User Acceptance of SMS-based Mobile Advertising Campaigns by morgossi7a7

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									PLS’09




User Acceptance of SMS-based Mobile
Advertising Campaigns


Philipp Heim/Eva Walter / Thomas Reutterer
Outline


• Background & Motivation
• Objectives of our Study
• Prior Research
• Research Framework and Hypotheses
• Empirical Study and Methodology
• Results, Implications, Limitations & further
  Research
Background & Motivation


Mobile cellular subscribers per 100 residents in Europe
  160

  140

  120

  100

   80

   60                                                     2006
                                                          1996
   40

   20

    0




@ Heim/Walter/Reutterer - 1   Source: DESTATIS 2009
Background & Motivation


Worldwide
• 4 billion mobile cellular subscribers at the end of 2008
• 2000 mobile penetration only 12 per cent, 2008  about 61 per cent
• Consumers’ information overload
• Loss of efficiency of conventional advertising media




                   Great potential for use within personalised
                       one-to-one marketing campaigns
                                          e.g. via SMS



@ Heim/Walter/Reutterer- 2   Source: Acharya,Sanjay(ITU–World Telecommunication,Sept.2008)
Objectives of our Study




Primary goals:

 To empirically evaluate the potential influencing factors
 on consumers’ acceptance and attitudes towards
 SMS-based advertising in a specific advertising campaign



 To test the impact of different text layouts on the recipients’

 perceptions of SMS-advertising



@ Heim/Walter/Reutterer- 3
Prior Research


• Research in this area seems to be at a relatively early stage
   (Barnes/Scornavacca 2004; Tanakinjal et al. 2007; Mort/Drennan 2002)


• Relatively large number of studies focusing on the acceptance of
  mobile advertising (Haghirian/Madlberger 2005, Tsang et al. 2004, Bauer et al.
   2004)


• Prior research revealed negative attitudes towards mobile
  advertising in general.

Problem:

• Rather general, context independent notion of mobile advertising

• Focus on young target audiences

@ Heim/Walter/Reutterer- 4
Prior Research


Conceptual framework
• Technology Acceptance Model (Davis 1989)
• Theory of reasoned Action (Fishbein/Ajzen 1975)
• Theory of planned Behaviour (Ajzen 1991)

Some other empirically tested constructs
• Advertising value (Ducoffe 1995)
• Credibility (Brackett/Carr 2001; Tsang et al. 2004)
• Entertainment/Informativeness/Irritation/Permission (Tsang et al. 2004;
  Haghirian/Madlberger 2005)
• Personal Innovativeness (Agarwal/Prasad 1998)
• Relevance (Barnes&Scornavacca 2004; Tanakinjal et al. 2007)

@ Heim/Walter/Reutterer - 5
Research Framework and Hypotheses



                                                            PI                  PERM
           ENT

                                                +
                            +
                                          H1a
                   H2a                +                    H6
                                                                    +
                                                                                H7
                                                                                     +
            INF                 H1b
                            +
                   H2b
                        -
                   H3
            IRR                                     ADV         +        ATT              +       INT
                                                          H11                     H12
                        +
                   H4
           REL                                                  +         +                   +
                                                           H8           H9               H10
                            +
                   H5a

           CRE                                            SEX             AGE            EDU
                            +
                   H5b


     Perceived advertising value (ADV) triggers attitude towards the ad (ATT)
             which has a positive impact on purchase intention (INT)
@ Heim/Walter/Reutterer - 6
Empirical study and methodology


 In contrast to previous contributions a specific SMS campaign was
  conducted in cooperation with a Do-It-Yourself (DIY) retailer in July 2007

 2,150 members of the retailer’s loyalty program received the SMS
  announcing a 20 per cent discount for a specific item

 Only members, who had bought the product advertised or a similar product

 The item was not featured in any other ad and sold at the regular shelf price
  during the experimentation period

 Within 3-4 days the members were contacted at their mobile phone

 369 consumers were willing to participate




@ Heim/Walter/Reutterer- 7
Results



                                                     PI          PERM
           ENT

                                  .306*
                       .094*                       .010          .192*
            INF                .467*

                       .139*

                       .079*              ADV             ATT                   INT
            IRR
                                          .856   .369*    .919       .889*      .790
                       .271*


