how to write a grant proposal by iAmber

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									WRITING A GRANT PROPOSAL
    Methods and Techniques




              1
SECTION 1 - GETTING STARTED


WHAT IS A GRANT PROPOSAL?

A grant proposal is a written plan which describes a specific need an organization has for
funding.

A grant proposal must be written as an instrument of persuasion to a funding source. You must
persuade the funder to invest in your program.

A grant proposal promises a funder that certain services, activities, programs will be developed
and delivered. It projects specific benefits resulting from the grant program.


WHY WRITE A GRANT?

Nonprofit organizations must write grants to survive.

Grant funding supports:
              new program development
              training activities
              research programs
              capital expenditures
              and infrequently, operating expenses.

Grant funding provides a significant portion of revenue for most nonprofit organizations and
grant funding is essential to the continual growth of most nonprofits.

Grant funding does not have to be repaid.


WHAT MAKES A GRANT SUCCESSFUL?

              STRONG PLANNING

              PLENTY OF RESEARCH

              GOOD WRITING

              CONTACTS




                                                2
PLANNING


The first step in the grant writing process is PLANNING.


First you must plan your STEPS IN WRITING A GRANT:


      STEP                                        ACTIVITY
       Step 1                       Know objectives for your grant project

       Step 2                          Research and know your funder

       Step 3                                Research your topic
                                                Collect data


       Step 4                         Organize information and data
                               Determine sequence for presenting information

       Step 5                            Write a complete first draft
                                                 and budget

       Step 6                       Review first draft using other readers
                                          Correct inconsistencies
                                             Make all changes

       Step 7                              Collect all attachments

       Step 8                              Write final second draft

       Step 9                           Edit and Proofread final draft

      Step 10                    Assemble and package final complete grant
                                      Submit grant to funding source

      Step 11                        Follow-up on grant after submission




                                              3
PLANNING THE GRANT PROGRAM


You must PLAN YOUR GRANT.


You must plan the program you want to propose in the grant.


       What specifically do you want to raise money to do?

While you know what your organization wants and needs, you must be able to describe this in a
written proposal.


To meet this challenge, you must thoroughly plan your program. Before you can write a
compelling grant proposal, you must work out the specifics and the details of your program



JOT DOWN SHORT ANSWERS TO THESE QUESTIONS.


1.     Identify the needs of your organization.


2.     Identify a project that can be developed to meet one of these needs.

       This project should require outside funding and should further the goals of your
       organization.


3.     Organize your thinking about this project, then write a short purpose statement
       for this project.




                                                  4
RESEARCHING FUNDING SOURCES


Now that you have outlined the essentials of your program, you need to match it with a source
that will likely fund this type of activity.

                   So, you must know the types of funding sources
                            available in order to target
                              a funder for your grant.


       PUBLIC FUNDING SOURCE:               FEDERAL OR
                                            STATE GOVERNMENT AGENCY

                                             or to a

       PRIVATE FUNDING SOURCE: FOUNDATION
                               CORPORATION




PUBLIC FUNDING SOURCE: FEDERAL, STATE, CITY OR COUNTY
GOVERNMENT

There are numerous grant programs available from the federal and state government.
These grant programs become available at different times throughout each fiscal year.


       WHERE DO YOU FIND INFORMATION ON FEDERAL AND
       STATE GRANT PROGRAMS?
              1.    You must research these publications             and   identify     the   grant
              announcements which meet your needs.

              2.      You need to download guidelines or call and have them mailed.




                                               5
               RESOURCES FOR PUBLIC FUNDING PROGRAMS
FEDERAL
Federal Register
Superintendent of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402-9371
202-783-3238

The Federal Register is published daily, Monday through Friday except on official holidays. It makes
available to the public regulations and legal notices issued by Federal agencies including notices of
availability of funding for various programs.

WEBSITE ADDRESS: www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html

Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance
Superintendent of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402-9371

The Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) lists all government programs available to the
public. The CFDA is published each June by the U.S. Government, General Services Administration.
Updates are mailed out during the year.

WEBSITE ADDRESS: http://12.46.245.173/cfda/cfda.html

OTHER WEBSITES:
Grants.gov provides organizations with the ability to search for federal government-wide grant
opportunities. This site has all grant announcements listed. You can call up all RFPs from this
site. Grant announcements are list by date.

       www.grants.gov


       Characteristics of government grants:
       Proposals are usually very long, requiring about 10 to 25 pages of narrative,
       plus numerous attachments, a budget, forms.

