Heredity Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Punnett Squares

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Heredity Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Punnett Squares Powered By Docstoc
					              Shawn P. Schwartz
              SED 720
              12.04.2003


                                                   5 Current Research Articles
             URL                  Summary                        Connection to Literacy                       Significance
            http://w   In this article, Cate Heroman          An important literacy aspect that     As a future high school science
            ww.teac    investigates how to introduce          should be addressed in all            teacher I need to be aware that
            hingstr    science to children at the earliest    classrooms is teaching students       different students have different
            ategies.   levels of education. The article       how to communicate their              needs and that students use many
            com/pa     gives a general definition of          observations, thoughts, and           different methods to express their
            ges/pag    science and emphasizes that young      opinions using a variety of           thoughts, observation, and
            e.cfm?p    children learn science by asking       different methods. This article       opinions. This article provides me
            ageid=9    questions, exploring and               address this aspect by encouraging    with alternative methods by which
                7      investigating, and using tools and     teachers to educate youth to          students should be allowed to
                       their senses to gather information.    observe scientific phenomena and      express themselves.
                       Students also represent what they      record their observations using       Unfortunately, some of the
                       have learned through drawing,          writings, stories, dramatizations,    examples and approaches
                       constructions, writings, graphs,       constructions, graphs, and            highlighted in this article are much
                       stories, and dramatizations. The       drawings. This article also           to simple for me to use in a high
                       article continues to discuss early     promotes teachers to educate their    school science class because they
                       childhood science learning by          young students about how              are meant for beginning
Article 1




                       dividing the major “childhood          scientific processes affect their     elementary school students.
                       sciences” into life science, earth     everyday lives. The understanding     However, the article also
                       science, and physical science. The     of how scientific processes           encourages teachers to help
                       next topic addressed is the            constantly affect humans’ everyday    students make connections
                       teacher’s role in developmental        surroundings is an important aspect   between scientific phenomena and
                       scientific learning. The article       of scientific literacy.               their daily lives, which is still
                       mentions types of open questions a                                           useful to me as high school
                       teacher should pose and the types                                            teacher.
                       of activities a teacher should lead
                       that encourage younger students to
                       make observations about their
                       surrounding world. Finally, the
                       article lists some examples of
                       creative curriculum that enforce
                       scientific learning in young
                       students. Some of these examples
                       include simple investigations
                       conducted with blocks, sand and
                       water, table toys, and the outdoors.
               Shawn P. Schwartz
               SED 720
               12.04.2003
            http://w In this article, Ruth Chenoweth          The author of this article seems to    As a future high school science
            ww.spi describes the “new science                 support a classroom void of            teacher it is important for me to
              ked-    curriculum” to be enacted in 2003.      literacy connections. Chenoweth        regard the ideas in this article as
            online.c She says it will supposedly be void      implies that it is unimportant for     examples of what not to do.
            om/Arti of “tedious coursework, a                 students to make connections           Contrary to Chenoweth’s beliefs, it
            cles/000 curriculum overloaded with facts,        between scientific phenomena they      is extremely important for me to
            00006D and dull experiments.” The article         read about in textbooks or observe     integrate my curriculum with
            C2F.ht begins by describing, in a                 in experiments and media that they     current events. It is also very
               m      somewhat pessimistic manner, how        read in the newspapers or watch on     important for me to give the
                      the science curriculum is supposed      television. It is very important for   students opportunities to discuss
                      to change. Chenoweth believes           students to make connections           connections between societal
                      that the changes in science             between these two types of             issues and scientific phenomena.
                      curriculum will cause educators to      information. The communication         Although the beliefs of this article
                      become focused on teaching a            of students’ observations and          are archaically traditional, I can
                      consumerist, feminist,                  opinions through discussion is yet     develop important teaching
                      individualistic science in which        another literacy aspect that the       strategies and literacy aspects in
Article 2




                      students will lack scientific           author seems to reject.                my science curriculum by doing
                      understanding at the most basic         Unfortunately, Chenoweth also          the opposite of what Chenoweth
                      levels. Chenoweth believes that         believes that lesson plans centered    suggests.
                      the answer to this problem can be       around students discussing their
                      found in creating better                thoughts on connections between
                      laboratories rather than better         societal issues and scientific
                      scientific literacy. Chenoweth          phenomena are boring.
                      goes on to list how the new
                      curriculum will cause students to
                      become frustrated because their
                      inadequate scientific knowledge
                      will only allow them to participate
                      in scientific discussions at the most
                      macroscopic levels. Finally, the
                      article closes with, “Scientific
                      literacy is cheap and nasty, and a
                      failure of our responsibility to pass
                      on to the next generation what is
                      best in human culture.”
               Shawn P. Schwartz
               SED 720
               12.04.2003
            http://w This article describes ways in           This article encourages teachers to    As a high school biology teacher, it
            ww.edu which the Internet can be used in a        educate students to use the Internet   is important for me to present to
            cation- science classroom so that it is more      in ways other than a research tool.    students alternative ways to
            world.c than just a large library of              In this way, students learn to         manipulate technology. This
            om/a_te resources. The article suggests that      observe phenomena in                   article suggests alternative ways
            ch/tech many different methods of using           untraditional ways, which is an        that students can use the Internet so
            017.sht the Internet to enrich scientific         important aspect of scientific         that it is not merely a research tool.
               ml     learning can be found on The            literacy. Communicating                This article also helps me to better
                      Center for Improved Engineering         observations, thoughts, and            understand the importance of
                      and Science Education (CIESE)           opinions by writing or typing to       written and typed communication
                      website. Some of these methods          another individual is an important     of people from different cultures
Article 3




                      are creating collaborative and real-    literacy connection made in this       and backgrounds by suggesting the
                      time projects on the Internet by        article. The article makes this        teachers allow their students to
                      comparing water quality in bodies       connection by providing examples       communicate with other students
                      of water around the world or by         of ways by which students of           via the Internet.
                      using real-time earthquake data so      different schools can interact on
                      that students can learn about the       the Internet.
                      relationship between earthquakes
                      and plate tectonics. Finally, the
                      article concluded with more
                      examples of experiments and
                      observations that can be performed
                      on the Internet and their
                      endorsements from various
                      elementary school teachers.
            http://w This article describes the benefits      The literacy aspect of                 As a future high school science
            ww.edu that arise from science educators          communicating observations,            teacher, this article is useful to me
            cationw creating websites and sharing their       thoughts, and opinions by writing      because it enforces that teachers as
            orld.co science lesson plans, classroom           or typing to other people is not       well as students can reap the
            m/a_cu management plans, standards, and           only important for students, but is    educational benefits of the Internet.
            rr/curr assessments. A quoted science             also important for teachers. This      Although this article seems to list
            319.sht teacher in this article, Randall          article suggests that students and     mostly elementary school science
               ml     Warner, believes that more science      teachers share information using       websites, it also lists a few useful
                      teachers should become involved         websites on the Internet. Students     high school science websites. This
Article 4




