"4. INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICE LEVELS The focus of the National"
Abaqulusi Local Municipality 36 4. INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICE LEVELS The focus of the National Government’s Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) is to address service backlogs and create parity within the South African society. This is implemented through integrated development plans, which assess service levels at grassroots level and align municipalities’ budgets towards areas of need. The Infrastructure Services Plan (refer to Annexure H) indicates the location of infrastructure. 4.1 TRANSPORTATION 4.1.1 TRANSPORTATION CORRIDORS Although the Municipality is not adjacent to any of the major provincial and national transportation corridors, it has a well-established regional road network allowing for relatively free movement of people and goods into and out of the area. • R34 This primary transport corridor, consisting of road and rail links, runs through Zululand from the N2 and Richards Bay, linking Ulundi, Vryheid and Paul Pietersburg to Mpumalanga and Gauteng. The road runs north-south through the western part of the Municipality and is in a reasonable maintained condition. It is however under pressure because of an increasing number of timber trucks using it. • R69 The R69 is a secondary transport corridor with development potential and runs east-west through the northern part of the Municipal area. It is a busy route, carrying large numbers of local and regional traffic. It runs through Vryheid, Hlobane, Louwsburg, Magudu and joins the N2. 4.1.2 INTERNAL ROADS AND STORMWATER The internal road network of Vryheid is of a high standard and presently reasonably well maintained. Budget constraints may affect the present state of this network, which, in turn, may impact negatively on the regional role of the town. The situation in the smaller towns and rural areas is considerably different. In many instances roads have deteriorated to such an extent that new roads would need to be constructed. Generally roads are in need of maintenance, rehabilitation and upgrading. In the past the internal roads in smaller towns consisted of gravel roads. These roads still exist today and tend to become inaccessible with heavy rains. • IDP STANDARD The standard for roads used in this IDP to guide future development requires that all- weather access roads, specifically for public transport, must be provided within 5 km of every settlement within the Abaqulusi area. The Vryheid TLC Local Development Plan, 2000 provided a definition for each level of road in their area of jurisdiction as detailed below: Level 1: Unsurfaced tracks Level 2: Gravel service main road and scraped streets Vuka Town and Regional Planners Inc Integrated Development Plan Report: TRP_444_N_Rpt169 Situational Analysis April 2002 Abaqulusi Local Municipality 37 Level 3: Bus route paved, other roads gravel Level 4: All roads kerbed and paved The provision of road infrastructure in terms of these levels is currently as follows: SETTLEMENT AREA TYPE OF SURFACE LEVEL OF STANDARD Vryheid 99,7% of roads are paved and kerbed Level 4. 0,4 km unsurfaced (level 1) Bhekuzulu Bus routes :Gravel Level 3 eMondlo Main road is tarred, rest gravel Level 1 Hlobane area Vaalbank: Mostly tar roads Level 4 Thutukani: mostly gravel roads No information Hlobane : gravel roads No information Louwsburg Main road : tar No information Rest: gravel Mzamo: poor surface or no surface Rural areas No information No information (Local Development Plan for Vryheid and Louwsburg) The following table provides a summary of the status quo in terms of storm water: SETTLEMENT NAME STORM WATER TYPE Level of service Vryheid 90% piped 0,4 km not served by storm water drainage, rest at level 4 Bhekuzulu Open channel 75% are currently at level 4 eMondlo Open channel System has become dysfunctional Hlobane Open channel At Level 4** Glückstadt Open channel * Enyathi Open channel * Coronation Open channel * Kromellemboog * * Hlopeni * * Mooiplaats * * Nhlazatshe * * Bethal Mission * * Ekuhlengeni * * Nkongolwane Open channel * Dwaalhoek * * Mahlone * * Louwsburg * * Khambi * * Bhekumthetho * * (Source : Abaqulusi Regional Development Plan, 2000) * Note: No information. **Level of service definition: Level 4 = On-road drainage and piped drainage in main roads The poor state of some of the roads in the municipal area can be ascribed the poor storm water service, making the maintenance of these roads very difficult. Vuka Town and Regional Planners Inc Integrated Development Plan Report: TRP_444_N_Rpt169 Situational Analysis April 2002 Abaqulusi Local Municipality 38 4.1.3 PUBLIC TRANSPORT No reliable data on car ownership within the area is available, but the low-income levels of the majority of the population suggest that car ownership will also be low. The majority of the population