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Chapter 13_ The Oceans_ Coastal Processes_ and Landforms

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									Chapter 13: The Oceans, Coastal Processes, and Landforms MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following cannot be considered an efflux of material from the ocean water? A) formation of silicate compounds B) runoff C) sediment deposition D) sinking of skeletal remains Answer: B

2) Barrier beaches and islands occur worldwide, lying offshore of nearly _______ of Earth's coastlines. A) 90% B) 70% C) 50% D) 10% Answer: D

3) In deep water, a wave is not really migrating but is transferring energy through the water in simple cyclic undulations. These are called A) tidal waves B) swells C) waves of translation D) waves of transition Answer: D

4) Waves in shallow water that "feel bottom" are ___________ and more __________ spaced than the swell they are related to. A) smaller; widely B) taller; widely C) taller; closely D) smaller; closely Answer: C

5) Which of the following is not an example of an erosional coastal landform? A) notched cliff B) sea arch C) tombolo D) wave-cut platform Answer: C

6) The littoral zone extends inland to A) the backshore dune B) the trough between the primary and secondary dune C) the highest water line that occurs during a storm D) the foreshore dune Answer: C

7) Given present global warming trends and predicted climate change for the next century, sea level is estimated to rise A) more than 30 m (100 ft) B) between 11 cm and 88 cm (4.3 in to 34.6 in)

C) in a way that will not threaten coastal inhabitants D) in an amount unrelated to the temperature of the ocean Answer: B

8) Regular patterns of smooth, rounded waves are called A) breakers B) wave trains C) wave ripples D) swells Answer: D

9) An earthquake, submarine landslide, or eruption of an undersea volcano is capable of producing a A) slow-moving giant swell B) wave in the open ocean of great height C) tsunami D) tidal wave Answer: C

10) A terrace is A) an uplifted foreshore dune B) an uplifted wave-cut platform C) an erosional surface created by a massive tsunami D) an uplifted sea stack Answer: B

11) Which of the following is not true of tsunamis? A) They slow down as they approach shore. B) They can travel at a speed of several hundred miles per hour. C) They have very long wavelengths in the open ocean. D) They are very tall in the open ocean. Answer: D

12) Approximately what percentage of the population of the United States lives in a coastal area? A) 1/20 B) 1/2 C) 2/3 D) 1/4 Answer: B

13) Brackish water would most likely occur A) in a tropical lagoon B) in a deltaic swamp C) in the Mediterranean region D) in the subtropics Answer: B

14) Because the algae that live in symbiotic relationship with coral perform __________, corals __________. A) photosynthesis; can live at virtually any depth in the sea B) chemosynthesis; must live in water that is penetrated by light C) photosynthesis; must live in water that is penetrated by light D) chemosynthesis; can live at virtually any depth in the sea Answer: C

15) Sand that extends from a coast into open water is called a A) lagoon B) barrier spit C) tombolo D) barrier island Answer: B

16) Which of the following is true of worldwide sea level? A) Changes in sea level are usually unrelated to tectonic processes. B) Over the long term, levels have been very constant. C) Changes seem to occur without any relation to global average temperatures. D) It was about 130 m (430 ft) lower 18,000 B.P., and about 10 cm lower 100 years or so ago. Answer: D

17) The sinuous, branching channels that characterize a salt marsh result from A) manmade drainage canals B) storm tracks C) the ebb and flow of tides D) spawning beds made by fish Answer: C

18) Which of the following is true of waves that travel in wave trains? A) They are produced by storm centers and generating regions far distant from the shore where they may break. B) They are called breakers as they travel in the open sea. C) They experience refraction by the deep seafloor. D) They usually form relatively close to the affected coastline. Answer: A

19) The fact that the mixing zone in the ocean constitutes a _______ percentage of the total ocean volume means that wastes dumped into the ocean will be __________ diluted. A) small; quickly B) large; quickly C) small; slowly D) large; slowly Answer: C

20) As regards wetlands, which of the following is correctly matched?

A) salt marshes - allow productivity due to the salinity B) salt marsh - between the equator and the 30th parallel in both hemispheres C) mangrove swamps - poleward of the 30th parallel in either hemisphere D) salt marsh - poleward of the 30th parallel in either hemisphere Answer: D

21) When people go surfing or swimming along a coast, they often find - after spending time in the water - that they are no longer in the area in which they first entered the water. In other words, they find that they have moved downshore, even though they did not deliberately move in that direction. This occurs because of A) tsunamis B) beach drift C) tidal currents D) longshore currents Answer: D

22) Barrier islands make ________ sites for real estate development because _______ . A) good; they provide excellent scenery B) good; they are made of rock and are quite stable C) poor; they are unstable and often mobile D) poor; they can be overrun by storm surges E) both c and d Answer: E

23) Generally speaking, "beaches" span the zone A) from several feet above high tide to several feet below low tide B) between high and low neap tides C) from the high tide line during a spring tide to the low tide line during a neap tide D) between high and low spring tides Answer: A

24) Coral bleaching may result from A) global warming B) pollution C) disease D) sedimentation E) all of these Answer: E

25) Which of the following is true regarding mean sea level? A) The sea level along the Gulf Coast is the lowest for the coasts of the lower 48 states. B) A consistent value has yet to be determined due to all the variables involved in producing the tides.

