CHAPTER IV IRRIGATION SYSTEM by morgossi7a6

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									             Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




    CHAPTER IV
    IRRIGATION
    SYSTEM
Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   1
            by M. R. Goyal
             Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




 The art of irrigation is very ancient and
has been essential for the development
  and blossoming of some civilizations.



    Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   2
                by M. R. Goyal
                             Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




                    INTRODUCTION

   The art of irrigation is very ancient and has been
    essential for the development and blossom of some
    civilizations.
      •   II Kings 3:l6-l7 of the Holy Bible alludes to the irrigation,
          in 2000 B.C. In the same year, queen of Assyria detoured
          the Nile River to irrigate the Egyptian desert.
   Irrigation is also mentioned in the old documents of
    Syria, Persia, India, China, Java and Italy.




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                              Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




                     INTRODUCTION

   The importance of the irrigation in our times has been
    defined accurately by N.D Gulati:
       •   “In many countries the irrigation is an old art, as much as
           the civilization, but for the humanity it is a science, the
           one to survive.”




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                                 by M. R. Goyal
                      Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




             OBJECTIVES

1.   To provide the necessary moisture
     for the crop development.
2.   To ensure sufficient supply of
     water during droughts of short
     duration     and    unpredictable
     climate.

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                     Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




 OBJECTIVES
3.   To dissolve soil salts.
4.   It is a way to apply agrochemicals.
5.   To improve the ambient conditions for
     the vegetative growth.
6.   To activate certain chemical agents.
7.   To generate operational benefits.



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    The hydrologic cycle.

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                             Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




       IRRIGATION METHODS


1.   Flood                               5.        Sprinkler: Overhead.
2.   Furrow                              6.        Drip/Micro
3.   Infiltration                        7.        Hydroponics
4.   Subsurface




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                           Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




       Selecting the Irrigation Method
1.   Crop Type
2.   Soil
3.   Water supply
4.   Climatologic conditions
5.   Availability and reliability of energy
6.   Available technology
7.   Economical and social considerations

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                Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




CAPACITIES AND LIMITTATIONS

  1. Crop, soil and topography.
  2. Quantity and quality of water.
  3. Crop yields.




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                   by M. R. Goyal
                 Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




   CONSIDERATIONS OF
MANUAL LABOR AND ENERGY
 1. Surface irrigation.
 2. Sprinkler irrigation.
 3. Drip irrigation.




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                    by M. R. Goyal
                                  Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems


    Conditions for the selection of an irrigation
    method
    Conditions                                   Methods of irrigation

                         Flood             Furrow                  Sprinkler         Drip

Topography            Moderate to        Moderate             Irregular        Irregular
                      irregular

Soil                  Good               Good                 Excessive        Excessive
permeability                                                  to good          to good

Ability for erosion   High               High                 Low              Low

Crop                  Sown by            Sown in              Crop value       Crop value
characteristics       broadcast          rows                 variable         variable

Water flow            High               High                 Moderate         Low
requirements



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                                     by M. R. Goyal
                                                        Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems



    Comparison of irrigation methods
                       TOPIC                                   Flood          Furrow              Sprinkler      Drip
1. Evaporation loss                                         High            High         Medium               Minimum
2. Wetting of the foliage                                   High            Medium       High                 Minimum
3. Water consumption by weeds                               High            High         High                 Minimum
4. Surface drainage                                         High            High         Medium               Minimum
5. Control of irrigation depth                              Minimum         Minimum      Medium               High
6. Crop yield per unit of applied water                     Minimum         Minimum      Medium               High
7. Uniformity in the crop yield                             Little          Medium       Medium               High
8. Soil aeration                                            Minimum         Little       Little               High
9. Interference of other tasks by the irrigation method     High            High         High                 Low

10. Application of fertilizers and pesticides through       Minimum         Minimum      Moderate             High
      the irrigation water
11. Operation and labor cost                                Low             Low          Moderate             High
12. Leveling of the land is required                        High            High         Low                  Minimum
13. Automation of the system                                Low             Low          High                 High
14. Energy requirements                                     Low             Low          High                 High
15. Quality of water                                        Minimum         Minimum      Moderate             High
16. Use of filters                                          Minimum         Minimum      Moderate             High
17. Control of diseases and pests                           Minimum         Minimum      Moderate             High

                                            Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation                    13
                                                        by M. R. Goyal
                         Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




            SURFACE IRRIGATION



1.   The water runs on the soil surface providing
     necessary moisture to the plants for its
     development.




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                            by M. R. Goyal
                       Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