                      with posting their content and ideas    should have the opportunity in the     article also provides many valuable
                      onto the web. The article then lists    classroom to read and comprehend       links to websites that list examples
                      and describes seven different           information that is interactive.       of lesson plans, curriculum guides,
                      teachers and their websites where       This article also addresses this       standards, and unit plans that will
                      valuable scientific teaching            literacy aspect by suggesting          help me develop my educating
                      information on different issues         examples of alternatives to            skills as a beginning teacher.
                      such as going beyond the textbook       textbooks such as tutorials and web
                      and personalizing science               pages that illustrate scientific
                      education can bed found. Finally,       concepts through animation.
                      included at the end of the article is
                      a list of favorite websites created
                      by science webmasters.
               Shawn P. Schwartz
               SED 720
               12.04.2003
            http://w In this article, Ramon Lopez              Students should have the               As a future, high school biology
            ww.aps. discusses the reforms and                  opportunity to use activities,         teacher, this article is limited in the
            org/edu revolutions that are occurring in          experiments, and other alternatives    ways that it is significant to me.
            c/edout science education in the United            to textbooks to increase their         Although it is important that I
             4.html States. Lopez divides his                  scientific learning and to give them   utilize hands-on, inquiry based
                      discussion into the reforms of pre-      a variety of options of                learning in my lesson plans, much
                      college science education, college       communicating the observations         of the other information presented
                      physical science education, and          and results. This article supports     in this article is useless because it
                      graduate science education. For          this literacy aspect by promoting      only describes problems with few
                      the purposes of this assignment, I       hands-on, inquiry based scientific     or no solutions. Also, more than
                      am going to focus on the pre-            learning.                              two thirds of the article focuses on
                      college section of this article. In                                             science education at a higher level
                      the pre-college section of the                                                  than I will be teaching.
                      article, Lopez lists concerns with
                      the standards movement and
Article 5




                      reforms in elementary and
                      secondary science education.
                      Lopez argues that the national
                      science standards are technically
                      voluntary and are too broad. He
                      goes on to say that one of the
                      positive aspects of the science
                      educational reforms is the
                      introduction of hands-on, inquiry
                      based, scientific learning at the
                      elementary level. Lopez concludes
                      this section of the article by stating
                      that high school science education
                      reform has been unclear thus far
                      and he fears that this unclearness
                      will lead to an even greater number
                      of high school students who
                      graduate unprepared for college
                      sciences.
                Shawn P. Schwartz
                SED 720
                12.04.2003



                                                       5 Lesson Plan Critiques
              URL         Summary of Lesson Plans                 Positive         Development         How I Would Adapt this
                                                                  Aspects             Areas            Lesson for My Classroom
             http://w    This lesson plan is supposed to       - Students are      - A lack of         I would add a great deal of
             ww.col-     enhance student interest in the       given the           details and steps   information to this lesson plan.
             ed.org/c    topics to be covered during the       opportunity to      cause teachers to   Though it is a good idea to have
             ur/sci/sc   chemistry course. Students are        choose what they    have a difficult    the students choose what they
              i37.txt    instructed to use various resources   learn in the        time teaching       learn to ensure that they are
                         to select chemical demonstrations     course.             and students to     interested in the subject matter,
                         and topics to be taught in class.     - May actually      have a difficult    it may be very difficult to
                         All chemical demonstrations must      enhance student     time learning.      incorporate this lesson plan into
                         we cleared by the teacher.            interest in         - Needs to          a pre-existing unit plan. First, I
                                                               content area        include more        would add a detailed sequence of
                                                               because they get    detailed            steps to complete the lesson plan
                                                               to choose the       examples of         so that other teachers such as
Critique 1




                                                               topics covered.     hands-on            substitute teachers could better
                                                               - Does not rely     learning.           understand the process. I would
                                                               on teaching         - Needs to          also provide a detailed
                                                               preset standards.   include more        explanation of how I would use
                                                               Rather, relies on   detailed            the students’ suggestions to
                                                               teaching subjects   examples of         develop a unit plan. For
                                                               that interest       inquiry based       example, I would give the
                                                               students.           learning.           students a list of 20 pre-selected
                                                                                   - Needs to          topics and I would choose the
                                                                                   include some        three topics that were most
                                                                                   type of             popular to the class as a whole. I
                                                                                   assessment.         would also make certain that the
                                                                                   - Needs to          list that the students chose from
                                                                                   include some        would have topics that are easily
                                                                                   type of literacy    arranged in a logical, specific
                                                                                   aspect.             sequence.
                Shawn P. Schwartz
                SED 720
                12.04.2003
             http://w In this lab, students observe and        - Students will      - There are many     I could easily utilize this lesson
             ww.col- investigate the activities of             enjoy learning       grammatical          plan in my 10th grade biology
             ed.org/c enzymes in saliva and in digestive       about scientific     errors.              class. First, I would fix the
             ur/sci/sc juices. By performing the steps         phenomena that       - Needs to           grammatical errors to make it
              i59.txt  outlined in this lesson plan,           they may             include the          easier for other teachers to
                       students will define what an            consider to be       number of            follow. Then I would focus on
                       enzyme is, observe enzymatic            gross (saliva and    students.            the saliva activity and ignore the
                       activity, explain how changing the      digestion).          - Needs to           digestion activity in order to
                       physical conditions denatures           - The assessment     include a            save time and cover the subject
                       enzyme activity, discuss the            questions are        revision of the      matter more thoroughly.
                       relationship between drug use and       congruent with       concepts             Finally, I would include labels of
Critique 2




                       enzymatic activity, and explain the     the objectives.      addressed in the     how long each step in the lab is
                       enzyme deficiencies of an               - The procedure      lab before           supposed to take to make it
                       alcoholic.                              has an excellent     students leave       easier for other teachers to
                                                               sequence and         the classroom.       follow.
                                                               could be easily      - Needs to
                                                               replicated by        include some
                                                               other teachers.      type of inquiry
                                                               - The lesson plan    based learning.
                                                               involves             - Needs to
                                                               discussion as        include labels of
                                                               well as hands on     the amount of
                                                               activities.          time each step is
                                                               - The lesson plan    supposed to take.
                                                               requires that
                                                               students work in
                                                               groups.
             http://w    In this lab students conceptualize    - Utilizes an        - Needs to           I could adapt this laboratory
             ww.col-     the size of an extremely large        excellent            include some         experiment to my chemistry
             ed.org/c    number by investigating the           engaging             type of a literacy   classroom. I would begin this
             ur/sci/sc   answer to the question, “If this      activity.            aspect.              lab by showing the students the
              i94.txt    water molecule evaporates at the      - Utilizes inquiry   - Needs to           size of a mole of different
                         rate of one million (10^6)            based learning       include the          molecules. I would also have
Critique 3