C) It is calculated based on average tidal levels recorded hourly at a given site over a period of many years. D) It is at the same level along the entire North American coast. Answer: C

26) Which of the following areas along a coast is most tolerant of construction? A) back dune B) beach C) primary dune D) secondary dune Answer: A

27) Cape Hatteras is an example of A) a barrier island B) a stable landform that is a good site for development C) a type of breakwater D) the Inner Banks Answer: D

28) A longshore current involves all of the following except A) transportation of large amounts of sand and coastal materials B) effective wind direction C) waves of transition D) effective wave direction Answer: C

29) Which of the following would not be found along a tectonically active shoreline? A) sea stacks B) cliffs C) barrier islands D) terraces Answer: C

30) Which of the following is not true of tides? A) They are influenced by the size, depth, and topography of ocean basins. B) They are produced solely by the gravitational pull of the Sun. C) They are influenced by shoreline configuration and latitude. D) They are complex daily oscillations in sea level. Answer: B

31) Dangerous "sleeper waves" result from A) volcanic eruptions B) earthquakes C) constructive, in-phase interference D) submarine landslides Answer: C

32) The Pacific Rim can be characterized as A) tectonically active and emerging B) a place of embayments C) being dominated by estuaries D) being dominated by barrier islands Answer: A

33) A sea stack (i.e., an isolated pillar of rock located offshore) is the erosional remnant of a A) volcanic neck B) tombolo C) rocky headland D) spit Answer: C

34) Which of the following conditions is not conducive to the formation of barrier islands? A) tectonically active coasts B) low tidal range C) sediment supply from rivers D) presence of continental shelf Answer: A

35) Which of the following is false regarding coral bleaching? A) By the end of 2000 30% of reefs were lost. B) It may be caused by global warming. C) It is only occurring in the southern hemisphere. D) It may be caused by local pollution and sedimentation. Answer: C

36) The height of a tsunami grows as it approaches a coastline primarily because A) the height of the surf is added to the height of the tsunami B) its energy level increases C) its wavelength shortens D) none of the above are true - the height of a tsunami remains constant from the time of its origin Answer: C

37) The coast extends inland A) to the highest water line that occurs during a storm B) to the backshore dune C) from the high tide level to the first major landform change D) to the trough between the primary and secondary dune E) to the foreshore dune Answer: C

38) The most extensive chain of barrier islands in the world is along

A) the coasts that surround the periphery of the Indian Ocean B) the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America C) the coast of California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia D) the western coast of Australia Answer: B

39) As a wave approaches the shoreline and enters shallower water, energy and water move forward causing the water to rise and cascade down from the wave crest as a breaker. These waves are called A) swells B) waves of transition C) tidal waves D) waves of translation Answer: D

40) Which of the following is true of the ocean deep zone? A) Temperatures remain approximately 4 degrees C (39 degrees F) within most of this layer. B) All of these are true C) The water in this zone does not freeze because of its salinity. D) The water in this zone does not freeze because of the intense pressure exerted by the weight of overlying water. Answer: B

41) Coral formations A) tend to occur poleward of 30degree latitude B) are made of animals living symbiotically with simple algae C) survive in a broad ecological range because they are tolerant of temperature, salinity, and depth variation D) require water that is high in sediment concentration Answer: B

42) The average salinity of sea water may be expressed as: A) 35 grams per kilogram B) 35,000 parts per million C) 3.5 percent, or 35 parts per thousand D) all of these are correct E) none of these is correct as stated Answer: D

43) Coral bleaching refers to A) the replacement of normal, colored algae by white algae B) the killing of coral formations by chlorine bleach pollution C) the loss of algae from the coral

D) all of the above are included within the definition of coral bleaching Answer: C

44) Which of the following is not an example of a depositional coastal landform? A) bay barrier B) wave-cut platform C) wave-built terrace D) barrier spit Answer: B

45) After water itself, what are the primary elements that occur in sea water? A) hydrogen and sodium B) potassium and chlorine C) chlorine and sodium D) sodium and magnesium Answer: C

46) In order to preserve their beaches, cities located along a coast will often build groins that protrude into the sea. What is the result of this process? A) Sediment is deposited on the side of the groin facing into the current, and this results in deposition in the desired location. B) More sediment is made available to areas downshore, so they also benefit from this engineering process. C) Less sediment is available to areas downshore, so their beaches begin to erode. D) both a and b E) both a and c Answer: E

