Presentation of projects to be funded under IPY-related projects by presmaster

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									           IPY - CARE
  Climate of the Arctic and its Role
             for Europe
       Specific Support Action 2005-2006
        Presentation of projects to be funded under IPY-related projects:
                 WP5 Remote sensing and new technologies
                        N.M. Mognard (LEGOS-CNES)

                                    Objectives
   The overall objective is to develop and utilize new observing system from
satellites, automated ice buoys and underwater systems in order to improve data
  collection in the Arctic region. The focus of the WP will be to develop and
validate methods for observing ice thickness, multiyear ice fraction, glacier mass
balance, ocean primary production, river discharge, ocean freshwater and heat
                                      fluxes.
               WP5.5 Snow on land and on sea ice
•     Tasks: Develop and validate methods for computing snow depth and snow water equivalent on land and
      sea ice, and estimate the spatio-temporal variability of the snowpack in the Arctic
•     Snow on land:
    Combination of passive microwave satellite brightness temperatures (SSMI) with NCEP air temperatures reanalyses and
          ISBA from MeteoFrance ground temperatures provides a new means to estimate snow depth on a global basis
          •      Papers published:
          1.     Grippa M., N.M. Mognard, T. LeToan, Comparison between the interannual variability of snow parameters derived from SSM/I and the
                 Ob river discharge, R.S.E., 98, 35-44, 2005 ;
          2.     Boone, A., N. M. Mognard, B. Decharme, H. Douville, M. Grippa, and K. Kerrigan, The impact of simulated soil temperatures on the
                 estimation of snow depth over Siberia from SSM/I compared to a multi-model climatology, R.S.E., 101, 482–494, 2006.
          •      Oral presentations:
          1.     Mognard et al., Estimation of a snow depth climatology over Siberia from the synergy of satellite passive microwave brightness
                 temperatures and simulated soil temperatures, EGU, 2006.
          2.     Biancamaria et al., Impact of landcover on snow depth estimation from SSM/I data over Boreal regions, EGU, 2007
          •      Funding:
          1.     IPY-CNES for 2007


    The GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission senses small-scale variations in Earth's gravitational pull
          from local changes in Earth's mass yielding new ways to estimate snow water equivalent anomalies over large Arctic
          river basins
          •      Papers published:
          1.     Frappart F. ,G. Ramillien, S. Biancamaria, N.M. Mognard and A. Cazenave, Evolution of high-latitude snow mass derived from the
                 GRACE gravimetry mission (2002-2004), Geophys. Res. Lett, 33, 2006.
          2.     Frappart et al, Evolution of Arctic basins snow mass from remote sensing and its impact on river discharges (2003-2006), submitted,
                 2007
          •      Oral presentations:
          1.     Frappart et al., EGU 2006
          •      Funding:
          1.     IPY-CNES for 2007
•     Snow on sea ice:
    Using the methodology developed for land and AMSR/E brightness temperatures combined with NCEP air temperatures
            reanalyses
          •      Possible funding
          1.     French ANR for 2008-2011: Proposal ASTERGLACE, PI: P. Wadhams
    WP5.7 Freshwater runoff from Russian rivers
•      Tasks: Use satellite radar altimetry combined with in situ measurements to estimate the runoff from
       large rivers into the Arctic Ocean, and estimate the spatio-temporal variability of the river runoff in
       the Arctic by analysis of historical data.
•      Arctic rivers discharge:
     Combination of satellite radar altimeters (Topex/Poseidon, Jason) with in situ measurements
           •     Papers published:
           1.    Kouraev et al., Ob’ river discharge from TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry (1992-2002), RSE, 2004
           •     Funding:
           1.    LEGOS
           2.    OMP
     Combination of satellite radar altimeters (Topex/Poseidon, Jason, ENVISAT) with hydrology models (ISBA from
           MeteoFrance with TRIP for routing and LISFLOOD for inundation) AND Simulation of new altimetric
           missions: ALTIKA, WATER HM (wide-swath interferrometric altimetry)
           •     Oral presentations:
           1.    Mognard et al., Estimating Continental Hydrology Parameters from Space Missions, COSPAR, 2006
           2.    Mognard et al., Estimating continental hydrology parameters from existing space missions: the need for a dedicated
                 surface water mission, AGU, 2006
           •     PhD student
           •     Funding:
           1.    CNES and NOVELTIS for 2006-2009
           2.    CNES for future satellite missions for 2007
•      Arctic hydrology (wetlands, permafrost):
     Passive microwave satellite brightness temperatures (SSMI or AMSR) used to estimate the fraction of water extent
            after snow has melted
           •     Papers published:
           1.    Grippa et al., Observation of changes in the hydrological cycle of Western Siberia Lowland , to be submitted to GRL, 2007
           •     Oral presentations:
           1.    Mognard et al., Variability of Surface Water Extent in Central Siberia During the 1988 to 2003 Summers, EGU, 2006
           •     Funding:
           1.    IPY-ANR ‘Climate Variability’ IMPACT BOREAL, 2007-2009
           2.    LEGOS for 2007
           3.    OMP for 2007
                                       SWE Satellite
                                       Climatology for the Ob
                                       region: 1987-1995