                         molecules per second, how long        through having       number of            the student write an essay
                         will it take for the molecule to be   students develop     students.            detailing why it is important to
                         gone?" Students are exposed to        their own            - Needs to           conceptualize numbers that are
                         dimensional analysis while using      questions and        include labels of    extremely large as part of a
                         the concepts of the metric system     hypotheses.          the amount of        literacy aspect. Finally, I would
                         and making provable estimates to      - Help students      time each step is    list the number of students and
                         help them answer the question         conceptualize the    supposed to take.    the amount of time each step in
                         posed.                                size of extremely                         the procedure takes, so that the
                                                               large numbers.                            lesson plan is easier for other
                                                                                                         teachers to follow.
                Shawn P. Schwartz
                SED 720
                12.04.2003
             http://w Students approach and deconstruct        -It is a good idea   - Needs to           I could adapt this lesson in my
             ww.col- the ideal gas law by utilizing a          to provide a         include some         high school chemistry class.
             ed.org/c visualization of the law involving a     concrete             type of a literacy   First, I would list the number of
             ur/sci/sc garbage can. As a result of             example of what      aspect.              students and the amount of time
             i199.txt performing the steps in this lesson      formulas mean        - Needs to           each step in the procedure takes
                       plan, students will be able to better   when teaching        include the          so that the lesson plan is easier
                       understand the ideal gas law and        chemistry.           number of            for other teachers to follow.
                       how it is used as a calculation tool.   - The objectives     students.            Then I would add a literacy
Critique 4




                       Students will also be able to           and the              - Needs to           aspect that would require
                       describe in detail, the properties of   procedures are       include labels of    students to detail how
                       2 liter soda pop bottles and            congruent.           the amount of        performing this laboratory
                       describe the behavior of nitrogen       - The laboratory     time each step is    experiment helped them to
                       in both liquid and gas phases.          is adapted so that   supposed to take.    visualize the ideal gas law.
                                                               the students who     - Needs to           Finally, I would explicitly detail
                                                               may be lacking       describe safety      the safety procedures and
                                                               mathematical         equipment in         precautions so that, in the case of
                                                               skills can also      detail.              an accident, I will not be directly
                                                               enjoy the                                 liable for student injuries.
                                                               experiment.
             http://w    Students observe the changes in       - Students will      - This laboratory    I would not adapt this lesson
             ww.col-     the phases of matter by performing    appreciate the       experiment has       plan into my high school
             ed.org/c    this experiment. In this lesson       relationship         the potential to     chemistry classroom mostly
             ur/sci/sc   plan, students make ice cream by      between making       be extremely         because he raw eggs have the
             i172.txt    combining 4 beaten eggs, 2 cups       ice cream in their   messy.               potential for making students
                         sugar, 2 teaspoons of vanilla, 1/2    everyday lives       -This laboratory     sick. However I did create a
                         teaspoon salt, milk, clean gallon     and scientific       experiment may       similar lesson plan suitable for
                         jug with cap, crushed ice, table      phenomena.           be too simple for    11th graders in which they
Critique 5




                         salt, spoons and cups, large re-      - All students       high school aged     observed the simplistic processes
                         sealable plastic bag, and one other   should enjoy         students.            of ice melting to water and water
                         plastic bag within the steps          learning about       - Needs to           evaporating to steam but were
                         described in the procedure.           phase changes in     include labels of    required to make a graph of the
                                                               this lab.            the amount of        information using technology
                                                               – The assessment     time each step is    (Lesson Plan 5). Note that I
                                                               questions are        supposed to take.    addressed all safety concerns
                                                               congruent with       – The raw eggs       and I labeled the amount of time
                                                               the objectives.      could make           that each step in the procedure
                                                                                    students sick.       would take so that other teachers
                                                                                                         could easily follow my lesson
                                                                                                         plan.
Shawn P. Schwartz
SED 720
12.04.2003


                       5 CONSTRUCTED LESSON PLANS

        Lesson Plan 1 - Heredity: Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Crosses

NAME: Shawn P. Schwartz                              GRADE LEVEL: 10

CONTENT SUBJECT AREA: Biology                        NUMBER OF STUDENTS: 32

TIME LENGTH OF CLASS: One 90 minute block period

OBJECTIVE:
Students will be able to predict the probable outcome of phenotypes in a genetic cross
from the genotypes of the parents. Students will be able to recognize that every organism
requires a set of instructions for specifying its traits and that heredity is the passage of
these instructions from one generation to another. Students will be able to hypothesize
how the sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction will result in a great
variety of possible gene combinations from the offspring of any two parents.

MATERIALS AND RESOURCES:
-Spiral notebook
-Pen/Pencil
-32 copies of “Wearing My Genes” worksheets to distribute in class
-Chalkboard, with prepared table for the students’ eye colors and earlobe traits and blank
 Punnett squares for this information
-Chalk
-Prepared list of vocabulary words and their definitions to be discussed in class
-Prepare transparency of example homework assignments to be shown on the overhead
 projector.