       There are always many forms that must be filled out and included with the
       Written proposal.

       There is always a deadline that has to be met.

       Budget information is only required for the program being proposed.

       Write in a formal style using profession jargon.

       Decision time on public sector grants usually ranges between three and six months from
              the date of submission.


                                                 6
PRIVATE FUNDING SOURCE: FOUNDATIONS


A private foundation is generally defined as a non-governmental, nonprofit organization,
managed by a Board of Trustees or Directors, established to give financial support to
charitable, educational, religious or social organizations working towards the common
good of society.

The primary function of a foundation is the distribution of foundation funds to qualifying,
nonprofit, tax exempt organizations in the form of an outright grant. All private foundations are
regulated by the Internal Revenue Service for amount of interest earned from investments and for
expenditure of funds.



                             Family or Independent Foundations

                      Corporate or Company-Sponsored Foundations .

                                   Community Foundations

                                 Special Purpose Foundations



       Characteristics of foundation grants:

              A proposal to a foundation is usually only a two-page letter.

              Most foundations do not require you to fill out forms.

              Most foundations do not have established deadlines.

              Foundations require a program budget with the proposal, and also request an
              annual operating budget and your latest audit.

              Write a proposal to a foundation in a good business style.

              Decision time for a foundation or corporation on a proposal is usually about two
              or three months.




                                               7
PRIVATE FUNDING SOURCE: CORPORATIONS

Corporations make grants in two ways:

               1)      through separately established foundations, and

               2)      through corporate contributions programs operated within their company.


Fewer than 5 percent of the largest corporations in the country have established foundations;
many corporations provide grants or contributions directly through giving programs within their
corporations.


Characteristics of corporate grants:


       These characteristics are the same as those for foundations.


WHERE DO YOU FIND INFORMATION ON FOUNDATION AND CORPORATE
GRANT PROGRAMS?


Following here is a list of publications which describe foundation and corporate grant programs.


You must identify foundations and corporations which have an interest in funding in your
geographic area and which fund your type of program.




        RESOURCES FOR FINDING PRIVATE FUNDING SOURCES

Foundation Center
79 Fifth Avenue
New York, NY 10003-3076
1-800-424-9836

The Foundation Center has provided information on foundation giving for over 30 years. Various types
of funding publications are available from the Foundation Center, with varying costs.




                                                 8
        The Foundation Directory is a good all-purpose book profiling the nation's largest grantmaking
        foundations -- those with assets of $2 million or more or which have annual giving of at least
        $200,000. This directory is available on line.

        The Foundation 1000 provides detailed information on the largest 1000 foundations in the
        country.

        Corporate Foundation Profiles those foundations established and supported by corporations
        that give at least $1.25 million annually.

        National Directory of Corporate Giving offers authoritative, in-depth information on corporate
        foundations and direct corporate giving programs.


WEBSITE: www.fdncenter.org




Individual Foundations and Corporations

Many foundations and corporations have websites. This is the best way to research individual companies.

If they have forms that need to be filled out, these forms are available to download from their website.


Example

        McCune Foundation in Santa Fe

        www.nmmccune.org




                                                     9
RECORDING INFORMATION ON PRIVATE FUNDING SOURCES

As you research private funding sources you will identify information that is critical for use in
developing and submitting proposals, such as the following:


          name of foundation/corporate contact to whom the proposal should be addressed;

          address to which proposals should be sent;

          range of grant funding;

          priorities for funding;

          geographic funding priorities;

          names of officers or directors;

          application guidelines, if available;

          deadlines for proposal submission;

          procedures for reviewing proposals.


You must use this information to identify those prospective funding sources which are likely to
fund your project and organization. Once you have selected viable prospects, you must devise a
system of recording information you identify from each funding source, because each funding
source will have different information.


You should develop a Prospect Worksheet similar to the one demonstrated here, or develop a
system on your computer for capturing and recording this information. This information can
then be added to as you submit proposals and receive responses from prospects and this
information will be useful to you in future years as you continue to solicit prospects for grant
funding.