47) Human intervention along a coastline intended to interrupt beach drift can include all of the following except A) breakwater B) tombolo placement C) jetty D) protected harbor entrance Answer: B

48) Particles of sand, gravels, and shells that move along the shore form the A) breakers B) translation effects C) beach drift D) longshore current Answer: C

49) An atoll is approximately __________ in shape because it forms ________ . A) circular; around submerged volcanic islands B) linear; along barrier islands C) circular; around seastacks D) linear; along continental shorelines Answer: A

50) The coastal environment is considered to extend seaward A) only to the contact point between the sea and the land, i.e., the shoreline B) out to as far as you can see the bottom C) into the breakers D) usually to depths of 60 m (200 ft), where storm waves can no longer move sediments Answer: D

51) Several years ago, a movie was made about a cruise ship that was overturned by a tsunami while at sea. This plot is not valid because A) tsunamis do not occur in the open ocean B) tsunamis do not form high waves while in the open ocean C) tsunamis do not have the energy to overturn a ship of that size D) all of these are true Answer: B

52) Which of the following is incorrectly matched? A) rising tides - flood tides B) spring tides - high tides only C) ebb tides - falling tides D) spring tides - maximum tidal range Answer: B

53) Which of the following occurs when the Sun, Moon, and Earth are in alignment (i.e., in opposition or conjunction)? A) neap tides occur B) a lower tidal range occurs C) maximum tidal ranges occur D) none of these - this type of alignment does not happen in nature Answer: C

54) The geographic boundary between salt marshes and mangrove swamps is determined by A) the occurrence of freezing conditions B) precipitation levels C) tectonic activity D) salinity Answer: A

55) Wave action works to straighten a coast as wave energy focuses around headlands and tends to disperse energy in coves and bays in a process called A) breakers B) tidal bore C) wave refraction D) longshore current Answer: C

56) The present ocean salinity on Earth was achieved approximately

A) since the last ice age B) one million years ago C) two billion years ago D) one billion years ago Answer: D

TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 57) Water can be considered a "universal" solvent. Answer: TRUE

58) Approximately two thirds (66%) of the world's population lives in or near a coastal region. Answer: FALSE

59) Tsunamis generated by earthquakes can form giant waves while traveling in the open ocean. Answer: FALSE

60) Coral bleaching results in the death of corals. Answer: TRUE

61) A wave in the open ocean consists of water molecules traveling in the direction of wave propagation. Answer: FALSE

62) Headlands are the location of diverging wave action, whereas bays receive converging wave action. Answer: FALSE

63) A single groin can produce both sand erosion and deposition. Answer: TRUE

64) A beach acts to stabilize a shoreline by absorbing wave energy, even though materials are in almost constant motion. Answer: TRUE

65) The coastal environment is also known as the littoral zone. Answer: TRUE

66) A tombolo cuts off a portion of the ocean along a coast, forming a lagoon. Answer: FALSE

67) Plunging breakers develop where the bottom profile of the coast is steep. Answer: TRUE

68) The barrier islands off the Louisiana shore have been growing at fast rates in recent decades. Answer: FALSE

69) Worldwide, corals are healthy and appear not to be affected by pollution, changes in surface ultraviolet radiation, or increases in ocean temperatures at this time. Answer: FALSE

70) Barrier islands are stable islands that are suitable for development. Answer: FALSE

71) Although many elements are dissolved in seawater, no gases are dissolved in it. Answer: FALSE

72) Determining mean sea level requires measurement of tidal levels hourly for at least a period of several years. Answer: TRUE

73) A mere one foot rise in sea level along the shores of North America could cost hundreds of billions of dollars in damages. Answer: TRUE

74) The salinity of seawater averages 3.5%, or 35 parts per thousand. Answer: TRUE

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 75) Seawater is a solution, and the concentration of dissolved solids in it is referred to as its ____________________. The term __________________ is applied to water that

exceeds the average of 35%, whereas ____________________ is the term used to describe water that is less than 35%. Answer: salinity; brine; brackish

ANSWERS MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) B 14) C 2) D 15) B 3) D 16) D 4) C 17) C 5) C 18) A 6) C 19) C 7) B 20) D 8) D 21) D 9) C 22) E 10) B 23) A 11) D 24) E 12) B 25) C 13) B 26) A

42) D 27) D 43) C 28) C 44) B 29) C 45) C 30) B 46) E 31) C 47) B 32) A 48) C 33) C 49) A 34) A 50) D 35) C 51) B 36) C 52) B 37) C 53) C 38) B 54) A 39) D 55) C 40) B 56) D 41) B

TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 57) TRUE

67) TRUE

68) FALSE 58) FALSE 69) FALSE 59) FALSE 70) FALSE 60) TRUE 71) FALSE 61) FALSE 72) TRUE 62) FALSE 73) TRUE 63) TRUE 74) TRUE 64) TRUE SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 75) salinity; brine; brackish

65) TRUE


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