rely on some form of public transport to travel to and from work and other urban amenities. A taxi and bus service serve the area and operate between Vryheid and Bhekuzulu. Busses and taxis also operate in eMondlo. KwaZulu Transport provides the major bus service between Vryheid and Empangeni and the taxi association controls the taxi service operating from one of the major taxi rank in eMondlo. • Rail As discussed in paragraph 3.4 of this document a railway line serves the area and connects the coalfields of Mpumalanga with the port of Richards Bay. This is however only to transport freight. The railway line passes through Abaqulusi in a north-south direction and at Vryheid it branches off to the west to serve Hlobane. It was once used for both freight and passengers, but passenger services have been discontinued. • Airport Vryheid has a small airport. It is currently not serviced by commercial airline companies, as demand is too low. The airport is built to the standards set by the civil aviation authority, but is no longer licensed because of budget constraints. The airport is capable of carrying limited cargo and this could provide an alternative means of transport for the agricultural and tourism sector if so required. Any travellers currently wishing to fly into the area must either fly to Ulundi or charter a private flight. There are no goods being exported by air (Vryheid Economic Regeneration Study, 2001). 4.1.4 SUMMARY OF TRANSPORTATION ISSUES The following points summarises the key transportation issues: • Vryheid is located on two provincial transportation corridors, allowing for good regional accessibility. Maintenance of these roads is crucial to ensure economic prosperity. • The standard of internal roads and stormwater of Vryheid is good, but the challenge will be to maintain it in the light of possible budget constraints. • Roads and stormwater of smaller urban areas are in a poor condition. In many rural areas such infrastructure is non-existent. • The majority of the population relies on public transport facilities. Although there are bus and taxi services, there is a need to utilise the railway services. In general the quality and efficiency of the public transport sector needs attention. • The Zululand Corridor railway line offers some opportunities, but currently mainly transports freight between points outside the Municipal area. • The airport is not licensed due to budget constraints and low demand. The utilisation of this airport could benefit the tourism and agricultural sectors. Vuka Town and Regional Planners Inc Integrated Development Plan Report: TRP_444_N_Rpt169 Situational Analysis April 2002 Abaqulusi Local Municipality 39 IDP CHALLENGE: The challenge for the IDP is to maintain main transport routes to and from the outside world to ensure that the area does not become isolated from the markets. In addition the Abaqulusi Local Municipality will be challenged with the maintenance and development of basic road and stormwater infrastructure to serve the local community, particularly in eMondlo and rural areas. This will be severely constrained by limited financial resources. Public transport plays an important role in the economy of Abaqulusi and deserves some attention in the planning efforts of the municipality. Advanced development of the road, rail and air links needs to be linked to requirements that will benefit local economic development within the area. 4.2 WATER 4.2.1 BULK WATER SUPPLY As with most of the other sectors, big disparities between the urban and rural communities exist with regards to the provision of bulk water services. The following table provides an indication of the bulk water supply source and capacity of the urban areas within Abaqulusi. SETTLEMENT SOURCE TYPE CAPACITY (ML/DAY) CONSUMPTION (ML/DAY) Vryheid/ Bhekuzulu Water treatment works 15.0 11,54 Louwsburg Water treatment works 0,035 0,033 Boschoek/Enyati Water treatment works 0,015 0,015 eMondlo Water treatment works 7.0 7.0 Hlobane Water treatment works 0,091 0,086 Coronation Slow sand water 1.216 0.64 treatment works Nkongolwane Coronation water NA 0.18 treatment works It is clear form the above table there is only minimal or no capacity left in any of the bulk water supply systems and attention will have to be given to upgrading facilities to accommodate expansion. The situation in eMondlo is especially critical. The area is well endowed with natural water resources. Vryheid draws its water from the Bloemveld, Grootgewacht and Klipfontein dams and Mvunyana dam supplies eMondlo. Hlobane/Coronation receives its water from the Boulder and Hlobane dams and an underground storage reservoir. 