                                                   10
OBTAIN GRANT GUIDELINES

After you have identified a funding source (either a public or private source), you must call
and/or write and obtain all guidelines and application materials pertinent to that particular
funding source.


To receive these guidelines, write a letter requesting the guidelines. Write these letters on your
official letterhead.



Do not tell them anything about your program until you have had an opportunity to review their
guidelines and write a grant proposal exactly the way they require!!




After receiving the guidelines,



                          READ THE GUIDELINES CAREFULLY

                                              And

                         FOLLOW ALL DIRECTIONS CLOSELY.




                                               11
WRITING A GOOD GRANT PROPOSAL


ORGANIZING YOURSELF TO WRITE A GRANT:
1.   Make a plan and set a deadline for yourself ahead of the final grant deadline.

           WORK PLAN: Look at the deadline for the grant.

            Then set a self-imposed deadline for finishing the grant about three days before
            the actual deadline. This will buy you some time at the end of the grantwriting
            process if you encounter problems while writing the grant, and will still allow you
            to meet the grant deadline.


           TEAM APPROACH: Involve in the grantwriting process those colleagues at
            your organization who will administer or manage the grant program once it is
            funded. These colleagues can help in numerous ways with the grantwriting
            process. They can:

                   meet with you as a group to discuss the proposed project at
                   the beginning of the grantwriting process and also meet
                   with you to review a draft of the proposal before it is
                   finalized.

                   participate in collection of data and documents to be used
                   as attachments needed for the grant;

                   assist as needed in research of information or contacts with
                   other organizations for support letters or collection of
                   information during the grantwriting process;

                   provide current resumes for inclusion in the grant;

                   provide proofreading or editing as needed with the grant;

                   contribute any other support needed to allow you to
                   produce a polished final product.




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2.   Develop ideas for the grant proposal.

     In any kind of writing you have to list your ideas for the writing project. The best
     way to list ideas for a grant proposal is to "brainstorm the grant project with your
     colleagues".


            Hold a meeting of all principals who will be involved in the grant once it is
            funded.


            Keep the group as small as possible. This needs to be an efficient,
            working group.


            Take the grant guidelines and discuss each major grant section with the group.


                    Start in order of the sections required in the grant
                    guidelines.


                    Ask the group to discuss how the program will
                    work in detail. As the GRANTWRITER, you must
                    lead the group and take notes of the discussion.


                    Ask specific questions about the proposed program
                    and have the group answer the following questions
                    in great detail.

                                            WHO?

                                           WHAT?

                                           WHEN?

                                          WHERE?

                                            WHY?

                                            HOW?

                                    AND HOW MUCH?




                                              13
3.     Research and collect information.

       Review your notes from the group discussion and develop a list of items
       that must be researched. You can fill in all missing information through
       research:


              conversations with other professionals in the community


              collection of statistics from local or state agencies


              research from books and periodicals.



       Record all of this information. Always keep information on sources so
       you can cite them in your grant proposal.


       Incorporate this information into the proposal.


4.     Put ideas in order.


               Organize ideas for the proposed program in the order you want to
               present them in each section of the grant application.


               A good overall format for a grant application is:


                     Attention-getting lead statement of the issues to be
                      discussed and importance of these issues



                     The main body of information supporting the issues



Restate the major thesis as a conclusion and relate this to your proposed program.




                                                 14
SECTIONS IN A GRANT

1.     SUMMARY/ABSTRACT


The purpose of the executive summary is to allow the reader/ reviewer to quickly and efficiently
identify the major points and thrust of the proposal.


The summary should be well-written, because often this sets the tone of interest for the reader. It
is easiest, and best, to write the summary last, after completing the proposal.


LONG PROPOSALS

If a proposal contains more than five to ten pages, a one-half page to one-page summary or
abstract should be added to the front of the proposal. This summary should concisely describe
the essential components of the proposal and should not exceed one page.



The summary should answer the following questions:

       Who?

       What?

       When?

       Why?

       Where?

       How much?


SHORT PROPOSALS

For a short proposal (1 to 5 pages), make the first paragraph of the proposal a summary
paragraph. It should briefly summarize the essentials about the project.




                                                15
2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON ORGANIZATION/
ORGANIZATIONAL CAPABILITY STATEMENT

The Organizational Capability Statement contains basic descriptive information about the
organization and its capability to operate the proposed program.