PROCEDURE AND STEPS:
1. (15 minutes) Take attendance and get class settled. Ask students to look around the
room and make observations about their fellow students’ physical characteristics. Ask
students, “Does everyone student in the classroom look exactly the same?” “What are
some different physical characteristics of the students?” “Why do you think that their
characteristics are different?” Specifically, ask the students’ the color of their eyes and
whether their earlobes connect or hang freely. Record responses and answers in a table
on the chalkboard.
2. (10 minutes) Distribute worksheets to every student entitled “Wearing My Genes.”
This worksheet lists different examples of dominant and recessive human traits in the
form of alleles such as BB for brown eyes and bb for blue eyes. The worksheet also has
three, blank Punnett squares. Explain that the students will need to work with the student
next to them to fill out the chart on the worksheet of what different dominant and
recessive traits they have, (eye color, eye shape, hairline, tongue rolling, and earlobe
traits). If there are an odd number of students, assign three students to one group.
3. (10 minutes) Explain that an allele is simply one member of a pair of genes that
Shawn P. Schwartz
SED 720
12.04.2003
occupy a specific position on a specific chromosome. Explain that BB is an example of a
pair of genes in which both of the alleles are dominant brown. Monitor and encourage
while students fill in their five different traits.
4. (10 minutes) After students have filled in their dominant and recessive traits, ask them
why they have these specific traits. When they determine that they receive the traits from
their parents, explain that the probability of the students inheriting the traits listed on the
board as well as the traits on their worksheets can be determined from a cross of their
parents’ traits.
5. (10 minutes) Make sure that the students understand the difference between the terms
genotype and phenotype by asking questions such as, “Are brown eyes a genotype or a
phenotype?” and “Is Bb a genotype or a phenotype?” Ask students to help fill out the
prepared, blank, monohybrid cross Punnett square on the board using the teacher’s
parents’ eye colors that are listed (Brown-BB and Blue-bb). After completing the cross,
explains what the phenotypic ratio and genotypic ratio are based on the results. Shows
students that the teacher’s brown eye color is the only possible result of the monohybrid
cross of the parents. Explains that the genotype of the teacher’s eye color could only
possibly be heterozygous (Bb).
6. (10 minutes) Call on students to help fill out the second blank, monohybrid cross
Punnett square on the board using two of the students’ earlobe traits. Explain that the
class is imagining that the two students’ who list their earlobe traits are the parents and
the results of the monohybrid cross are the earlobe traits of the possible imaginary
offspring. After the Punnett square on the board has been completely filled in, call on
five students to give the number of heterozygous offspring, the number of homozygous
dominant offspring, the number of homozygous recessive offspring, the number of
offspring with the dominant phenotypic trait, and the number of offspring with the
recessive phenotypic trait. Calculate the genotypic and phenotypic ratio from this
information.
7. (5 minutes) Have students pretend that they are the parental generation and complete
one of the three, blank Punnett squares on their worksheets, in pairs, using their own
hairline information. Also have students record the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of
the offspring’s results. Monitor and encourage.
8. (10 minutes) Review the main concepts of the lesson including, but not limited to the
main concept that the alleles of two parents combine to produce the possible traits of the
offspring that can be expressed in a genotypic and a phenotypic ratio. Re-ask the
questions from the beginning of class: “Does everyone student in the classroom look
exactly the same?” “What are some different physical characteristics of the students?”
“Why do you think that their characteristics are different?” Answer students’ questions.
If students have no questions, randomly select students to define, in their own words,
terms such as genotype, phenotype, dominant, recessive, allele, heterozygous, and
homozygous.
9. (10 minutes) Explain that the two blank Punnett squares on the “Wearing My Genes”
worksheet will be finished for homework using the students’ parents’ eye shape and
tongue rolling traits. Students who do not have parents will be allowed to cross the eye
shape and tongue rolling traits of their grandparents, aunts or uncles, neighbors, or
friends. Explain that students will also be making a concept map of heredity and will be
creating an imaginary animal species with three different phenotypic traits for homework.
Shawn P. Schwartz
SED 720
12.04.2003
Show an example of the concept map and the imaginary species algorithm on the
overhead projector. Explain that the concept map and the finished worksheet are due the
next class meeting; the imaginary species algorithm will be due the following week.

REFLECTIONS AND COMMENTS:
The students paid attention to the subject matter because of the usage of the overhead
projector and group activities to teach them. However, this lesson takes a great amount
of preparation, so make sure to schedule the appropriate amount of time in the morning
for preparation of the chalkboard and the overhead transparencies.

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY AND HOMEWORK:
For homework, students will create a concept map of heredity using the different
concepts discussed in class. The concept map should include connections between
vocabulary terms such as heredity, genotype, phenotype, dominant, recessive, allele,
heterozygous, and homozygous as well as different types of traits that humans inherit.
Students will also create an imaginary animal species with three different phenotypic
traits such as eye color, hair color, and number of heads. Students must make sure that
there are only two possible phenotypic outcomes for the cross of every trait and decide
which alleles will be dominant or recessive. They should also cross two individuals of
the imaginary species and create three Punnett Squares of the different traits of the first
generation of offspring and calculate the genotypic and phenotypic ratios from the results
in the Punnett squares.

ASSESSMENT:
A rubric will be used to grade both the concept map and the imaginary species model.
The concept map will be due on the following class period, the imaginary species model
will be due on the following week. Concept maps that include all of the vocabulary
words discussed in class as well as at least five different types of traits that humans
inherit will receive an “A”. Imaginary species models that address all of the instructions
listed above and are creative and colorful will receive an “A”.

LITERACY ASPECT:
In this lesson, students will utilize their reading skills by reading and following the
directions on the “Wearing My Genes” worksheets. They will utilize their writing skills
by answering the questions on the worksheet. For homework, they will also use their
creative writing skills by creating a concept map that includes connections between the
vocabulary terms discussed in class.
Shawn P. Schwartz
SED 720
12.04.2003
              Lesson Plan 2 – Observations of Onion Root Tip Cells

NAME: Shawn P. Schwartz                               GRADE LEVEL: 10

CONTENT SUBJECT AREA: Biology                         NUMBER OF STUDENTS: 30

TIME LENGTH OF CLASS: One 90 minute block period

OBJECTIVE:
Students will be able to make slides of onion root tips and observe different phases of
mitosis. Students will be able to describe how and why cells divide. Students will draw
the different stages of mitosis and try to arrange them in the proper order of division.
Students will describe each phase of mitosis and list the main characteristics
of each.


MATERIALS AND RESOURCES:
-Spiral notebook
-Pen/Pencil
-30 laboratory handouts.
-Fresh grown onion root tip
-5-10mL distilled water
-5ml 6M HCl
-1 ml Feulgen reagent in a vial
-Forceps
-Pipets
-5 ml 45% acetic acid
-1 dropper pipette per solution
-Beakers
-Slides
-Coverslips
-Pencil eraser used to squash the slide.
-5-10 ml Carnoy's solution (1 glacial acetic acid : 3 absolute alcohol)
 in vial, 2-3
-Cups
-Plastic knives
-Microscopes per student pairs

PROCEDURE AND STEPS:
1. (5 minutes) Take attendance and get class settled. Instruct students to begin working
on the laboratory experiment to make sure that they have enough time to finish.
2. (5 minutes) Instruct students to obtain a root tip that is immersed in fixative that
stopped the cell division. Ask students to pour off the fixative and replace it with 2-5 ml
distilled water. Inform students that the solutions may be poured into a beaker or down
the drain.
3. (5 minutes)After 1 minute, instruct students to remove the water with a pipette and
add 2-5 ml 6M HCl.
Shawn P. Schwartz
SED 720
12.04.2003
4. (5 minutes) After 3 minutes instruct students to carefully remove the acid and wash
tissue off with distilled water. Students should then agitate the vial for 1-2 minutes and
discard the excess water when finished.
5. (5 minutes) Instruct students to use forceps to transfer the tissue to a vial containing 1-
2 ml Feulgen reagent. The reagent may be added to this vial if desired. Caution the
students that this dye will stain their hands and clothes permanently.
6. (20 minutes) During the 20 minute stain time lead a discussion of what exactly the
cells are doing. Explain that the cells in the root tip are rapidly dividing. Also explain
that during normal cell activity, the chromosomes are unwound and are too thin to be
seen. Then explain that during cell division, the chromosomes thicken, take up stain, and
can be easily observed. Encourage the students to come up with reasons why cells
divide. Finally, explain that most cells the students observe will not be dividing and will
be in interphase.
7. (5 minutes) After 20 minutes ask students to use forceps to transfer the tissue to a vial
containing 5 ml 45% acetic acid.
8. (5 minutes) Instruct students to place 1-2 drops of acetic acid onto a microscope slide
and transfer the onion tissue to the drop. Ask students to use a plastic knife to macerate
the tissue into tiny pieces.
9. (5 minutes) Instruct students to place a coverslip over the macerated tissue trying not
to get air bubbles under the coverslip. Tell students to press down firmly in a
perpendicular direction onto the coverslip with a pencil eraser to spread the cells in a very
thin layer.
10. (20 minutes) After all of the slides are prepared, have students use microscopes to
find, observe, draw, and label the different stages of mitosis (Interphase, Prophase,
Anaphase, Metaphase, and Telophase) in the onion root tip cells. Also have students
observe the different views of cells present under high power of microscopes.
11. (10 minutes) Show the students the perfect display of the different stages of mitosis
in their textbooks. For a multicultural aspect, show the students the phases of mitosis in
cells of humans of different races and make sure that students conclude that there are no
differences between the appearance and activity of cells of different races. Explain that
students will create models of the stages of mitosis using pipe cleaners for chromosomes.

