for it‘s way through the net.

       The package get‘s sent through several ways to the receiver,
       passing many nodes.

       Once every package arrived at the receiver they get put in order
       and form the data (e.g. files) they were before the transmission.

       1982:TCP/IP is getting the standard-protocol in ARPANET.




                                        3. Further development >>     10 / 22
3. Further development
<< 2. A new protocol is needed

      UUCP (Unix-to-Unix Copy) is delivered 1978 with UNIX.

      It gives UNIX computers the possibility to exchange files between
      each other by telephone line.

      Later on it became a huge notice board with discussion groups.


      => The USENET was born.




              „Poor mans ARPANET.“

                                                    4. Services >>        11 / 22
3. Further development
<< 2. A new protocol is needed


      1983: The existing ARPAnet is being divided in the civil, further on
      ARPANET called, net and the military MILNET.


      1986: The NSF (National Science
      Foundation) founds the NSFNET.


      The planed join of the NSFNET to the
      ARPANET didn‘t happen.




                                                      4. Services >>     12 / 22
3. Further development
<< 2. A new protocol is needed

      Early 90s: Existing, by TCP/IP communicating, networks are
      getting joined by gateways.
      1990: The ARPANET discontinued it‘s work. The NSFNET slips into
      the role of the ARPANET.
      1991: The WWW (World-Wide-Web) starts it‘s services.
      Jan. 1992: The ISOC (Internet Society) is
      formed. => The word Internet appears.
      1994: The Internet grows through out the
      university areas.




                                                  4. Services >>   13 / 22
3. Further development
<< 2. A new protocol is needed

       Shopping by creditcard „at the screen“ becomes possible.


      Thank god! 1994 it‘s finally possible: …

      … you can order pizza from Pizza Hut through
      the internet!




                                                   4. Services >>   14 / 22
3. Further development
<< 2. A new protocol is needed

      The Internet boom began.
      Questions about security come up / Encryptiontechnologies are
      being developed.
      The growth of the net makes Internet-cafés appear everywhere.

      The Internet becomes obscure.
      Obscure data flow brings the censorship of undesireable data
      (right wing extreme stuff, pornography, tutorials for building
      weapons, and so on) in the center of public medias view.




                                                   4. Services >>      15 / 22
3. Further development
<< 2. A new protocol is needed

      1996 begins an browser war between Netscape and Microsoft.

      The development of the WWW is being pushed by that.
      The WWW becomes more and more multimedia-based.
      The spectrum of information and commercial offers on the
      Internet seems to be endless.




                                                 4. Services >>    16 / 22
4. Services
<< 3. Further development

      E-Mail: Allows sending messages to
      other users of the net.

      WWW: A huge informationarchive.


      Search engines: Helps searching the web
      for specific information.



     Homebanking: Allows doing
     transactions and other bank related
     things at home – everytime.

                                                5. Summary >>   17 / 22
4. Services
<< 3. Further development

      Chat: Allows realtime-talking to other
      “Chatters“ via the Internet.

      Shopping is also possible on
      the Internet.

      File sharing services allow exchanging files with
      other users.


     Telephoning via the Internet is also
     possible and much cheaper aswell.

     Those are only a few of the uncountable services on the Internet.


                                                   5. Summary >>     18 / 22
5. Summary
<< 4. Services

      1957: Sputnik-shock – The soviet republic starts the first orbital
      satellite.
      1969: The ARPANET started.
      1973: England and Norway join the ARPANET.
      1978: UUCP is published by UNIX. => USENET.
      1982: TCP/IP becomes the standard-protocol for the ARPANET.
      1983: The ARPANET is being divided in civile ARPANET and the
      military purposes used for MILNET.
      1986: The NSFNET was found.
      1990: The ARPANET discontinues it‘s work. The NSFNET overtakes
      it‘s role.




                                                   6. Sources >>    19 / 22
5. Summary
<< 4. Services


      1991: The WWW service becomes published on the net.
      1992: The ISOC (Internet Society) was found.
      1994: The first online-shops appear. Finally: You can order pizza
      from Pizza Hut online. The Internetboom starts.
      2000: Love Letter is the first virus which plentifully spreads through
      the net.




                                                      6. Sources >>     20 / 22
6. Sources
<< 5. Summary

     Report: http://www.fundus.org/pdf.asp?ID=12467

     Report: http://www.fundus.org/pdf.asp?ID=6468

     Internet: http://www.michaelkaul.de/Geschichte/geschichte.html

     Internet: http://www.saar.de/vhs_info/node117.html

     Internet: http://www.babbage.demon.co.uk/morseabc.html

     Pictures: Google Bilder



                                                     Finally… >>      21 / 22
Finally…
<< 6. Sources

      This presentation will be published by my on the net. You can
      download it on:

      My website: www.ro-ka.net




      Thank you for listening.
      Any questions?


                                          Allright, we‘re done >>     22 / 22

								
To top