       This is the section of the grant where the writer introduces the reader to the project
       being proposed and where the writer has an opportunity to describe the proposing
       organization and to build its credibility.

Introduce the reader to the essence of what you are proposing. Do not dwell on the proposed
program here.

The Organizational Capability Statement should include the following information:

 -     purpose and mission of the organization;

 -     number of years the program has been in operation;

 -     if a new organization, why it was created;

 -     success and historical statements about the organization;

 -     description of staff;

 -     community resources supportive of the organization;

 -     references to the organization's credibility;

 -     size of clientele;

 -     list of publications, if applicable;

 -     major accomplishments;

 -     important events of the organization;

 -     quotes from letters of support for organization.

Then briefly introduce the program and why it is logical for the organization to operate the
program.

USE OTHER GRANTS OR DOCUMENTS YOU HAVE WRITTEN ABOUT YOUR
ORGANIZATION.


                                                 16
RESEARCHING YOUR TOPIC FOR THE GRANT PROPOSAL

A significant part of any writing project is researching the topic about which you will be writing.
This is equally important when writing a grant.


You must present clear, truthful and convincing information in your grant proposal to educate
the funder about your project and the need for your project. You must review and collect
information that supports your program and the case you are making for funding.


As you write grants, you will establish methods for collecting and archiving information about
the subject area for which you need money. You should keep all pertinent information collected
for each grant, because this information often can be reused for other grants. You should also
develop a system for updating information, particularly statistical information that you use in
your grant proposals, so you will always be presenting the most current information.


You can collect research for your grant from the following sources:
       Other grants you or your agency have written.

        Statistical information collected from local, state or federal agencies involved in work
         similar to your organization.

        Maps.

        Public laws that support your program idea.

        Articles in periodicals in your discipline.

        Recent newspaper clippings about your topic.

        Quotations from professionals involved in your discipline

        Quotations from local politicians and community leaders that support your project.

        Recent published research supporting your topic.

        Government documents.




                                                17
Statistical information is very important to a grant.

Statistics are very descriptive and give the reviewer an immediate understanding of the need for
your program.

For a grant on early learning in New Mexico, you can use information from the following
sources:

       M       U. S. Census

               www.census.gov

               For the latest population numbers for city, county, state.


       M       KIDS COUNT

               www.aecf.org/kidscount/databook


               KIDS COUNT, a project of the Annie E. Casey Foundation, is a national and
               state-by-state effort to track the status of children in the U.S. By providing
               policymakers and citizens with benchmarks of child well-being, KIDS COUNT
               seeks to enrich local, state, and national discussions concerning ways to secure
               better futures for all children.


               The Southwest Border KIDS COUNT Pocket Guide provides a set of benchmarks
               of child well-being that will illuminate the challenges and opportunities facing the
               families raising 1.8 million children living along the Southwest border. The
               report focuses on the 32 counties in Arizona, California, New Mexico and Texas
               that border Mexico and the disparities that impact children who live there.


       M       New Mexico Department of Health

               www.health.state.nm.us

               They have statistical information about topics concerning health of infants and
               children.




                                                 18
       M       New Mexico Public Education Department (PED)

               www.ped.state.nm.us

               PED has statistical information about numbers of students in each school and
               Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) statistics about accountability of individual
               schools.


       M       New Mexico Children Youth and Families Department (CYFD)

               www.cyfd.org

               www.newmexicokids.org

               CYFD has the New Mexico Kids Library that has a great deal of information
               pertaining to young children.




3.     NEEDS STATEMENT



In this section of the proposal, the writer states the need for the proposed project or program and
also describes the geographic area to be served.


This section provides the demographic data and statistical information which document and
support the need for the program.


It is in this section that the writer demonstrates his/her understanding of the problem to be
addressed by the pending program.


       The writer must limit himself/herself to the problem which will be addressed by the
       proposed project and document the need for this program solely. The needs
       statement should be clear, statistical information presented concisely, and the entire
       statement written to support the proposed project.


DO NOT WRITE GENERAL, UNSUBSTANTIATED STATEMENTS. THESE ARE
MEANINGLESS IN CONVINCING THE READER/REVIEWER OF NEED FOR THE
PROPOSED PROJECT.


