History of the Church Part VI • The perennial questions – How should Christians react and interact with culture? – What‟s the relationship between church and state? – Why do „reformed‟ guys harp on „sin‟ so much!? – Do we chose God, or does God chose us? – What does the Council of Ephesus have to do with Islam? Loose Ends • Athanasian Creed – Feisty and exhaustive – Earliest documented around 500 in France – Deals with heresies from Arianism to Monophysitism (we‟ll get there) – 'Es ist also gefasset, dass ich nicht weiss, ob seit der Apostel Zeit in der Kirche des Neuen Testamentes etwas Wichtigeres and Herrlicheres geschrieben sei' (Luther, Werke, ed. Walch, VI. 2315 from Schaff). Augustine (400) • “Full” understanding of redemption – 1 Timothy 2:5-6 5 For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, 6 who gave himself as a ransom for all, which is the testimony given at the proper time. • Origen vs. Augustine, the difference 150 years makes… – 2 Corinthians 5:21 21 For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God. • Talked about the “atonement” in words like – “expiatory” – to cover over sin – “propitiatory” – to turn away wrath – “substitutionary” – in our place – The work of Christ was objective but requires a subjective response of love, humility, and obedience Augustine (400) • Reply to Faustus the Manichaean – Remember them? – Pre-C.S.Lewis, C.S. Lewis argument from Mere Xnty • “I personally think that next to Christianity Dualism is the manliest and most sensible creed on the market. But it has a catch in it.” Mere Christianity, pg.48 – 1) On what basis to you call one “good” and the other “bad”? » In order to determine which one is “good” and which one is “bad” you need a third higher standard to judge that by: a supreme-er being. – 2) “…badness cannot succeed even in being bad in the same way in which goodness is good. Goodness is, so to speak, itself: badness is only spoiled goodness. And there must be something good first before it can be spoiled.” Mere Xnty, pg. 49 – 3) “the powers which enable evil to carry on are powers given it by goodness. All the things which enable a bad man to be effectively bad are in themselves good things-resolution, cleverness, good looks, existence itself. That is why Dualism, in a strict sense, will not work.” Mere Xnty pg50 Augustine (400) • City of God – What caused it to be written? • Rome was defeated in battle by the Visigoths as early as 378 • Rome was sacked by Vandals, headed by the Arian Alaric (Jesus not God) in 410 • This was like a Pearl Harbor! Invincible Rome was vulnerable! • Pagans blamed the Christians “if only we had returned to our pagan roots, this wouldn‟t have happened” “Rome is falling because of these Christians!” – Augustine flips the charge on its head, says Rome is falling because it‟s not Christian enough! – In contrast to the Greek cyclical view of history, Augustine posits a Biblical worldview and view of history • Creation – ex nihilo and very good! “tov tov” – Two kingdoms, two cities existing side by side, God and man. • Fall – time/space, cosmic & disastrous,…City of Man is severed from God to the extent that “all virtues are but splendid vices” • Redemption – restoration; re-creation into the kingdom of God • Consummation – the kingdom of God fully comes, the fallen kingdom of man is no more – But his most unique contribution has to do with the relationship between kingdoms… City of God Applied • When you acknowledge a distinction between “sacred” church and “secular” world, you need to decide just how the two relate,… • Views of Christ and culture – Christ against culture (2 Cor. 6 paradigm) • Tertullian, Monastics, Roman Catholic, Fundamentalists – Christ accommodator of culture (1 Cor. 9 paradigm) • liberals, Emergent church folk • So what‟s Augustine‟s View? – Christ transformer of culture (Gen 1-3; Mt. 5 paradigm) • A transformational gospel has transformational power as salt/light blessings of the gospel impact Cultural Mandate: Gifts, Vocations everything from art to politics Augustine: the not-so-good • On the sacraments (visible signs of invisible grace) – By 400, “ordination,” “extreme unction” had been added to the Lord‟s Supper, Baptism, and penance. Augustine argued to include marriage as a sacrament – Augustine argues that it‟s the sign + Word that gives you a sacrament • Gives rise to ex opere operato: the idea that if something is done in the proper way, it truly imparts the grace signified – “you do it, it happens” – So what about baptism? • It removes all prior sins, infuses holiness, & truly regenerates • Therefore you baptize infants who don‟t know any better, and pagans begin to seek it at their death bed and not before – penance? • Confession to God removes venial, daily, sins • Mortal, or really bad, sins require church discipline – Communion? • Augustine goes back and forth, some times the body and blood are really Christ, sometimes symbolic. Amazing Grace • “It is Augustine who gave us the Reformation” – B. B. Warfield, Calvin and Augustine, ed. Samuel G. Craig (P&R Co., 1956), pg 322 – How? • Against Pelagius – Who was he? – What was the genesis of his thought? – How did he earn the ire of Augustine? • by denying what he could not understand,… • by attacking Augustine‟s remark “I have no hope but in thy great mercy. Grant what you command and command what you will.” • by calling himself “biblical” Pelagius • Pelagius‟ presuppositions – A „good‟ God would not require something we can not achieve (rationalism) – Human nature can not change (Platonic