REFLECTIONS AND COMMENTS:
The students paid attention to the subject matter because of the usage of groups and
hands-on laboratory activities to teach them. However, this lesson takes a great amount
of preparation, so make sure to schedule the appropriate amount of time in the morning
for preparation of the onions and the laboratory handouts.

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY AND HOMEWORK:
For homework, students will construct model cells in the process of mitosis or cell
division. Students will draw the border of a cell that is dividing on their paper. These
need to be big enough so that the pipe cleaners can fit inside. The students will tape the
pipe cleaners onto the cell drawings and will label and describe what it happening in each
phase of mitosis.
Shawn P. Schwartz
SED 720
12.04.2003
ASSESSMENT:
Student’s mitosis models should have cell borders for interphase, prophase, metaphase, a
partially dividing cell for anaphase, a nearly totally divided cell for telophase, and two
new cells for the daughter cells. Students will also be assessed on the arrangement of the
four "chromosomes" properly in the various phases of mitosis. All cell models that
include these details as well as have correct labels, detailed descriptions, and colorful
representation will receive an “A”.

LITERACY ASPECT:
In this lesson, students will utilize their reading skills by reading and following the
directions on the laboratory handouts. They will utilize their writing skills by taking
notes in their laboratory notebooks and by describing and labeling the different phases of
mitosis.
Shawn P. Schwartz
SED 720
12.04.2003
                       Lesson Plan 3 – Topographic Map Lab

NAME: Shawn P. Schwartz                               GRADE LEVEL: 9

CONTENT SUBJECT AREA: Integrated Science NUMBER OF STUDENTS: 28

TIME LENGTH OF CLASS: One 90 minute block period

OBJECTIVE:
Students will be able to read and interpret topographic and geologic maps. Students will
propose designs and choose between alternative solutions. Students will demonstrate
thoughtful planning for a piece of technology or technique. Students will be introduced to
the roles of models and simulations in these processes. Students will construct and
interpret scale drawings.

MATERIALS AND RESOURCES:
-Spiral notebook
-Pen/Pencil
-Seven plastic topographic volcano models
-Seven plastic boxes with removable lids (30 cm. X 15 cm. X 15 cm.)
-Seven pieces of transparency film cut to be the same size as the lid of the plastic box
-One roll of adhesive tape
-Seven erasable markers
-Seven metric rulers
-Seven plastic two-liter bottles that contain water mixed with blue food coloring
-Fourteen plastic cups
-Twenty-eight pieces of tablet paper (students supply)
-Twenty-eight pens (students supply)
-Blank overhead transparencies
-A transparency with the laboratory procedure
-Erasable marker
-Overhead projector
-Various other types of maps such as a globe and a raised map
-A topographic map transparency with different symbols of landforms such as steep
quarry walls, islands, cliffs, and man-made basins
-Paper towels,
-Mop
-Bucket
-Broom
-Dustpan
-First aid kit
-Disposal bucket

PROCEDURE AND STEPS:
1. (5 minutes) Take attendance and get class settled. When class begins, ask students to
discuss how different maps such as globes and raised maps, show the shape and
Shawn P. Schwartz
SED 720
12.04.2003
inclination of different areas of the earth. Monitor and encourage the discussion.
2. (5 minutes) Explain to the students that they will be designing a procedure to create a
topographic map of the volcano model at their tables using the different materials at their
tables. First, have students explicitly identify and describe the different material on their
tables. Then, instruct them to discuss in their individual groups how they could use the
materials to create the topographic map. Ask them to not open the jar of water until they
are told. Ask all of the students to take notes on their group’s discussion. Make sure that
students know that they will not be allowed to participate in the lab unless everyone takes
notes.
3. (10 minutes) After students have discussed in their groups, have the different groups
discuss with the teacher and with the entire class how they think they will use the
materials on their tables to create a topographic map. Monitor and encourage the
students to discuss and use the transparency with the laboratory procedure to make sure
to guide the students to the proper steps. Ask students to take notes on the class’
discussion.
4. (5 minutes) After the guiding the students to propose the appropriate procedure, hand
out the twenty-eight copies of the laboratory procedure but make sure that all students
made an effort to take notes before giving them a copy.
5. (5 minutes) Run through the steps of the laboratory procedure that may be confusing.
Make sure that students know to use the cups to fill the plastic box with water. Ensure
students know how to use the ruler to mark the points of elevation on the plastic box and
how to label these points of elevation on the final topographic map. Make certain that
students know to fill the plastic box with water until the water reaches the elevation
interval at eye-level.
6. (10 minutes) Make sure that students are aware that they are in charge of clean up,
(dumping the water in the plastic box into the sink, wiping off the plastic box and
transparencies after everyone has traced the results, and cleaning up excess water with
paper towels) and in the event of a large spill, they must be careful not to slip on the
floor. Ensure that all students and their parents have signed the lab safety contract before
allowing them to participate in the lab. Explain that students need to alert the teacher and
stay away from any water spills that are touching electrical outlets, cords and lights.
Make certain students know where the first aid kid is located in case that someone
becomes injured. Make sure that students understand that although the materials in this
lab are plastic, they can be broken so they need to treat them with respect. Finally, make
students aware that any horseplay or misuse of the laboratory equipment in an unsafe
manner will result in removal from the laboratory room
7. (20 minutes) Make certain that every group has four students. If students are missing,
a few groups may have three students, which is sufficient. Pass out the tape to tape the
transparency to the lid of the plastic boxes for each group. Keep a copy of the procedure
on the overhead projector as well as walk around the room to monitor individual different
groups and provide them with oral directions if they are having trouble following the
procedures. Also monitor whether each student takes a turn in pouring the water into the
box, making sure the water reaches the elevation interval at eye level, and drawing a
contour line onto the transparency that is taped to the lid. Ensure that all of the boxes are
holding the water like they are supposed to and that all of the erasable markers are in
working condition.
Shawn P. Schwartz
SED 720
12.04.2003
8. (10 minutes) For the students who finish early, give them time so that each student can
trace the transparency results on a piece of tablet paper and ask them to begin clean up.
The students that finish later will have to trace each other’s results after one student
traces the original transparency. Once every group has finished and one student in each
group has traced the transparency, make sure that each group has disposed of the water
properly has cleaned the plastic box transparency, and the volcano model, has removed
the transparency from the lid, and has sealed the bottles of water. Collect all of the
materials from the groups once they are cleaned and make sure to have paper towels or a
mop ready in case the teacher finds excess water on the tables or the floor.
9. (10 minutes) Review major concepts and discoveries within the lab by asking
questions such as, What did we want to learn in this lab? What was our hypothesis?
How did we determine the procedure of the laboratory experiment? How did you create
the contour lines? Ask one group to give their transparency to show the class on the
overhead projector. Instruct students to draw a rough sketch of the profile of the volcano
from their topographic map. Continue by asking questions, including, What connections
can you make between the profile, the topographic map, and the volcano model? Are
volcanoes represented on the various globes and raised maps in the classroom? Where is
the highest point on the profile, the model, and the map? What are the characteristics of
the volcano? Is it symmetrical, does it have a steep or gentle slope? Why weren’t there
any points where the contour lines overlapped?
10. (10 minutes) Show students another topographic map on the overhead projector with
different symbols of landforms such as steep quarry walls, islands, cliffs, and man-made
basins. Pass out the worksheets for homework and show them how they will be using the
different symbols they just learned to interpret in the map in Figure 7.1 on the worksheet.