                                                 19
1.     Decide what facts or statistics best support the project.


2.     Decide whether to portray the need as positive or negative.


3.     Determine the order for presenting information/data on the need


4.     Determine if the project will be a model and describe why it can serve as a model.


       Charts, graphs, maps, and tables are excellent pictorial representations of important
       statistical information presented in a needs statement. These should be used whenever
       possible to strengthen the presentation of statistical documentation.


4. DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED PROGRAM AND
METHODOLOGY/ ACTION PLAN

This section of the proposal contains the proposed project or program. There are several areas
which need to be covered thoroughly in this section.



       A.     Purpose
       First, the purpose of the project should be stated

       This should include a frame of reference or rationale for why the project is important.
       This differs from the needs statement in that all that is required here is a brief, concise
       statement explaining the project's overall purpose



       B.     Goals and Objectives
       Every proposal should state the major goals and/or objectives of the project.

       Goals are the overall conceptual orientation to the ultimate purpose of the
       project.




                                                 20
      Goals are usually more abstract in content, broader in scope,
      focused on long-term attainment and not measurable. A proposal
      should contain very few goals. If there are more than five goal
      statements, the writer should re-think the purpose and intent of the
      project.


Objectives are specific, measurable, and short-term statements of attainment
for a project.

      An objective is an expression of accomplishments which the
      project is anticipated to make within a certain, specified time
      frame, from which evaluation can be made to determine if the
      proposed measurement was achieved.


     Objectives define the methods for how you will achieve the project.




                                       21
THE FOLLOWING SECTION IS TAKEN FROM THE FOUNDATION CENTER AS AN
       DESCRIPTION OF GOALS AND OBJECTIVES (www.fdncenter.org)



    Goal: Our after-school program will help children read better.

    Objective: Our after-school remedial education program will assist 50
    children in improving their reading scores by one grade level as
    demonstrated on standardized reading tests administered after
    participating in the program for six months.

      The goal in this case is abstract: improving reading, while the objective
      is much more specific. It is achievable in the short term (six months)
      and measurable (improving 50 children's reading scores by one grade
      level).

      With competition for dollars so great, well-articulated objectives are
      increasingly critical to a proposal's success.
      Using a different example, there are at least four types of objectives:

          1. Behavioral — A human action is anticipated.
              Example: Fifty of the 70 children participating will learn to
              swim.

          2. Performance — A specific time frame within which a
             behavior will occur, at an expected proficiency level, is
             expected.
              Example: Fifty of the 70 children will learn to swim within six
              months and will pass a basic swimming proficiency test
              administered by a Red Cross-certified lifeguard.

          3. Process — The manner in which something occurs is an end in
             itself.
              Example: We will document the teaching methods utilized,
              identifying those with the greatest success.

          4. Product — A tangible item results.
              Example: A manual will be created to be used in teaching
              swimming to this age and proficiency group in the future.




                                             22
In any given proposal, you will find yourself setting forth one
or more of these types of objectives, depending on the nature of
your project.

Be certain to present the objectives very clearly.

Make sure that they do not become lost in verbiage and that
they stand out on the page.

You might, for example, use numbers, bullets, or indentations
to denote the objectives in the text.

Above all, be realistic in setting objectives. Don't promise what
you can't deliver.


Remember, the funder will want to be told in the final report
that the project actually accomplished these objectives.




                                       23
C.     Approach and Plan of Action

This section of the grant should describe in detail the methodology of the program.


This subsection should describe the Plan of Action for the program. It should state how
the objectives of the grant relate to the purpose of the program.


It should describe how project participants will be selected.


It should describe how the whole program will operate.


It should describe other organizations which will participate in the program



Actually, your narrative on this section can be somewhat abbreviated if you use a
WORKPLAN or TIMELINE. The best way to describe your program in a long
grant proposal is to use a WORKPLAN.


THINK through all aspects of the program and WRITE out the


GOALS

       OBJECTIVES

               ACTION STEPS -- breaking the objectives down into specific work
                     steps

       Then assign a TIME -- depicting what month each action step will take place

               Name the STAFF -- who will be involved with each action step

                       Briefly describe MEASUREMENT -- how you will evaluate
                               each objective




                                         24
     D.     Personnel, Organizational Structure and Staffing Patterns

     The staffing pattern of the proposed project should be explained completely in this
     section.