4.2.2 ACCESS TO WATER It is recognised that access to basic services is a human right. In South Africa the general levels of rainfall are low and water is considered a scarce resource. All water resources should therefore be used and managed in a sustainable manner. The principle of “some for all rather than all for some” emanating from the White Paper, should be applied in water provision and management. Vuka Town and Regional Planners Inc Integrated Development Plan Report: TRP_444_N_Rpt169 Situational Analysis April 2002 Abaqulusi Local Municipality 40 The rural areas of Abaqulusi are primarily served by a borehole system, formerly implemented and administered by the Zululand District Council. A Water Service Development Plan (WSDP) has been prepared, identifying each village with its specific water demand and supply. A typical rural water system can be described as a borehole with a mono pump extracting water into and elevated pressure tank. Villages are than served with water via standpipes within a 200 m access radius. The basic shortcomings of the system can be ascribed to the lack of qualified operators, improper maintenance and poor monitoring of water supply and quality. Access to clean water is the most important need in the rural areas. The RDP standard for water provision is 15 to 25 litres per capita per day. The Water Services Development Plan (WSDP) classified the different settlements in Abaqulusi in terms of the availability of water making use of the RDP classification system, ranging between “survival” levels and “very high”. Survival : 0-5 litres per day per capita Intermediate : 5-15 litres per day per capita RDP : 15- 25 litres per day per capita High : 25-60 litres per day per capita Very high : more than 60 litres per day per capita The 66 different settlements in Abaqulusi recognised by the Water Services Development Plan are classified as indicated below: RDP LEVEL OF SERVICE NUMBER OF SETTLEMENTS Very high 8 High 2 RDP 5 Intermediate 24 Survival 27 The WSDP applied a “First Order Needs System”, which is a community weighting process to establish areas of priority need. This process evaluated the following criteria: • Where the community gets water from; • How far they need to walk to get water; • Population density; • Number of water users; • Is there currently a water project and is it working; and • Is a built-up area. The result is an accumulated weight for each area, which can be ranked to give an indication of priority needs – the greater the weighting, the greater, the need. In terms of this weighting the 10 communities with the greatest need for water services in Abaqulusi include: SETTLEMENT POPULATION NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS Sofaya 3 150 210 Ezingadini 6 000 600 Nkongolwane 5 200 540 Madresi D2 4 125 550 Engilandi 3 600 480 Qwegwe 1 4 050 270 Kwamaqweshhe 2 001 250 Vuka Town and Regional Planners Inc Integrated Development Plan Report: TRP_444_N_Rpt169 Situational Analysis April 2002 Abaqulusi Local Municipality 41 Mawombe 440 56 St Paul 8 100 801 Neceni 7 000 660 The level of water service provision of all the above settlements plus 17 others in the Municipal area are classified as “survival” indicating the provision of less than 5 litres of water per capita per day. This level of water service applies to at least 23% of the population (51 227 people) of Abaqulusi. Infrastructure requirements are not met and pumps, reticulation and electrical power are in short supply in the rural areas. 4.3 SANITATION 4.3.1 STANDARD The standard for sanitation provision put forward by the RDP and the Water Supply and Sanitation Policy White Paper, is a ventilated improved pit latrine (VIP), constructed to acceptable standards and properly maintained. The minimum ultimate goal is 1 VIP per household. This standard recognises the need to provide people with basic services to meet basic health and functional requirements. The latter includes the protection of the quality of service water and underground water. The scarcity of water as a natural resource is also acknowledged. 4.3.2 BULK SERVICES The larger urban areas have functioning sanitation systems whereas septic tanks and pit latrines service the rural areas. The bulk sanitation services in the urban areas are summarised below: Settlement Type / capacity Remarks / Backlogs Vryheid/Bhekuzulu Purification system Capacity 9ML /day EMondlo Purification system Capacity: 4ML/day Hlobane Aeration activated sludge pan Can serve 6000 people at 370 cubic meters per hour Louwsburg No central sewer disposal system, Unacceptably high pollution of pit latrines and septic tanks ground water sources 4.3.3 RETICULATION Only Vryheid, eMondlo, Hlobane, Coronation, Ntumbane, Bethel Mission, Mount Gwibi and Enyathi have waterborne sewage reticulation. People in the remainder of the study area make use of pit latrines or no system at all. 78% of the rural population use no sewage system. This is of great concern because: • Where there is no infrastructure in place to take care of an increase in sewer waste the health and sanitation situation worsens dramatically as rural settlements grow