    Modeled SWE for GSWP2 experiment




  Satellite SWE for static algorithm




Satellite SWE for dynamic algorithm
                                    Ob river basin:
                       Interanual variability of satellite estimates
                              And of the Ob river runoff




   Satellite estimates of snow melt timing Satellite estimates of SWE in February
   Compared with the Ob river runoff in Compared with the Ob river runoff in June
                     May

From: Grippa M., N.M. Mognard, T. LeToan, Comparison between the interannual variability of snow parameters
     derived from SSM/I and the Ob river discharge, R.S.E., 98, 35-44, 2005
 Radar Altimetry and
Gravimetry from Space
                                                                            Seasonal amplitude of the
                                                                            GRACE signal


                                                                               Comparison of the satellite
                                                                               snow anomalies (SSMI and
                                                                               AMSR-E) with GRACE
                              400
                                                                                                Ob
                                                                                                runoff; GRACE;
                                                                                                SSMI Chang; SSMI Mognard
                              300                                                               AMSR Chang



                              200


                              100


                                0


                             -100


                             -200


                             -300
                              25/12/2001      25/12/2002       25/12/2003          24/12/2004      24/12/2005              24/12/2006
                                                                            Date


Frappart et al, Evolution of Arctic basins snow mass from remote sensing and its impact on river discharges (2003-2006), submitted, 2007
                               September 2003




             April 2003




Courtesy G. Ramillien, LEGOS
Water level and discharge
                                                        Current status
                                                       230 river stations
                                                         ---------------------
                                                            ~ 100 sites
                                                                Over
                                                             Wetlands
                                                        ----------------------

                                                            ~ 100 lakes
                                                         ----------------------

                                                         ~ 50 reservoirs
http://www.legos.obs-mip.fr/soa/hydrologie/hydroweb/
         Comparison model estimates / altimetry


                                           • Comparison between model
                                             outputs / altimetric height /
                                             in-situ data (-> stage-
                                             discharge rating curve)




 Few in-situ gauges in high latitudes ->
needs of coupling models/altimetric data
40000                                   In situ
                                        T/P data


30000
         Discharge, m3/s




20000
                                                                                                      Altimeter derived Ob’ discharge
                                                                                                      anomalies (black) versus in situ
10000
                                                                                                           measurements (grey)
    0
                                                                                                             for 1991 to 2002
                                                                 Time, days (MM/DD/YY)


 12/8/91 12/7/92 12/7/93 12/7/94 12/7/95 12/6/96 12/6/97 12/6/98 12/6/99 12/5/00 12/5/01 12/5/02

                                                                         Discharge anomaly, m3/s
                                                                         20000
                                                                                     In situ
                                                                         15000
                                                                                     T/P data
                                                                         10000
        Altimeter derived Ob’ discharge                                   5000

             (black) versus in situ                                          0

             measurements (grey)                                         -5000

                                                                        -10000
               for 1991 to 2002                                         -15000
                                                                                                                                             Time

                                                                              1/93   1/94      1/95    1/96   1/97   1/98   1/99   1/00   1/01   1/02   1/03




                           From Kouraev et al., Ob’ river discharge from TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry (1992-2002), RSE, 2004
       Ob river basin: Altimeter Estimates

• On the Ob, there is no need to use a specific
  retracker;
• Topex/Poseidon height has been used to
  retrieve the Ob river discharge.