REFLECTIONS AND COMMENTS:
The students paid attention to the subject matter because of the usage of the overhead
projector and group activities to teach them. However, this lesson takes a great amount
of preparation, so make sure to schedule the appropriate amount of time in the morning
for preparation of the chalkboard and the overhead transparencies.

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY AND HOMEWORK:                                                       1.
For homework, students will use map symbols and interpret topographic maps on the
“Reading a Topographic Map” worksheet for homework. Students will also answer
questions on and draw a profile of a mountain from the interpretation of a topographic
map on the back of the worksheet.

ASSESSMENT:
The “Reading a Topographic Map” worksheet will be due the following class period.
Worksheets that address all of the instructions listed above as well as include detailed
answers to the questions on the worksheet and detailed drawings of the profile of the
mountain will receive an “A”.

LITERACY ASPECT:
In this lesson, students will utilize their reading skills by reading and following the
directions on the laboratory handouts. Students will make use of their writing skills by
Shawn P. Schwartz
SED 720
12.04.2003
writing up a proposal of the laboratory protocol in laboratory notebook. Students will
also use their writing skills to answer the questions on the “Reading a Topographic Map”
worksheet.
Shawn P. Schwartz
SED 720
12.04.2003


                    Lesson Plan 4 – An Introduction to Bacteria
NAME: Shawn P. Schwartz                               GRADE LEVEL: 10

CONTENT SUBJECT AREA: Biology                         NUMBER OF STUDENTS: 30

TIME LENGTH OF CLASS: One 60 minute period

OBJECTIVE:
Students will be able to describe the characteristics of bacteria. Students will be able to
draw and label the types of bacteria. Students will also be able to explain how different
types of bacteria can be beneficial or detrimental. Students will be able to describe the
ways in which bacteria relates to their environment.

MATERIALS AND RESOURCES:
-Spiral notebook
-Pen/Pencil
-prepared pictures of bacteria
-incubator
-Cotton swabs
-16 sterile petri dishes
-Nutrient agar
-Permanent marker
-Masking tape

PROCEDURE AND STEPS:
1. (15 minutes) Take attendance and get class settled. Call on a few random students to
read aloud the first few paragraphs in the chapter on Bacteria in their textbooks. Instruct
students to observe the shape of the different bacteria and their colonies.
2. (20 minutes) Give each pair of students a prepared sterile petri dish that is filled with
growing media nutrient agar. Make certain to tell students not to open the dishes until they
are ready to expose them. Instruct the pairs of students to expose their dishes to any one of
the following environmental conditions: dust, leaves, saliva, dead flies, grass, soil, dirty
hands, water, faucet handles, toilet bowls, or an environmental condition of their choice.
Give the pairs of students hall passes and instruct the students to avoid disturbing other
classrooms. Save one petri dish to use as a control and tape it shut without exposure.
3. (5 minutes) After the students inoculate their dish, they need to take notes on time of
exposure, what the agar was exposed to, and draw a diagram of how the dish looks. Students
need to put their names on a small piece of masking tape using a permanent marker and tape
it off to one side of their specimen.
4. (5 minutes) Collect the dishes from the students and tape them shut. Place the exposed
petri dishes into the incubator. Set the incubator around at approximately 100 degrees
Fahrenheit. Add water to the bottom of the incubator to maintain high levels of humidity.
5. (15 minutes) Lead a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of bacteria. Discuss
how bacteria affect the students’ environment. Explain the students’ homework and explain
Shawn P. Schwartz
SED 720
12.04.2003
that the students will continue to make observations of their petri dishes in their laboratory
notebooks.

REFLECTIONS AND COMMENTS:
The students paid attention to the subject matter because of the usage of hands-on, group
activities that allowed them to observe scientific phenomena in areas outside the
classroom. However, this lesson takes a great amount of maintenance, so make sure to
schedule the appropriate amount of time in the morning for maintenance of the incubator
and petri dishes.

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY AND HOMEWORK:
Start this activity on a Monday and have the students draw and describe observations of
the petri dishes during the first ten minutes of class period for two weeks. Make certain
that students know to never open their petri dishes while recording observations. Have
students compare, with each other and with the control, the damage their bacteria have
done to the agar in their petri dishes. Have students write an essay to turn in with their
observations that postulates the type of bacteria that each pair of students is observing as
well as lists the differences between their petri dishes, the other students’ petri dishes, and
the control petri dish.

ASSESSMENT:
The students’ observations in the laboratory notebooks will be assessed by whether the
drawings and descriptions are detailed and whether every day of observation is listed.
The students essay will be assessed by whether it addresses all of the instructions above.
The observations and essays that provide detailed descriptions and drawings and follow
all of the directions of the assignment will receive an “A”.

LITERACY ASPECT:
In this lesson, many students will utilize their reading skills by reading aloud excerpts
from the introductory chapter about bacteria in their textbooks. They will utilize their
writing skills by writing daily observations of the petri dishes in their laboratory
notebooks for two weeks. The students will also utilize their writing skills when they
write the essay that postulates the type of bacteria that each pair of students is observing
as well as lists the differences between their petri dishes, the other students’ petri dishes,
and the control petri dish.
Shawn P. Schwartz
SED 720
12.04.2003
   Lesson Plan 5 – Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions

NAME: Shawn P. Schwartz                             GRADE LEVEL: 11

CONTENT SUBJECT AREA: Chemistry                     NUMBER OF STUDENTS: 20

TIME LENGTH OF CLASS: One 90 minute block period

OBJECTIVE:
Students will describe how energy is released when a material condenses or freezes and
how energy is absorbed when a material evaporates or melts. Students will utilize
technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications. Student
will primarily use computers for the collection, analysis, and display of data. Students
will describe how heat consists of random motion caused by the vibrations of atoms,
molecules, and ions. Students will demonstrate knowledge of the fact that the higher the
temperature, the greater the atomic or molecular motion.