and dwellings are built closer to one another. • Pit latrines and septic tanks pose a health threat where they are situated close to aquifers and water supplies used for domestic purposes. Samples taken along a stream Vuka Town and Regional Planners Inc Integrated Development Plan Report: TRP_444_N_Rpt169 Situational Analysis April 2002 Abaqulusi Local Municipality 42 flowing into the Ithala Game Reserve showed that the faecal coli count is double than what is acceptable in terms of health standards. • Rainwater washes human waste into rivers and streams. Sanitation at public buildings and schools is of utmost importance to ensure good public health conditions. In addressing the sewage infrastructure backlog, priority should be given to such buildings. The WSDP will also address the issue of sanitation within the Abaqulusi area. 4.4 ELECTRICITY 4.4.1 STANDARD The standard for the provision of electricity is individual house connections providing 5kVA in urban areas and 4kVA in rural areas. 4.4.2 BULK SUPPLY Eskom supplies bulk electricity and Vryheid provides an electrical service to surrounding areas. 4.4.3 RETICULATION The urban areas of Vryheid, Louwsburg, eMondlo, Coronation, Hlobane, Glückstadt, Bethel Mission and Boschoek mostly have access to household electricity connections. A small number of rural settlements also have access to electricity including Enyathi, Mountgwibi, Nkongolwane, Qweqwe 2, Mvuzini, Mhlangeni, Engilandi and Amahlathi. The rest of the rural settlements have no access to electricity. 4.5 SOLID WASTE The standards for the provision of waste disposal facilities are: • At least one solid waste disposal site at regional level; • Minimum health and safety standards; and • 1 ha per 2 500 households to be used for solid waste disposal. Refuse removal facilities are limited to urban areas and it has become a major problem in denser rural settlements. The extension and upgrading of facilities for Vryheid, eMondlo, and Bhekumtheto are becoming critical. Vryheid has its own refuse collection service and refuse is dumped at a landfill site. The site does not comply with the Department of Water Affair’s (DWAF) criteria and a new site will have to be identified. In Hlobane industrial and domestic waste is collected by truck at disposal points. It is then dumped on an existing dump, levelled by bulldozer, compacted and later covered with mine discard. The site will be rehabilitated and grassed when its capacity of 34 million tons is reached. The Department of Works of the former KwaZulu Government appointed a private contractor to remove refuses in eMondlo. Louwsburg has an existing solid waste disposal site not far from the water treatment works. The site is operated without a license, but DWAF has been lenient because the impact of this operation is not considered a serious threat. The upgrading of the site and improvement of its operation are currently being investigated. The site has sufficient capacity for the next 20 years (V3 Engineers, 2001). Vuka Town and Regional Planners Inc Integrated Development Plan Report: TRP_444_N_Rpt169 Situational Analysis April 2002 Abaqulusi Local Municipality 43 The status of refuse services in urban areas are reflected below: SETTLEMENT NAME SERVICE TYPE NO OF SITES SERVICED Vryheid Local refuse disposal site 4 033 Bhekuzulu Vryheid refuse site 3 700 eMondlo None 9 000 Hlobane Local refuse site Unknown Glückstadt On site 10 Louwsburg Local refuse site 290 Coronation Site removal/ local disposal 497 The poor management of solid waste has a negative impact on the well being of humans and the ecosystems they interact with. The potential impacts include: • Contaminated soil; • Surface and ground water pollution; • Objectionable emissions such as odours; • Hazardous gaseous emissions such as methane and carbon dioxide; • Unsightly litter and windscatter; • Illegal dumping (fly-tipping); and • Stormwater drain blockages. Poor waste management may already impact on limited surface water and groundwater resources and concerted efforts are required to increase people’s awareness of good waste management practices and its benefits. 4.6 BASIC SERVICE BACKLOGS The following table provides a summary of the availability of basic services in both urban and rural communities within Abaqulusi. The data provides a broad indication of the backlog in the provision of basic services in the urban and rural areas of the Municipal area. SETTLE POPULA CLEAN WATER SANITATION ELECTRICITY MENT TION WITH WITH- WATER PIT NONE WITH WITH- TYPE OUT BORNE OUT URBAN 68 669 62 880 5 789 61840 3 080 3 749 61 488 7 181 91,6% 8,4% 90,1% 4,5% 5,5% 89,5% 10,5% RURAL 138 735 43 826 94 910 200 30 154 108 381 0 138 735 31,6% 68,4% 0,1% 21,7% 78,1% 0 100% (WSDP, 2001) The following needs to be highlighted from the above table and constitutes critical service backlogs: • 68% of the population in rural areas depend on