rationalism) • If we are required to be perfect, we must be able to be so, or else God is cruel (perfectionism) • If we are required to make a choice, we must have the ability to do so (moralism, individualism) • In other words, like all previous heretics, Pelagius adheres to homo mensura meets the Bible • Pelagius‟ theology (or “Why Christianity rises or falls with Gen 1-3”) – Original Sin=non-existent • “Everything good and evil, concerning which we are either worthy of praise or of blame, is done by us, not born with us. We are not born in our full development, but with a capacity for good and evil; we are begotten without virtue as much as without fault, and before the activity of the individual will there is nothing in human other than what God has placed in them. - (Corpus Scriptorium Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, vol.42, ed. C.F. Urba and J. Zycha (Vienna: Tempsky, 1902), 174.22-7.)) – The “will” (ability to choose) = born free, as free as the wind blows – What then is “sin”? It is a sickness, a handicap, which needs divine medicine, but can be overcome through effort. • But Pelagius was not the only “Pelagian”… Caelestius • Who is Caelestius (Celestius)? • How did he sum up Pelagius‟ thought? A logical progression with 6 points – Human nature can‟t change. • Adam was created mortal, he would‟ve died anyways • A good nature will always be a good nature – Adam‟s sin affected himself alone • Adam is just a bad example, that‟s all. – All infants born after Adam are in same state as Adam before fall. • After all, it‟s only fair. – Neither through Adam do all men die nor by resurrection of Christ do men arise. • both are examples – Law as well as the Gospel leads to the Kingdom of God. • law lead us directly to eternal life – Even before Christ there were some sinless men. • Logical conclusion • “Christianity and Water;” beginnings of modern liberalism; – “a God without wrath [bringing people] without sin into a kingdom without judgment through the ministrations of a Christ without a cross.” - H. Richard Niebuhr, The Kingdom of God in America, 1937 The church responds • Council of Carthage (411) – Declared Pelagius and Caelestius to be heretics, and forbade Caelestius‟ ordination to the ministry • Augustine counters both in Against Pelagius (415) – Creation • Adam created good, and “able to sin or not to sin” Gen 1-2 – Fall • post fall, because of Adam, we‟re “not able not to sin” – Roots this in Psalm 51, Rom 7 – Not a handicap, but a deadly cancer – Our best works are filthy rags! • Original sin is transmitted because the soul is genetic just like the body – Redemption • Christ‟s finished work was not just a good example, but a just payment for sins • Returns us to a state of “able to sin or not to sin” – Consummation • Takes us beyond Adam, to where we‟re “not able to sin” – Sum: Grace is wholly undeserved, free, necessary, irresistible • In other words, the best work does nothing but condemn. Salvation is by grace ALONE, through faith ALONE, in Christ ALONE. Meanwhile,…in the Eastern Church Emperor Theodosius II Nestorius (428), Patriarch of Constantinople Cyril, Patriarch Augustine vs. of Alexandria Pelagius Nestorianism • Once again, the modern presupposition shows itself to be quite ancient: “I will not accept what I can not understand” • Nestorius argues – Dogs beget dogs, cats beget cats, people don‟t beget God. – Therefore, Mary gave birth to Jesus (human person with a human nature) – Therefore, God added divinity to Jesus once he was born (the divine was sandwiched or „conjoined‟ to the human) – Therefore Jesus is two persons, two natures, conjoined together. • Cyril strikes back – Theologically • Nestorius‟ Jesus is not much more different than a prophet • Nestorius‟ essentially emphasizes Jesus‟ humanity at the expense of his deity • “Conjoined” is schizophrenic; 1 Person, with a “union” of 2 natures is better – Politically • Cyril courts Emperor Theodosius II, pulling strings to bring Nestor up on charges – Sum: this was as much about personalities, mud-slinging, and the two schools (Antioch/Alexandria), than Jesus • The council itself is proof… Council of Ephesus • Called in 431 • Presided over by Cyril – Who decided to get a jump on things by convening before those sympathetic to Nestorius could attend • Ruled Nestorius & Pelagius & Celestius heretics – Deposed Nestorius & Excommunicated them all – Affirmed the immutability of the Nicene Creed What‟s the big deal? • Why does Nestorianism matter? – Waraqah bin Nawfal bin Assad bin al-Azi bin Kassi Al- Korshy () ورقه بن نوفل بن أسد بن عبد العزي بن قصي القرشي • Why does Pelagianism matter? – because it didn‟t die – Folks like • Jerome (wrote the Latin Vulgate in 405) – Grace is needed but not irresistible • John Cassian of France (360-435) – Man is sick, but not dead,…sin isn‟t that bad – Our will is still free, (he appeals to Lk 15; & Zaccheus) • Vincent of Lerins: Communitorium (434) defines “orthodoxy” • Faustus of Lerins (474): distinguishes foreknowledge from predestination • Synod of Orange (529) – Pope Boniface adopts semi-Pelagianism – Question is, which is more harmful? Pelagianism, or Semi- Pelagianism? Next Week • The middle ages begin with a bang! • One more big council gives us what we have in our hymnal and shoots down more heresies • Bold missionaries challenge slavery and chop down sacred oaks • Eastern orthodoxy takes off because “their building is nicer than the other guys” • Gregory the Great sets the path of the Roman Catholic church for the next 600 years!