MATERIALS AND RESOURCES:
-Spiral notebook
-Pen/Pencil
-Overhead projector
-Prepared transparency showing the molecular structure of the different phases of water
 on the overhead projector.
-Class computer hooked up to projector
-Prepared table in Microsoft Excel with two columns: the left column should be Time and
  the right column should be Temperature. Fill in the Time column with times from zero
  to ten minutes with thirty-second intervals. Leave the Temperature column blank. --\
-Same table prepared on the chalkboard.
-12 ice cubes
-500mL beaker
-Electric burner
-Alcohol thermometer
-Laptop cart with five computers for the five groups of four students
-A copy of the Microsoft Excel table on every computer’s desktop
-20 copies of “Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions” worksheets to distribute in class
-First aid kit
-Fire blanket
-Fire extinguisher
-Broom
-Dustpan
-Glass disposal box
-Paper towels

PROCEDURE AND STEPS:
1. (10 minutes) Take attendance and get class settled. Turn on the overhead projector and
shows the students the molecular structure of ice, water, and water vapor without telling
Shawn P. Schwartz
SED 720
12.04.2003
them which one is which. Ask students to write down which structure they think is a
solid, liquid, or a gas. Also shows students a glass of water with ice that has
condensation on the outside. After establishing that all students are familiar with this
occurrence, ask students, “What is on the outside of the glass and where did it come
from?” Tell students that we will come back to this later in class.
2. (5 minutes) Explain that there will be a demonstration of the phase changes from ice
to water to steam in the beaker on the electric burner at the front of the class. Choose a
student at random to say, “time” whenever the second hand on the class clock hits the 6
or the 12 for ten minutes. Choose a student at random to hold the thermometer and read
the temperatures at eye level every time the first student says, “time” for ten minutes.
Choose a student at random to record the temperatures on the chalkboard as they are
called out. Tell other students to record the data in their notebooks at their desks.
3. (10 minutes) Clearly and completely go over safety instructions. Tell students what to
do if they burn themselves on the burner. Show students the location of the first aid kit.
Show students where the fire blanket and extinguisher are. Make sure that students
understand that “hot glass looks cold” so that they do not burn themselves on the heated
beaker. Tell students not to touch the glass if they break the thermometer or the beaker.
Show students where the broom and dustpan are for picking up broken glass. Show
students where the glass disposal box is. Have paper towels ready in case students spill
water.
4. (10 minutes) Turn the electric burner on high power. Monitor and encourage.
Periodically make sure that the three students are doing their tasks properly.
5. (10 minutes) Divide the students into five groups of four students. Ask every group to
type the temperature of the H2O into the table, next to the proper time, in Microsoft
Excel. Show the students how to do this on the class computer that is hooked up to the
projector by filling out the first few temperatures in the table. Tell students to make sure
that the data they recorded is the same as the data on the chalkboard.
6. (20 minutes) In Microsoft Excel, show students how to create a scatter plot, title their
graph (Temperature versus Time), label their independent/X (Time) and dependent/Y
(Temperature) axis, and create a linear line of regression. While showing students how to
create the graph, ask the five groups to follow the same directions while observing and
make the same graph with the same title, labels, and line of regression. Monitor and
encourage. Make sure that students understand that the data in the left column on the
Microsoft Excel table will be plotted on the X-axis of the graph and the data in the right
column will be plotted on the Y-axis. Discuss what the graph tells us about the data. Ask
questions such as, “At what point on the graph did the ice turn into water?” “At what
point on the graph did the water turn into steam?” “What happened to the graph after the
water turned into the steam?” “How did the increase in heat and the phase changes affect
the graph’s line of regression?”
7. (10 minutes) Direct students’ attention to the overhead projector with the transparency
showing the molecular structure of the different phases of water. Ask student to help
label which phases are the solid, liquid, and gas phases. Lead a discussion of what
factors (heat and hydrogen bonds) contribute to the different molecular structures of the
phases of water. Re-ask the question from the beginning of class, “What is on the outside
of the glass and where did it come from?” Challenge the students to determine why
condensation forms on the outside of a glass with water and ice in it. Explain that an
Shawn P. Schwartz
SED 720
12.04.2003
increase in heat causes an endothermic reaction in which the H2O molecules get excited
and push away from each other causing ice to melt and water to turn into steam.
8. (10 minutes) Review the concepts of the lesson by discussing what happens in the
earth’s water cycle and asking the following questions: “What is the molecular structure
of the water in an iceberg?” “What happens to the molecular structure of the H2O in the
iceberg as it gets too close to the equator and begins to heat up?” “Is this an endothermic
or an exothermic reaction?” “What happens to the molecular structure when the water
begins to evaporate as part of the water cycle?” “Is this an endothermic or an exothermic
reaction?” Why?”
9. (5 minutes) Passes out the Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions worksheets.
Explain that the students’ homework will be to label whether the different reactions on
the worksheet are endothermic or exothermic. Explain that the students will also draw
the molecular structure of the different phases of water on the back of the worksheet and
describe what factors contribute to the different phases’ structures.

REFLECTIONS AND COMMENTS:
The students paid attention to the subject matter because of the usage of a variety of
audiovisuals such as the overhead projector and the class computer hooked up to the
projector. Group activities also aided in keeping the students’ interest. However, this
lesson takes a great amount of preparation, so make sure to schedule the appropriate
amount of time in the morning for preparation of the chalkboard and the overhead
transparencies.

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY AND HOMEWORK:
For homework, students will draw and describe how molecules are arranged in the
different phases of matter (in this case, water) as a result of the molecular motion caused
by increases and decreases in heat. They will also describe how heat is released during
exothermic reactions and heat is absorbed during endothermic reactions and how
endothermic and exothermic reactions affect molecular structure by completing their
worksheets.

ASSESSMENT:
The Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions worksheet will be due the following class
period. Worksheets that address all of the instructions listed above as well as include a
detailed description and drawing of how molecules are arranged in the different phases of
water as a result of the molecular motion caused by increases and decreases in heat will
receive an “A”.