rivers, streams, boreholes and fountains for water. • 8% of persons in urban areas rely on water from dams and rivers. • The majority of the rural population has no electricity. • 89% of the urban population have access to electricity. • Nearly 80% of the rural population has no access to appropriate sanitation services. Vuka Town and Regional Planners Inc Integrated Development Plan Report: TRP_444_N_Rpt169 Situational Analysis April 2002 Abaqulusi Local Municipality 44 4.7 CURRENT PROJECTS Application for Consolidated Municipal Infrastructure Programme (CMIP) funding for the following projects have been made: • Upgrading of Vryheid sewage works; • Water and sewer treatment works for Vryheid; • Lakeside sewer pump station; • Bhekuzulu street lights; and • Vryheid leakage management investigation. Approved projects for the Zululand District Municipality in the area include the following: TRIBAL FUNDING PLACE / PROJECT NAME PROJECT TYPE APPROVED AUTHO- SOURCE BUDGET RITY ZDM Tholathemba primary School Borehole New R25 000 Hlahlindlela ZDM 21 Busekhaya School Borehole New R 3 812 Hlahlindlela ZDM Bhekumthetho Primary School Borehole New R 25 000 Hlahlindlela ZDM 30 Esigodini Borehole Repair R2 500 Hlahlindlela ZDM 37 Myuzini Borehole Repair R2 500 Hlahlindlela ZDM 56 Mhlongo Farms Borehole Repair R2 500 Hlahlindlela ZDM 58 Mdundubezini Borehole Repair R2 500 Hlahlindlela ZDM Bhekumthetho Borehole Repair R2 500 Hlahlindlela ZDM Ezibomvu Borehole Repair R3 000 Hlahlindlela ZDM Thandanani Borehole Repair R3 000 Hlahlindlela ZDM Thandanani / Loss Borehole Repair R3 000 DWAF Atdoro Community Water R720 000 Supply Scheme DWAF Hlahlindlela Community Water R1 929 000 Supply Scheme DWAF Mangosuthu Community Water R1 426 000 Supply Scheme Dlamini ZDM Kwebu/Scotshill Community Water R300 000 Supply Scheme CMIP Coronation Community Water R4 646 000 Supply Scheme DWAF Nkongolwane Community Water R1 414 000 Supply Scheme DWAF Zululand WSDP Community Water R800 000 Supply Scheme Dept Public Works Bhekumthetho Roads R187 000 Dept Public Works Mountain View/Kwangwelu Roads R187 000 Dept Public Works Ngenetsheni Roads R187 000 Hlahlindlela Dept Public Works Ophuzane Access Road Roads R311 847 Hlahlindlela Dept Public Works Ophuzane Community Garden Roads R390 450 Hlahlindlela Dept Public Works Ezungwini Sanitation Sanitation R78 124 Hlahlindlela ZDM Zimbomvu Spring protection R6 000 Vuka Town and Regional Planners Inc Integrated Development Plan Report: TRP_444_N_Rpt169 Situational Analysis April 2002 Abaqulusi Local Municipality 45 ZDM Erasmusfontein P/school Water Borehole at R24 000 school Mthethwa ZDM Mahloni School Water. Borehole at R25 000 school. (Zululand District Municipality, July 2001) 4.8 SUMMARY OF BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE ISSUES The following issues summarises the infrastructure issues for the area: • The provision of basic infrastructure is hampered by the culture of non-payment. • Service infrastructure in urban areas needs to be upgraded and maintained whereas the rural areas are severely affected by a lack of in the provision of basic services. • Most of the water treatment plants in urban areas have reached their capacity and the situation in eMondlo is critical. • Most of the urban communities have access to clean water with severe shortcomings in this respect as far as rural communities are concerned. • 23% of the population (51 227 people) have access to less than 5 litres of water per day and are at survival levels. • The larger urban areas have sanitation systems, but the rural areas rely on septic tanks, pit latrines or no system at all. This places tremendous strain on the environment. • The population in the urban areas has access to household electricity, but few of the rural settlements have this service. Electricity provision at schools and health facilities are especially critical. • Refuse removal is limited to urban areas and the dumping of refuse in rural areas has become a major problem, particularly in the denser rural settlements. • The standard of landfill sites at all existing locations need to be investigated and brought up to standard to comply with the standards set by the Department of Water Affairs. • Efforts are needed to increase people’s awareness of good waste management practices and its benefits. THE IDP CHALLENGE: The challenge of the IDP is to plan and provide time scales for the provision of basic engineering services to rural areas and to maintain and upgrade existing services in urban areas with due regard to limited financial resources. This needs to be part of a holistic approach to achieve social upliftment and a better quality of life for all the citizens of Abaqulusi. Specific projects need to integrate social, infrastructural and economic development. Vuka Town and Regional Planners Inc Integrated Development Plan Report: TRP_444_N_Rpt169 Situational Analysis April 2002