     Often proposal guidelines ask for an organizational chart of the organization submitting
     the proposal. This is a helpful tool to reviewers because it allows them to visually see
     how personnel proposed to handle the project fit into the organizational framework of the
     submitting agency.


     Board and committees which have influential positions with the proposing organization
     should also be described.



     For each position proposed, the level of effort should be indicated. Duties and
     responsibilities of staff, as well as qualifications of existing staff members who will
     assume positions in the funded program, should be explained here.



     Job descriptions for key jobs and/or resumes should be included in the Appendix.


E.   Results and Benefits
     Each grant should describe the short and long-term results and benefits of the program.

     Examples of benefits and results include:
            -      number of people to be served;

              -     new products produced;

              -     problems addressed;

              -     what will happen in the future as a result of the project;

              -     impact on community, state, region, or nation;

              -     contribution to the field, policy, practice, research, theory.




                                              25
5.     SUSTAINABILITY


Most funding sources, especially foundations, want a clear understanding of how the program or
study proposed to them will be funded after the time period of the grant expires. Foundations do
not want to be sources of continuing support to the same organizations.


If foundations feel that an agency will need additional funds to continue this program, yet the
agency has no planned way to fund the continuation, the foundations will be inclined to deny
funding to the proposal.



The proposer should clearly develop a plan for the continued funding of any proposal, if
continuation funding is needed.


You should adequately address this issue because this section of the proposal is extremely
important to the success of the proposal being funded.


6.     EVALUATION

Describe in this section how you will evaluate your proposed program. This can be done by
evaluation of the program and by evaluation of the process of how the program was conducted.


       A program evaluation will measure:

               the extent to which the program achieved its objectives;


               the extent to which the accomplishments of the objectives can be
               attributed to the program.


       A process evaluation will measure:

               if the program was conducted according to the plan;


               the relationship of program activities to the effectiveness of the program.




                                                26
The objectives should directly relate to the evaluation. You need to have objectives
which can be proven by evaluation activities to measure your achievement from the
program.


Many organizations involve an outside evaluator in their program while they are
developing a new program and grant proposals. This evaluator assists in writing
the evaluation section of the grant, and therefore will be included in the list of
staff and consultants who will work on the program once it is funded. The
evaluator also provides a copy of his/her resume for inclusion in the grant
proposal.


Once the grant is funded, the evaluator will work with staff as the program
develops and will organize and conduct the evaluation activities for the program.
The evaluator will provide a written report annually on the grant program to the
organization for inclusion in future grant proposals.


If your organization does not have internal evaluation personnel, this should be an
attractive alternative to assist you in your evaluation activities.




                                        27
BUDGET


An expense budget should be included with each proposal describing the costs associated with
the proposed program.

Funding sources vary quite a bit concerning budget information they require.


       Most federal and state agencies use standard federal budget pages.


       Most foundations/corporations allow you to provide your own budget
       format.


The budget for the proposed project should provide enough detailed information that all items
are self-explanatory.

The budget is an estimate of what the costs will be on a project.


Most grant budgets are twelve-month budget periods.


However, if the guidelines ask you to submit a two-year or a three-year budget, make sure you
do this.



PERSONNEL COSTS

The personnel costs would include:


       SALARIES AND WAGES

       All staff should be listed individually by title and the monthly salary times (x) the percent
       of their time they will spend on the project times (x) the number of months to be spent on
       the project.

       Example: Executive Director @ $40,000 annual salary x 100% (or 1.00 FTE) =
                   $40,000




                                                28
       FRINGE
       All fringe benefits given to employees of the organization should be listed individually
       under the fringe category. Fringe includes:

              Social Security (FICA)
              Worker's Compensation
              Health Insurance
              Professional Fees
              Liability Insurance
              Disability Insurance
              Vacation and Sick Leave

       Each fringe benefit should be listed by the cost per employee times (x) the number of
       employees it applies to.

       Example: Fringe Rate @ 20% x $ 40,000 = $8,000


NON-PERSONNEL COSTS

The other costs should include everything needed for the program which is not direct personnel
expenses.


       CONSULTANTS AND CONTRACT SERVICES

       Paid and volunteer consultants should be listed in this section.