SURFACE IRRIGATION



  2.   The basic components are:
         1. Water source
         2. Supply Lines
         3. Control mechanism
         4. Dams or dikes of control
         5. Furrows of irrigation
         6. Drainage system
         7. Reuse of irrigation water


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                        Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems



           Surface Irrigation




Flood Irrigation



                                   Gated pipe irrigation system

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                           by M. R. Goyal
                        Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     STRIP BORDER IRRIGATION


1. The water is applied to a leveled area
   surrounded by ridges.
2. Each irrigated area is completely at level
   without slopes in any direction.
3. It is not necessary that the edges are not
   rectangular or straight nor that the ridges are
   permanent.
4. This technique is called “leveled flood or
   irrigation by strip borders”.
               Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   17
                           by M. R. Goyal
                            Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




              FLOOD IRRIGATION
1. It is a traditional system and is more commonly used in
   agriculture. One adapts to extensive planting methods.
   It is prone to diseases that are developed due to excess
   of soil moisture.
2. It uses surface (rivers, lakes, pools, etc.) water resource
   or a deep well.
3. This method requires that the fields are prepared with
   gentle slopes so that the water runs slowly by gravity
   and arrives at the lowest part of the farm, where it is
   collected by open channels for elimination or is
   recycled for use.

                   Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   18
                               by M. R. Goyal
                           Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     STRIP IRRIGATION WITH DIKES

1.   The flood irrigation is most popular.

2.   It is used mainly in narrow row crops like rice.
3.   It can be defined as the application of water
     between parallel strips.
4.   The strip between adjacent dikes does not have
     slope in the transverse direction, but these have
     slopes in the direction of the irrigation.
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                              by M. R. Goyal
              Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




Figure 2(a): Periodic flood Irrigation


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               Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




Figure 2(b): Permanent flood Irrigation


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               Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




Figure 2(b): Simple flood Irrigation

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                  by M. R. Goyal
                Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




Figure 2(c): Multiple flood Irrigation

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             Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




Figure 2(d): Flood irrigation
for crop in terraces

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          Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




Figure 3(a): Simple ditches

 Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   25
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          Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




Figure 3(b): Double ditches

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             by M. R. Goyal
                            Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     FURROW IRRIGATION
     OR IRRIGATION BY INFILTRATION

1.   The furrows are channels with slopes that are formed
     from the soil.
2.   It is designed so that the water runs throughout the
     desired field.
3.   The water under pressure arrives at the highest
     elevation of the field. It is distributed by channels or
     tubes, towards the fields where it will enter the furrows
     to flood the area.



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                               by M. R. Goyal
                      Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




FURROW IRRIGATION
OR IRRIGATION BY INFILTRATION


  4.   From the supply lines, the water enters the
       furrows by means of floodgates, siphons or by
       opening a furrow.
  5.   Water is applied when the channel is
       opened. One may use flood gates to control the
       application of water to a particular field.




             Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   28
                         by M. R. Goyal
           Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




Figure 4(a): Simple furrows

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            Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




Figure 4(b): Multiple furrows

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            Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




Figure 4(c): Snail type furrows

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               Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




Figure 5(a): Circular sink furrows


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              Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




Figure 5(b): Square sink furrows

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                   Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




Figure 6: Irrigation by surface infiltration

          Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   34
                      by M. R. Goyal
                                 Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     FURROWS ALONG THE CONTOUR LINES
1. It consists of small channels with continuous slope and almost
    uniform by which the hilly areas are irrigated. The furrows
    follow the contours lines of the land.
2.This system can be used in uneven lands, hilly areas, row crops and
    except for sandy soils..




                        Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   35
                                    by M. R. Goyal
                            Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     LEVELED FURROWS


1.   The leveled furrows with no slopes are formed by a
     furrow opener and are used to irrigate crops seeded on
     the furrows or on the sides of furrows.

2.   This method requires a fast supply of water.
3.   The leveled furrows adapt better to soils with a
     moderate to slow index absorption and an index of
     retention capacity from medium to high. With the
     furrow irrigation, the best results are obtained in gentle
     and uniform slopes.
                   Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   36
                               by M. R. Goyal
                            Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     FURROWS ON SLOPES


1.   These furrows consist of small channels with an
     uniform continuous slope in the direction of the
     irrigation.
2.   This method can be used for the row crops, including
     vegetables.
3.   The furrows with slopes can be used in all soils except
     sandy soils, with high degree of infiltration capacity
     and with a very little lateral distribution.
4.   This method must be used with extreme care in soils
     with high concentration of soluble salts.
                   Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   37
                               by M. R. Goyal
                                  Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems



         CORRUGATED FURROWS


1.   The system consists of a partial wrinkling of the soil surface.

2.   The irrigation water does not cover all the land, but is distributed
     in small channels or undulations at regular spaces.
3.   The water applied in the undulations infiltrates into the soil and
     extends laterally to irrigate the intermediate spaces between the
     furrows.
4.   The irrigation by undulations or corrugations adapts better to the
     drought areas and flat lands with slopes of l to 8%.



