A Brief History of Cooperative Extension in Wisconsin by historyman


									  A Brief History of
Cooperative Extension
    in Wisconsin
       1862: The Morrill Act
• Established Land Grant Colleges
• WI received 240,000 acres of public land
  – Sold land to establish a college with “land
    grant” mission.
  – Give the “industrial classes” a “practical
• WI finalist universities:
  – Ripon College, Lawrence University, and UW
  “Extension” Grew from the
• Agricultural Experiment Stations
  – 1883: state funding for first AES to investigate a new
    innovation called a silo.
  – 1909: AES established in Spooner, WI
• Farmers Institutes offered around WI
• Some early college initiatives:
  –   Babcock butterfat test
  –   Eliminate bovine TB
  –   Discovery of dicumarol
  –   Moving WI from wheat to dairy
Agricultural Trains
    1904: Farmers Course in
• Weeklong course in
  agricultural training.
• Free to state
• 1905:
  Conference added
• Residents in
  Madison provided
Early Youth Education Activity

• Corn Growing Clubs for agricultural youth
  were the precursor of the 4-H program.
  – Seed provided by UW to fair secretaries
• The 4-H emblem was developed for boys
  and girls clubs in 1911.
• Clubs were formed around a variety of
  agricultural projects.
 1908: State Funding for AES
• Legislature appropriated $30,000 annually
  to operate an agricultural extension
  service in Wisconsin.
  – First state to take such action
• Soon after, in 1912, the “Wisconsin Idea”
  was born in a book written by Charles
  – “The boundaries of the UW campus are the
    boundaries of the state.”
  1912: The first County Agent
• E. L. Luther:
  Wisconsin’s first
  county agent
  (Oneida County)
• Expenses shared
  by county and
   1914: The Smith Lever Act
• USDA provides support for extension functions at the
  land grant institutions.
• This was the beginning of the 3-way partnership of
  county, state, and federal governments.
• Extension purpose: “to aid in diffusing among the
  people....useful and practical information on subjects
  relating to agriculture and home economics, and to
  encourage the application of the same.”
• Perhaps as important: The SLA directed that those who
  were served should be involved in deciding what should
  be done.
• WWI War Initiatives to
  produce more food.
• Further expansion of
  focus from just farming
  to rural life.
• 4-H Clubs expanded
  during WWI.
• Extension home
  economists hired, and
  programs grew.
  – Homemaker clubs started
             Great Depression
• Funding issues put an end to some positions and the 48
  year old Farmers’ Institutes.
• The depression spawned new programs in food quality and
  farm management (record keeping).
• Extension was always in a disaster management mode.
• Beginning of federal farm programs (New Deal)
• Extension aided in the formation of rural electric
• Number of county “home agents” increased during 1930’s
  as did the number of 4-H clubs.
• Extension began hiring county 4-H agents.
• Reforestation of the Wisconsin landscape made a priority.
Learning to make a mattress in 1939.
                    World War II
• From 1941 to 1945, WI extension staff doubled.
• Agricultural initiatives:
   – Finding farm help: Mexican-American migrants, Jamaicans
   – Dairy farm modernization: milk houses, lighting, ventilation,
   – Ag prices soared during the war and mortgages were paid off.
• 1700 Extension Homemaker Clubs with 29,000
   – Family health and food/nutrition programs were high priorities.
• 4-H club membership in WI reached 30,000 in 1945
   – Victory gardens, food production, and leadership development
• Boom years for
  farm mechanization
  and innovation.
  – Electricity for all
    rural residents
  – From 30 bu/acre
    corn to 100+ bu/acre
• Both 4-H and Home
  Economic extension
  programs continued
  to grow.
• A period of expanded programs
  – Extension moved into the cities to reach urban audiences
  – Poverty programs
  – Horticulture as a mainstream program component
  – 4-H projects added that stretched farther from traditional
    agriculture and home economic topics.
  – “Home economics” term replaced with “family living”
  – Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program created
    at federal level but administered by county extension
  – Increased emphasis on resource management education.
• A period of reorganization
• The beginning and refinement of what UW-Extension
  looks like today.
• Although basic mission and many traditional programs
  remained, new initiatives were added:
   –   Environmental concerns
   –   Public policy issues
   –   Youth development and risk issues
   –   Community development / Small business counseling
• Trying to do more with less:
   – Specialization at the county level / Trading expertise
   – Formation of community and statewide partnerships
   – Leveraging grant money
    Ninety years have passed since
   the Smith Lever Act was enacted
• Our foundation remains:
  – University research-based
  – Letting the people who are
    served have a say in what
    is taught or researched.
  – Expanding the boundary of
    the university to the
    boundaries of the state.
  – Taking education....not
    regulation to people and
                 Family Living
Family Living Programs respond to community needs
with research-based education and partnerships that
   support Wisconsin families and communities.
                      10 Teams
• Affordable Housing
• Building Community Connections
  with Families
• Eating Well and Being Active
• Family Caregiving
• Family Financial Education *
• Parenting Education
• Poverty and Food Insecurity
• Consumer Health Education
• Family Stress and transition
• Developing Multicultural
    Community, Natural Resource and
       Economic Development
CNRED is Wisconsin’s educational Network serving people
   and their communities in seeking positive change
                          13 Teams
•   Community Planning and Plan Implementation Team
•   Forestry
•   Groundwater
•   Local Government and Finance
•   Organizational Development
•   Tourism Research, Planning and Development
•   Aquatic Invasives
•   Community and Economic Development Preparedness
•   Community-Based Leadership Program
•   Downtowns and Business Districts Revitalization
•   Energy Education
•   Political Effectiveness
•   Stormwater
     Agriculture and Natural Resources
    Teams of UW-faculty and representatives from organizations and
    agricultural industries develop, design, and evaluate educational
      programs that are research-based and linked to local needs.
                            12 Teams
•    Dairy
•    Farm and Risk Management
•    Forage
•    Commercial Vegetable Crops and Fresh Market
•    Grains
•    Land Use and Agriculture
•    Livestock
•    Nutrient Management
•    Urban Ag/Horticulture
•    Emerging Agricultural Markets
•    Food Industry Research, Service and Training
•    Fruit Crops
    4-H and Youth Development
   4-H & Youth Development give young people
opportunities to learn new skills, gain self-confidence
       and contribute to their communities.
                     7 Teams
• Building 4-H After-School Programs
• Strengthening 4-H Club Leadership
• Developing Multicultural Understanding
• Helping Youth Understand Agriculture Issues
• Strengthening Community for Positive Youth
• Volunteer Monitoring
• Youth Voices in Community
  Action and Governance
      How We’re Structured
          University of Wisconsin System

13 Four-year                                13 Two-year
universities                                  colleges

                            Business and    Broadcasting
Cooperative    Continuing
                            Manufacturing     and Media
 Extension     Education
                             Extension       Innovations

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