       Each consultant should be listed individually by title and name (when available), the
       number of hours or days needed for consulting (x) the hourly or weekly fee times (x) the
       number of occurrences during the grant period.

       Example: Music Consultant (Keith Lockhart) 1 week x $1,000/week



       SPACE COSTS

       Office rent, utilities, maintenance, and renovations should be itemized here. All budget
       items under space costs should be listed out to designate the amount of space times (x)
       the price per unit for the space.

       Example: Rent - 1200 sq. ft. x $10/sq. ft./year = $12,000



                                                29
EQUIPMENT

Any equipment for purposes of the project should be listed. Each item should be listed
individually.

Example:       1 Dimension 3000
                 Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor (2.80GHz, 533 FSB)
                 Microsoft® Windows® XP Home Edition
                 256MB DDR SDRAM at 400MHz
                 40GB Ultra ATA/100 7200RPM Hard Drive
               Cost - $500

OFFICE SUPPLIES

All supplies to be consumed during the operation of the project should be listed
individually.

Example: Paper (for copying) @ $50/mo. x 12 months = $600

TRAVEL

All travel costs should be broken into in-state and out-of-state costs. In-state travel is
usually described by miles traveled by car. This should be listed by total miles driven
times (x) price to be reimbursed per mile times (x) the number of times the trip will be
made.

In-State Travel Example: 200 miles/month x 40¢/mile x 12 months = $960


Out-of-state travel is usually itemized by the price for plane fare, plus (+) price for
lodging per night times (x) the number of nights for lodging, plus (+) price of per diem
times (x) the number of days for the per diem.

Out-of-state Travel Example: One trip Houston to Washington, D.C. = $1,500
               $1,000 airfare
               $100/night x 3 nights = $300
               $50 per diem x 4 days = $200

OTHER COSTS

Additional office and other costs should be individually listed here. This category can
include telephone expenses, postage, insurance for office contents, printing costs,
material costs, etc.
Example:        Printing Costs - 10,000 brochures @ $.05/brochure = $500



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INDIRECT COSTS

Some organizations tack an indirect cost on to the direct costs of operating a new or
expanded program. Indirect costs include the costs to the organization to operate the
proposed program; the costs of operating the buildings, providing maintenance for
buildings and grounds, general and departmental salaries, accounting services, etc.

Indirect costs are estimated at a rate (percentage), which is usually negotiated with the
funding source ahead of time.

When indirect cost rates are included in grants, they are usually applied only to salaries
and fringe.

Example: Indirect Cost Rate - 10% of salaries and fringe ($48,000) = $4,800




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BUDGET NARRATIVE


When writing large grant packages the guidelines often require a budget narrative to be included
with the line item budget. This is also called a budget justification.


It is always a good idea if you are submitting a grant with a long or complicated budget, to
include a budget narrative with the budget.


If you have a simple budget, you don’t need to write a budget narrative. If the costs are
straightforward and the budget describes everything clearly, you don’t need a budget narrative.


               A budget narrative is a written description explaining the cost items in the grant
               budget. This gives the grant writer an opportunity to explain any high or
               particularly low costs associated with the grant.


               It can help sell your grant and convince the reviewer that the budget has been well
               planned and that the grant writer has researched and can substantiate all costs
               associated with the proposed grant.


You can write two versions of a budget narrative.

               1) a simple budget narrative that basically contains budget notes. The items
                  described in this narrative would just be items that need explanation.


               2) a straight text narrative that describes each item in the budget. This version
               should be used on most federal grants and is a longer narrative.

Remember – the only thing that you are writing about in the budget narrative is the budget.
Keep all the description of the program in the full grant narrative.


Budget narratives should be written as the last item in a grant, after the budget has been
finalized.




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ATTACHMENTS AND SUPPORTING INFORMATION

Proposals often contain additional information and documents which can support the proposed
program.

These documents should be added to the grant in the Appendix and placed behind the narrative.
These will be copies of:


              list of Board of Directors;

              annual reports;

              maps and other graphics;

              architectural drawings;

              brochures;

              resumes;

              job descriptions;

              copy of letter from the Internal Revenue Service demonstrating tax exempt status;

              contracts;

              case study describing the story of an individual served by your organization;

              current operating budget;

              projected next year’s budget;

              audit;

              letters of support.




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