                         Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   38
                                     by M. R. Goyal
                             Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




                SPRINKLER IRRIGATION

1.The water is applied on the soil surface in form of a
    rainfall.
2.The spray pattern is obtained when the water at pressure
    is expelled through small orifices.
3.The operating pressure is developed by an appropriate
    pumping unit.




                    Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   39
                                by M. R. Goyal
                          Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     TYPES OF SPRINKLER
     IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

1.   Manual operated and portable system.
2.   Lateral system on wheel (movable).
3.   Traveling sprinkler system with progressive
     movements.
4.   Central pivot system.
5.   Linear movement system.
6.   Low energy pressure system.
7.   Solid-set system.



                 Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   40
                             by M. R. Goyal
                             Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     MANUALLY OPERATED
     AND PORTABLE SYSTEMS


1.   Include lateral pipe with sprinklers installed at regular
     intervals.

2.   The risers are connected to the lateral tube. The length of
     the tube is selected to correspond with the desired
     spacing of the sprinklers.




                    Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   41
                                by M. R. Goyal
                       Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




MANUALLY OPERATED
AND PORTABLE SYSTEMS


  3.   The lateral pipe with sprinklers is placed on a
       ground surface. It is used until the application
       has been terminated.
  4.   Then, the lateral tube is dismantled and is
       positioned in the next section.
  5.   This system has a low initial cost, but requires
       high manual labor. It can be used in almost all the
       crops. However it is difficult to move the lateral
       pipes, when the crop is mature.


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                          by M. R. Goyal
                            Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     LATERAL SYSTEM ON WHEELS (MOVABLE)


1.   This system is a
     variation of the
     manual system.

2.   The lateral pipe is
     mounted on wheels.




                   Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   43
                               by M. R. Goyal
                       Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




LATERAL SYSTEM ON WHEELS (MOVABLE)


  3.   The height of the wheels is chosen so that the
       axis exceeds height of the crop for easy
       movement.
  4.   A drive unit is commonly a motor driven with
       gasoline and is located near the center of the
       lateral pipe.




              Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   44
                          by M. R. Goyal
                           Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     TRAVELING SPRINKLER SYSTEM WITH
           PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENTS

1.    This system uses a spray (tube) gun of high pressure
      and high volume.
2.    The spray gun is mounted on a tow.
3.    The water is supplied by means of a flexible hose or
      from an open ditch.




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                              by M. R. Goyal
                               Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




      CENTER PIVOT SYSTEM


1.   It consists of a lateral
     pipe with simple
     sprinkler supported by a
     series of towers.
2.   The towers car is
     impelled in such way so
     that the lateral pipe
     moves around the center
     about the pivot point.

                      Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   46
                                  by M. R. Goyal
                            Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     LINEAR MOVEMENT SYSTEM


1.   The linear movement system is similar to the central
     pivot.
2.   The line of the pipe extends in perpendicular direction
     to the lateral one.
3.   The delivery of the water to the lateral is by a flexible
     hose or from an open ditch.




                   Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   47
                               by M. R. Goyal
                               Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




      LOW ENERGY PRESSURE SYSTEM
     (LEPA)

1.   LEPA systems are similar to the linear movement
     systems of irrigation.
2.   The orifice in the lateral pipe and pipes can discharge
     at very low water pressure, exactly according to the

     soil moisture.



                      Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   48
                                  by M. R. Goyal
                            Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     SOLID-SET SYSTEM


1.   Here, the sufficient lateral pipes are placed in the field
     and are not moved during the season.
2.   The system of solid set is portable, with network of
     aluminum tubes for the irrigation.
3.   Enough lateral lines are used to cover all the area.
4.   The system reduces to a minimum the need of manual
     labor during the irrigation season.




                   Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   49
                               by M. R. Goyal
                            Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     TYPES OF SPRINKLERS


1.   Rotating sprinkler, impact type: These are more
     commonly used for wide variation of pressure,
     discharge, spacing and rate of application for different
     crops.




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                               by M. R. Goyal
                      Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




TYPES OF SPRINKLERS


  2.   Sprinkler type: These are rotating sprinklers
       with a discharge up to 60 m3/h at a pressure
       head of 60 meters. It can cover areas up to one
       hectare simultaneously.




             Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   51
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                      Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




TYPES OF SPRINKLERS



  3.   Sprinklers with low flow rate: These sprinklers
       apply l20 to 350 liters per hour at a pressure
       head of l5 to 25 meters. These are used mainly
       in irrigation of fruit or chards.