LITERACY ASPECT:
In this lesson, students will utilize their reading skills by reading and following the
directions on the Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions worksheets. They will utilize
their writing skills by answering the questions on the worksheets and by recording data in
their laboratory notebooks during class. Students will increase their Microsoft Office
literacy by constructing a graph on Microsoft Excel, using the data in class. For
homework, they will use their creative writing skills by drawing and describing how
molecules are arranged in the different phases of water.
                Shawn P. Schwartz
                SED 720
                12.04.2003



                                     5 RESOURCES FOR SCIENCE TEACHERS
               Summary of                 Positive Aspects                  Development Areas                How I Would Use this
                Resources                                                                                      Resource in My
                                                                                                                 Classroom
             Online Animation of     - Transcription is a very           - Animation would be difficult     I will use this animation
             Transcription           difficult concept to define and     to use in class without a          directly in my lesson plan that
             available at:           illustrate. This colorful           projector hooked to a              focuses on DNA transcription.
             http://www.ncc.gmu.     animation makes it very easy        computer hooked to the             First, I will have some of the
             edu/dna/mRNAanim.       to conceptualize the process.       Internet.                          students read aloud and
             htm.                    - All of the main steps in          - Animation is very small so       review the paragraphs related
                                     translation are highlighted and     the representations of the         to DNA transcription within
                                     animation pauses at each step       molecules involved in              the chapter. Then, if I have
                                     so that you can move through        transcription lack detail.         the proper materials, I will
Resource 1




                                     it at your own speed.               - Animation could be divided       show the animation to the
                                     - Animation is helpful for          into shorter more detailed         students on a projector that is
                                     teachers teaching the process       steps so that the process of       hooked up to the class
                                     of transcriprion and it is useful   transcription is slightly easier   computer. I will have the
                                     for students learning the           to follow.                         students record their
                                     process of transcription.                                              observations, drawings, and
                                                                                                            detailed descriptions of the
                                                                                                            different stages highlighted in
                                                                                                            the animation within their lab
                                                                                                            notebooks. Finally the
                                                                                                            students’ lab notebooks will
                                                                                                            be graded at the end of the unit
                                                                                                            by using a open lab notebook
                                                                                                            quiz.
             ScienzFair Project      - The information on this           - Some of the science fair         I will use the science fair
             Ideas available at:     website is useful for               project ideas listed on the        project website to help me
             http://members.aol.co   developing and exploring            website are much too difficult     create a list of possible
             m/ScienzFair/ideas.ht   topics to cover in class.           for most high school students.     projects that students can
             m                       - The information can be used       - Many of the science fair         choose from as part of their
                                     to help students conceptualize      project ideas are too simple for   final assessment. It is
                                     science fair projects.              high school students and do        important that students are
                                     - The information on this           not go into specific detail.       able to choose topics that they
Resource 2




                                     website can be used by              - Many of the science fair         are interested when they are
                                     educators to help them              project ideas involve extensive    required to prepare an
                                     conceptualize ideas for             research rather than               extensive project. I will also
                                     alternative assignments in the      comprehensive laboratory           use this website to help me
                                     science classroom.                  experiments. The information       develop the standards for
                                                                         students learn while working       creating a school wide science
                                                                         on science fair products is less   fair (if one does not already
                                                                         likely to be retained by           exist). This website can also
                                                                         students if it is in the form of   help me develop a rubric of
                                                                         research.                          how to assess the individual
                                                                                                            science fair projects within a
                                                                                                            school.
                Shawn P. Schwartz
                SED 720
                12.04.2003
             Exploratorium           - All of the demonstrations        - Many of the demonstration       I will use the “Milk Makes Me
             demonstrations          relate to the California science   ideas are much too simple for     Sick” demonstration in a
             available at:           content standards.                 high school students and cover    lesson plan to help me explain
             http://www.explorato    - Many of the demonstrations       topics these students have        what chemical and molecular
             rium.edu/snacks/        list the length of time required   already learned.                  factors lead to the sickness
Resource 3




                                     so it is easy for teachers to      - Many of the materials           caused by the molecule lactose
                                     follow them and prepare them       needed in these                   in individuals who are
                                     for class.                         demonstrations are expensive      genetically predisposed to
                                     - Demonstrations can be            of difficult to acquire.          lactose intolerance. I can use
                                     printed out from the Internet      - Very few of the                 the “Milk Makes Me Sick”
                                     so that students who are           demonstrations listed relate to   demonstration highlighted on
                                     observing them can follow          topics in high school             this website to enrich a lesson
                                     along.                             chemistry, biology, or earth      plan in physiology, genetics,
                                                                        science.                          or the molecular section of my
                                                                                                          biology class.
             Physics                 - There are more than enough       -The website has a few links      This website links many
             Demonstration           different types of physics         that do not work at all or in     different types of
             Resources Online        demonstrations to enrich my        which the demonstrations are      demonstrations, experiments,
             available at:           integrated science class that      very difficult to follow.         activities, and other resources
             http://www.ph.utexas    are directly and indirectly        - Some of the demonstrations      related to physical sciences.
             .edu/~phy-              linked to this website.            do not go into enough detail to   This website is especially
             demo/resources/resou    - There are a lot of pictures in   make them readily accessible      useful for me because I have a
             rces.html               the experiments and                to teachers and students.         limited knowledge of physics
Resource 4




                                     demonstrations that help me to     -A few of the demonstration       but I may need to cover some
                                     identify materials with which I    and experiment ideas are too      simple topics using
                                     may be unfamiliar.                 in depth for use in a high        demonstrations in my
                                     - Because so many physics          school classroom.                 integrated science class. I will
                                     demonstrations are linked                                            use the simple demonstrations
                                     directly or indirectly to this                                       such as the racquetball in
                                     website, sometimes the same                                          liquid nitrogen demonstration
                                     physics topic is addressed in                                        found in the University of
                                     different demonstrations. This                                       Michigan link to help enrich
                                     is useful because it provides                                        some of my lesson plans in the
                                     me with multiple ways that I                                         physical science area of
                                     can prepare subject matter.                                          integrated science.
             Kathy Schrock’s         - This website is a resource       -Many of the lesson plans are     I will use Kathy Schrock’s
             homepage available      full of resources including, but   only useful for elementary        Website to help me develop
             at:                     not limited to, lesson plans,      science classes.                  my science lesson plans in the
             http://kathyschrock.n   presentations, and even games      - Many of the links to the        classroom as well as help me
             et/                     for students.                      different educational resources   to research different methods
                                     - Many of Kathy’s articles and     on the website do not work.       of classroom management.
                                     guides for educators have          - Not all (but most) of the       Specifically, I will use the
                                                                        resources on Kathy Schrock’s
Resource 5




                                     useful tips, strategies, and                                         concept mapping software to
                                     ideas that science teachers can    website are related to science.   help me find software that
                                     use in their classroom.                                              provides examples of rubrics
                                     - This website not only                                              for assessing concept maps.
                                     addresses science topics, but                                        Concept maps are a very good
                                     also addresses management                                            learning tool for students but
                                     and other issues that are                                            they are very difficult to
                                     relevant to all classrooms.                                          grade. A rubric found in this
                                                                                                          article will make it much
                                                                                                          easier for me to assess my
                                                                                                          students’ beautiful concept
                                                                                                          maps.
Shawn P. Schwartz
SED 720
12.04.2003