           REL         .057                      -.010       -.001       .003



           CRE                                     SEX     AGE           EDU
                       .058



             ADV  ATT  INT confirmed, ENT strongly affects ADV/ATT
           Ad needs to be relevant (REL) and based on permission (PERM)

@ Heim/Walter/Reutterer - 8
Results


Experimental Design
• 2 text versions: 1 Neutral, 1 Inviting (emphasis on the price-discount)
• 2 structurally similar sub-samples




@ Heim/Walter/Reutterer - 9
Implication


• Entertainment and Relevance are of major importance for
  positive evaluation and acceptance of a mobile advertising
  campaign

• Informativeness and Credibility turned out to be of
  subordinate importance

• Irritation seems to be low, which could be an indication that
  consumers are aware of their given permission, but clear
  instruction is essential

• Daily use of mobile phone affects personal innovativeness




@ Heim/Walter/Reutterer - 10
Limitations & further research


Generalisability:

• Promoted product was not necessarily representative for DIY
  Retailer (low-interest, low price)

• So, motivation to visit the store can be expected to be rather low
  as relevance has a strong impact

• Further investigation of behavioural consequences of the
  perceptual measures (instead of self-reported behaviour)




@ Heim/Walter/Reutterer - 11
                       Thank you for your attention!




@ Heim/Walter/Reutterer - 12    Source: Cathy Wilcox
    Appendix




Fußzeile
   SEITE 15
Appendix


• ENT
  “I feel that receiving SMS advertisements from XY is pleasing –
  unpleasing.” (Tsang/Ho/Liang 2004)

 IRR
  “SMS advertising is annoying ” (Haghirian/Madlberger 2006)
• INF
  “SMS advertising is informative” (Ducoffe 1996)

• CRE
  “SMS advertising is credible” (Brackett/Carr 2001)

• REL
  “Please evaluate the product offered: beneficial- not beneficial,
  needed – not needed, essential – unessential” (Jain/Srinivasan
  1990)


@ Reutterer/Walter - 14
Appendix

  Formula used to calculate the between group differences in the
  structural:




@ REUTTERER/WALTER   - SEITE 19
Appendix

  Results of the Sobel-Test:




@ REUTTERER/WALTER   - SEITE 20   Source: Chin 200
Empirical study and methodology


                                         Advertising Impact
                     Attention            Interest             Desire              Action

                                            Read/
                          Receipt                              Intention          Purchase
                                          Recollection



                                    0%     20%           40%       60%           80%         100%



                          Receipt                                                      84%




                            Read                                            71%




                    Recollection                                           69%



                     Intention/
                                                 24%
                      Purchase




@ Reutterer/Walter - 10
Background & Motivation


Mobile phone usage in Austria in 2008
 Nine out of ten persons use a mobile phone
 In 2002 -> 69 per cent of households with mobile phone(s)
 In 2008 -> 93 per cent




@ Heim/Walter/Reutterer- 1   Source: Statistik Austria – ICT usage 2008
Empirical study and methodology


• 5-point rating scales were employed (based on previous studies)
• Stone-Geisser test of predictive relevance
  ADV Q² = 0.747; ATT Q² = ,831; INT Q² = ,377; recommended > 0
• For cross-validated redundancy



    on ADV           f²          on ATT          f²

  ENT                 .371     ENT                .171

  INF                 .037     ADV                .245

  IRR                 .016     PERM               .073

  REL                 .162

  CRE                 .002

f² > .35 = large effect; > .15 = medium; ~ .02 = small; referring to Cohen 1988
@ Heim/Walter/Reutterer - 10
Empirical study and methodology


• 68 per cent male / 32 per cent female
• Age distribution:

      20%

      18%                                      17.30%

      16%                                                               14.90%
                                      14.10%
      14%

      12%                                               11.10% 11.10%

      10%                                                                                8.90%
                              7.60%                                              7.30%
       8%

       6%            4.60%
       4%
            1.90%
       2%                                                                                        1.20%

       0%
             20-25   26-30    31-35   36-40    41-45    46-50   51-55   56-60    61-65   > 65     k.A.



@ Heim/Walter/Reutterer - 9

								
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