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                         by M. R. Goyal
                       Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




TYPES OF SPRINKLERS


  4.   Mini sprinklers: These can apply 30 to l20
       liters per hour at a pressure head of l5 to 25
       meters. These are used in vegetables and
       nurseries.




              Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   53
                          by M. R. Goyal
                             Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




      SUBSURFACE IRRIGATION



1.   In many areas, soil conditions and topography are
     favorable to the water below the ground surface.
2.   The favorable conditions are:
        The existence of impermeable subsoil at a depth > 1.8
         meters.
      Silt or silt-sandy permeable layer.
      Uniform topography and moderate slopes.


                    Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   54
                                by M. R. Goyal
                            Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




            SUBSURFACE IRRIGATION:
                    ADAPTABILITY

1.   It is appropriate for uniformly textured soils with a
     good permeability so that the water is mobilized
     quickly, in a horizontal and vertically direction and to a
     recommendable depth under the root zone.




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                               by M. R. Goyal
                            Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




            SUBSURFACE IRRIGATION:
                CHARACTERISTICS

1.   This method is used in soils with low capacity.
2.   When the surface irrigation cannot be used and the

     cost of pressure irrigation system is excessive.




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                               by M. R. Goyal
                            Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




            SUBSURFACE IRRIGATION:
                       LIMITATIONS

1.   The water with high concentration of salts can not be
     used. In some arid regions, the soils can be salty.
2.   The selection of crops is limited.
3.   The crops with deep root system (such as some citric)

     are not generally suitable for subsurface irrigation.



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                               by M. R. Goyal
                            Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     NATURAL SUBSURFACE IRRIGATION

1.   Geological and topographical conditions are favorable.
2.   It is adaptable for almost flat levels with deep surface
     layer and high lateral permeability.
3.   At a depth of 2 to 7 meters from the soil surface, there

     is usually an impermeable rocky substratum.




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                               by M. R. Goyal
                             Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




                   DRIP IRRIGATION

1.   The application of water is by means of drippers of
     that are located at desired spacing on a lateral line.
2.   The emitted water moves due to a unsaturated soil.




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                                by M. R. Goyal
                            Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION (SDI)


1.   In this system, laterals with drippers are buried at
     about 45 cm depth.
2.   The purpose is to avoid the costs of transportation,
     installation and dismantling of the system at the end of
     a crop.
3.   When it is located permanently, it does not harm the
     crop and solve the problem of installation and annual
     or periodic movement of the laterals.
4.   A carefully installed system, it can last for about 10
     years.

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                               by M. R. Goyal
                            Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     XYLEM IRRIGATION

1.   Xylem irrigation is the direct application of the water
     with necessary chemical agents into xylem of the trunk
     of a tree using a series of injectors depending on the
     age of the tree.
2.   Xylem irrigation is also called: ultra micro, high
     frequency, tension, tree injection, or irrigation of
     chemotherapy.
3.   There is no difference in the concept that these names
     represent.
4.   The basic idea originated when several chemical
     products were injected within the vascular system of
     the plant.
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                               by M. R. Goyal
                           Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     HYDROPONICS SYSTEM


1.   The growth of plants without soil is known as
     hydroponics.
2.   During l925-l935, an extensive work was done to
     modify the nutrient culture in the nurseries. In l930,
     W.F Gericke at University of California, defined
     hydroponics as a “science to cultivate plants without
     the soil use, but using inert materials such as: Sand,
     sawdust, among others.”
3.   A nutrient solution with all the essential elements is
     added for a good development of the plants.

                  Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   62
                              by M. R. Goyal
                          Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




     SUMMARY


1.   The additional food need for the world population
     impose the fast development of the irrigated land
     throughout the world.




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                             by M. R. Goyal
                     Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




SUMMARY



 2.   Although, it is of vital importance for the arid
      regions, it is also necessary in the humid
      regions. In many regions of the world it is
      possible to irrigate with the water that is
      available.




            Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   64
                        by M. R. Goyal
                     Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




SUMMARY



 3.   Less than half of the applied water is beneficial
      to the crop. That irrigation water is lost
      generally to the soil by erosion, deep
      percolation, alkali accumulation, and leaching.




            Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   65
                        by M. R. Goyal
                      Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




Figure 12: General components of a
hydroponics system

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                         by M. R. Goyal
               Chapter IV: Irrigation Systems




   …new irrigation systems are being
developed to obtain the high efficiency
                 of water application…


      Management of Drip/ Micro or Trickle Irrigation   67
                  by M. R. Goyal

								
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