  Stage (from T/P) / discharge (in-      In-situ discharge (green) and
 situ) relation on the Ob river from   simulated discharge with T/P data
             1993 to 2002               (blue dots) on the Ob river from
                                                  1993 to 2002
        Ob river basin: Modelling steps
• Coupling ISBA and LISFLOOD --> discharge and
  hydrological parameters simulation
   – parametrize thawing and wetlands,
   – DEM with sufficient resolution ,
   – in situ measurements,
   – bed elevation, water mask, Manning coefficient.

 Evapotranspiration
                                         Salekhard
                                                                                               July + August
                                    August Mean Fraction                                       Mean Precipitation
                                    of Surface Water

Ob river basin interannual variability: FWS,
summer precipitation and runoff at Salekhard



 Variability of Surface Water
 Extent in Central Siberia
 During the 1988 to 2003
 Summers

                                   August Fraction of                                                 July + August
                                   Surface Water Trend                                           Precipitation Trend




      July + August
      precipitation



      July + August
      FWS
                        August runoff
                        at Salekhard
                                                         July +        August   July +        August
                                                         August        FWS      August        FWS
Ob river basin interannual variability:
FWS, summer precipitation and runoff at Salekhard        precipitation          precipitation
  Measurement Goals for a New Satellite
    Mission dedicated to Hydrology
• Hydraulics Required: h, dh/dx, dh/dt
• Spatial Sampling: Images with pixels of
  ~100 m
   – Need between track sampling, not just
     conventional altimeter profiles.
   – Image pixel sizes should be small enough to
     measure ~100 m wide channels.
   – Height accuracy needs to be capable of deriving
     slope from lowland rivers
   – Geographic coverage to 75 degrees North.
• Temporal Sampling: Repeats ~weekly
   – Need to capture the majority of discharge from
     any basin.
       • Amazon floodwave is regular and lasts almost a
         year
       • Arctic floods occur during annual spring melt and
         last for less than a month.
   WATER Technology:
  KaRIN: Ka-Band Radar
     INterferometer
 Only method capable of producing images of
  high resolution water surface elevation
  measurements
    can provide h, dh/dx, and dh/dt
 Strong Heritage: Is technology evolution, not
  revolution
    Radar altimetry has already been
     successfully used in space on a number of
     missions (Topex/POSEIDON, ERS1/2,
     ENVISAT, JASON,..)
    SRTM was a radar interferometer
    Extensive JPL technology investment in
     WSOA
                                 WATER
       Water And Terrestrial Elevation Recovery

             Science Surface Hydrology Goals
• Primary:
   – To determine the spatial and temporal variability in freshwater stored in the
     world’s terrestrial water bodies.

• Secondary (potentially):
   –   Calculation of ocean water slopes for ocean circulation and bathymetry
   –   Coastal regions: High resolution h images allow plume and near shore studies
   –   Inundation area provides carbon fluxes at air-water boundary (e.g., CO2)
   –   Repeated topographic measurements for floodplains, etc…
   –   Differences between sea ice and water surface allow ice-freeboard calculations,
       thus thickness.
                       Science Objectives - Ocean
• Mapping ocean currents and eddies not resolved by conventional nadir altimetry but
  responsible for 90% of the ocean’s kinetic energy.
• Determination of the heat transport by ocean eddies.
• Exploring submesoscale processes in the ocean that are key to understanding the
  dissipation of ocean currents and eddies and hence the time scales of the ocean’s
  response to climate change.
• Mapping the internal tides of the ocean that are key to understanding the mixing in the
  ocean that is critical to the efficiency of oceanic uptake of heat from global warming.
• Resolve the details of coastal ocean circulation.
• Mapping hurricane’s heat potential
                              Sea Surface Height
 97      98       99   00    01   02    03    04     05   06   07   08     09   10   11   12     13    14    15



      2-f MR & 66-deg, 10-day, 315-km

              TOPEX-Poseidon                                               OSTM (Jason-2)
                                             JASON
                                         Jason                                                          Jason-3




 98-deg, 35-day, 80-km
                                                                                                 X
                                                                                     AltiKa on OceanSat-3


              ERS-2
                                                                                            GMES Sentinel 3
                                             ENVISAT



108-deg, 17-day, 160-km                                                                        98-deg, 17-day, 130-km

                       GEOSAT Follow-on
                                                                                                         X
                                                                                                      NPOESS C-3



       In orbit             Approved            Planned/Pending Approval

								
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