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5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems Franco Maloberti Basic op-amp The ideal operational amplifier is a voltage controlled voltage source with infinite gain, infinite input impedance and zero output impedance. The op-amp is always used in feedback configuration. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 1 Typical feedback configuration Z4 Z1 + Z2 Z2 V0 = V2 V1 Z3 + Z4 Z1 Z1 Finite gain effect: Z4 Z1 + Z2 Z Z + Z2 V0 = V2 V1 2 1+ 1 Z3 + Z4 Z1 Z1 A0Z1 The error due to the finite gain is proportional to 1 / A0. This error must be smaller than the error due to impedance mismatch. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 2 OTA If impedances are implemented with capacitors and switches, after a transient, the load of the op-amp is made of pure capacitors. The behavior of the circuit does not depend on the output resistance of the op-amp and stages with high output resistance (operational transconductance amplifiers) can be used. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 3 Transient C1 Vi (0 ) = Vin + C1 + C // C0 C Vo (0 ) = Vi (0 ) + + C0 + C C1 + C Vi ( ) = Vin C1 + C(1+ gm r0 ) Vo ( ) = Vi ( ) gm r0 C0 gm Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 4 Performance characteristics Actual op-amps deviate from the ideal behavior. The differences are described by the performance characteristics. DC differential gain: It is the open-loop voltage gain measured at DC with a small differential input signal. Typically Ad = 80 ÷ 100 dB. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 5 Common mode gain: It is the open-loop voltage gain with a small signal applied to both the input terminals. Acm = 20 ÷ 40 dB. Common mode rejection ratio: It is defined as the ratio between the differential gain and the common mode gain. Typically CMRR = 40 ÷ 80 dB. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 6 Power supply rejection ratio: If a small signal is applied in series with the positive (or negative) power supply, it is transferred to the output with a given gain Aps+ (or Aps-). The ratios between differential gain and power supply gains furnish the two PSRRs. Typically: PSRR = 90 dB (DC) PSRR = 60 dB (1 kHz) PSRR = 30 dB (100 kHz) Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 7 Input offset voltage: In real circuits if the two input terminals are set at the same voltage the output saturates close to VDD or to VSS. Typically |Vos| = 4 ÷ 6 mV. Input common mode range: It is the maximum range of the common-mode input voltage which do not produce a significant variation of the differential gain. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 8 Output voltage swing: It is the swing of the output node without generating a defined amount of harmonic distortion. Equivalent input noise: The noise performances can be described in terms of an equivalent voltage source at the input of the op-amp. Typically vn = 40 ÷ 50 nV/ Hz at 1 kHz, in a wide band (1 MHz) it results 10 ÷ 50 V RMS. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 9 Unity gain frequency: It is the frequency where the open-loop gain is zero. It is also the -3 dB bandwidth in unity-gain closed loop conditions. Typically fT = 200 MHz. Phase margin: It is the phase shift of the small-signal differential gain measured at the unity gain frequency. A phase margin smaller than 60° causes ringing in the output response. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 10 Slew rate: It is the maximum slope of the output voltage. Usually it is measured in the buffer configuration. The positive slew rate can be different from the negative slew rate. Typically SR = 50 ÷ 200 V/ s (lower values for micropower operation). Settling time: The settling time is the time required to settle the output within a given range (usually ± 0.1%) of the final value. Power dissipation: It depends on speed and bandwidth requirements. Typically, for 3.3 V supply, it is around 1 mW. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 11 Typical parameters of a 0.25 m OTA Feature Value Unit DC gain 80 dB CMRR 40 dB Offset 4-6 mV Bandwidth 100 MHz Slew-rate 3 V/ s Settling time: 1 V, CL = 4 pF 300 ns PSRR @ DC 90 dB PSRR @ 1 kHz 60 dB PSRR @ 100 kHz 30 dB Input referred noise (white) 100 nV/ Hz Corner frequency 1 kHz Supply voltage 3.3 V Input common mode voltage 1.5 V Output dynamic range 2.2 Vpp Power consumption 1 mW Silicon area 2000 m2 Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 12 Basic architecture 1st gain stage differential to single-ended converter 2nd gain stage output stage (to reduce the output impedance) Key requirements: absolute stability in unity gain closed-loop conditions when driving maximum load. minimum number of gain stages. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 13 Two-stage op-amp Key design issues: open-loop differential gain dc offset power supply rejection (PSRR) Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 14 Open-loop differential gain: The gain is obtained by multiplying the gains of the two stages. gm1 gm5 Av = A1A2 = = (gds2 + gds 4 ) (gds5 + gds6 ) W W W 2 2µn µp Cox L 1 L 5 L B 1 = ( n + p )2 W W IBias L 6 L 7 At low frequency the gain is inversely proportional to the bias current. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 15 Common mode dc gain: Applying the same signal to both inputs the circuit becomes symmetrical and can be studied considering half circuit. gds7 gm5 ACM = ACM1ACM2 = 2gm1 gds5 + gds6 Av 2gm1gm3 CMRR = = ACM gds7 (gds2 + gds 4 ) Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 16 Offset: The offset is composed of two terms: systematic offset random offset The systematic offset can be reduced to zero with a careful design. A necessary condition to have zero systematic offset, is that the currents of M5 and M6 are equal, when the inputs are connected to the same voltage. Assuming all the transistors in saturation this condition is: I (W L) = I (W L) (W L) 6 7 5 Bias Bias (W L) (W L) (W L) B B 3 1 (W L) (W L) = 2 (W L) (W L) 3 6 7 5 Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 17 The random offset is due to the geometrical mismatching and process dependent inaccuracies. When we refer the offset of the second stage at the input terminal we have to divide it by the gain of the first stage. Since the two offsets are uncorrelated we have: 2 2Vos2 Vos = V + os1 A1 The total offset is dominated by the offset of the input stage. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 18 We study the effect of a mismatch between M3 and M4: mirror factor (1 + ) instead of 1. IBias Vos1 IBias Vos1 I1 2 gm1 2 1+( ) = 2 + gm2 2 Vos1 gm1 Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 19 MOS: I1 VGS1 VTh = = 150 ÷ 300 mV (in saturation) gm1 2 I1 nkT = nVT = (in sub-threshold) gm1 q BJT: I1 26 mV gm1 Assuming = 0.01: Vos,BJT = 0.26 mV Vos,MOS = 1.5 ÷ 3 mV Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 20 Power supply rejection: A signal on the positive bias line determines a modulation in the reference current, which, in turn, gives an equal modulation of the currents in M5 and M6, if the condition of the zero systematic offset is fulfilled. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 21 The spur signal v+n affects the currents of M5 and M6. in,6 in,7 = = µCox VGS,MB VTh vn + ( ) W /L( W /L ) ( 6 ) 7 a) low frequency: + vo,n,1 = in,tot (W / L) 6 ( 1 W /L 5 W /L )( ) 7 1 (W / L) 2 W /L W /L ( )( ) gds6 + gds7 B 4 B b) high frequency: vo,n,1 = in,Ref (W / L) 6 1 (W / L) gm5 B Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 22 Power supply rejection at low frequency gm5 (1 k+ ) gm5k gds6 gds6 2 2gm3 rds3 2 2gm3 rds3 2 (v ) o,tot = gds5 + gds6 ( ) vn + + gds5 + gds6 vn ( ) Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 23 Effect of external components on PSRR Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 24 Frequency response and compensation A two-stage scheme with poles in the same frequency range needs compensation. A single pole system is always stable. Strategy: Approach the single pole performance by splitting the two poles apart. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 25 Miller capacitance moves p1 at lower frequency. Shunt feedback moves p2 at higher frequency. Small signal equivalent circuit for two-stage op-amp. v1(g1 + sC1) + (v1 v0 )sCc + gm1vin = 0 v0 (g2 + sC2 ) + (v0 v1)sCc + gm2v1 = 0 v0 gm2 sCc = gm1R1R2 vin [ 1+ sR1R2gm2Cc + s 2R1R2 C1C2 + (C1 + C2 )Cc ] Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 26 The circuit has two poles and a zero in the right half plane. 1 gm2Cc gm2 p1 p2 z= R1R2gm2Cc C1C2 + (C1 + C2 )Cc Cc since in practice Cc > C1, Cc C2, gm1 > 1/R1, gm2 > 1/R2 it results: 1 gm2 1 p1 << p2 >> R1C1 C2 R2C2 Assuming p1 as dominant, the unity gain angular frequency is: 1 gm1 T = p1 A0 gm1gm2R1R2 = R1R2gm2Cc Cc Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 27 The locations of the second pole p2 and of the zero with respect to T are derived by considering: p2 gm2Cc = for stability > 2 to 4 T gm1C2 z gm2 The phase shift given by the = T gm1 zero is also negative and can worsen the phase margin. It must be located far from the unity gain frequency. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 28 if Cc > C2 and gm2 > gm1 The right half-plane worsen the phase margin. In bipolar technology gm2 >> gm1 because the current in the second stage is normally higher than the one in the first stage. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 29 In CMOS technology gm2 gm1 because they are proportional to the square root of I and W/L; moreover, the transconductance of the input pair must be high in order to reduce their thermal noise contribution. In real situations the obtainable phase margin does not guarantee stability. Eliminating the right half-plane zero: unity gain buffer zero nulling resistor unity gain current amplifier The zero is due to a signal feedforward to a point that is 180° out of phase. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 30 Solution 1: Eliminate feedforward with source follower Disadvantages: Area Power dissipation Actually it creates a doublet in the feedback path. Potentially not stable. Alternative, a substrate emitter follower may be used. (The bipolar transistor is smaller and has higher gm.) Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 31 Solution 2: Zero nulling resistor The zero position is pushed away with a resistance in series with Cc. v0 A0 ( ) 1+ s Rz 1/ gm2 Cc vin s s 1+ 1+ p1 p2 Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 32 The pole locations are close to the original. The zero is moved depending on Rz. 1 z= (1/ g m2 ) Rz Cc If Rz = 1 / gm2 the zero is moved at infinity If Rz > 1 / gm2 the zero is located in the left half-plane Implementation: 1 1 1 = + Rz Rn Rp Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 33 1 W 1 W Rn = kn L (V DD V1 VTh,n ) Rp = kp L (V 1 VSS VTh,p ) n p Choose (W/L)n and (W/L)p such that: W W kn = kp L n L p and: 1 W Rz = kn L n ( VDD Vss VTh,n VTh,p ) Problem: Supply sensitivity. Since the swing of the node 1 is A2 less than the output swing, only one transistor with supply independent bias can be used. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 34 Solution 3: Unity gain current amplifier v1(g1 + sC1) + gm1vin v0sCc = 0 v0 (g2 + sC2 ) + gm2v1 + v0sCc = 0 Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 35 Slew rate For large input signal: M1, M4 are off so the current IM7 discharges Cc through M2. Assuming M5 able to drive the current request by Cc, CL and IM6. V IM7 SR = = t max Cc Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 36 M2, M5 are off so the current IM7 mirrored by M4 charges Cc; CL and Cc are charged by IM6. The smaller of these two limits will hold: V+ IM6 V+ IM7 SR+ = = SR+ = = t C +C t max Cc max c L To have SR+ = SR-, a condition can be: IM7 IM6 = Cc Cc + CL Since T = gm1 / Cc, the SR is IM7 SR = gm1 T = V GS1 V ( Th T) For T = 2 · 40 · 106 rad/s, (VGS1 - VTh) = 300 mV, SR 75.4 V/ s. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 37 Single stage schemes High gain is get with a cascode scheme. Telescopic cascode Mirrored cascode Folded cascode Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 38 Telescopic cascode DC gain A0 (gmrds)2 low power consumption only one high impedance node: compensated with a capacitance load (if necessary) low output swing reference of the input close to the negative supply two bias lines (VB1, VB2) 5 transistors in series Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 39 Mirrored cascode optimum input common mode range only 4 transistors in series improved output swing speed of the mirror higher power consumption Voutmax = VB1max + VGS4 - Vsat VB1max = VDD - Vsat - VGS4 Voutmax = VDD - 2Vsat Voutmax = VGS7 + Vsat Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 40 Conventional folded cascode Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 41 Modified folded cascode (improved output swing) Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 42 Two stage amplifier vs. single stage amplifier Two stages: Voltage gain less affected by resistive loading Maximum signal swing Less bussing of bias lines Requires an additional capacitor for frequency compensation More power consumption Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 43 Single stage: No need for additional compensation capacitor Lower power consumption Better CMRR Lower signal swing More bussing of bias lines Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 44 Class AB op-amps Class AB: a circuit which can have an output current which is larger than its DC quiescent current. Two stages amplifier with class AB second stage M6 and M7 act as a level shifter M8 and M9 act as a class AB push-pull amplifier gm8 + gm9 A2 = gds8 + gds9 Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 45 The quiescent current in the output stage is bias voltage and technological variation dependent. VDD = VGS8 + VGS6 + VGS9 neglecting the body effect: 2 L 2 L 2 L VDD = VTh,p + 2VTh,n + I6 + I8 + I9 kn W 6 kn W 8 kn W 9 2 L VDD VTh,p 2VTh,n I6 kn W 6 I9 = 2 L 2 L + kn W 8 kn W 9 Typically with VDD = 5 V the numerator is around 1.6 V; if it is assumed VDD = (5 ± 0.5) V and VTh = ± 200 mV, it results that the numerator can change from 0.7 V to 2.5 V; hence, Imin = 0.3 Inom; Imax = 2.5 Inom Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 46 Single stage class AB amplifier (only inverting) In the input pair M1 and M2 operate as source followers and drive the common gate stage M3 and M4. VB = VTh,n + VTh,p + Vov,n + Vov,p for Vin = 0 I1 = I2 = IBias for Vin > 0 Iout = K8,9 I1 - K5,6 I2 K8,9 and K5,6 mirror factors (assumed equal) Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 47 2 W 2 W VB + Vin = VGS2 + VGS 4 = VTh,n + VTh,p + + I2 kn L 2 kp L 4 2 W 2 W VB Vin = VGS1 + VGS3 = VTh,n + VTh,p + + I1 kn L 3 kp L 1 It results: Iout = K8,9 (I1 - I2) = K8,9 VB Vin Until I1 or I2 goes to zero, for a larger Vin, Iout increases quadratically with Vin. Small signal gain: Av = 2 Gm rout Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 48 Gm is the transconductance of the cross coupled input stage ( ) gm2 Vin VA = gm4VA gm2Vin VA = gm2 + gm4 gm2gm4 Iout = gm4VA = Vin = GmVin gm2 + gm4 Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 49 Fully differential op-amps The use of fully differential paths in analog signal processing gives benefits on: PSRR dynamic range clock feedthrough cancellation Consider an integrator and its fully differential version: Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 50 Noise from the power supply and clock feedthrough are common mode signals. The output swing is doubled (Vmax+ - Vmax- = 2 Vmax). Since the noise is unchanged, the dynamic range improves by 6 dB. Single ended to differential and double ended to single ended converters are necessary Larger area More bussing of bias lines Common mode feedback is necessary Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 51 The SE/DE and DE/SE blocks increase the complexity and introduce noise. The differential approach is convenient if the differential processor contains more than 4 stages. The feedback around the op-amp control the difference of the input terminal voltages and not their mean value. In turn, there is no control on the output common mode voltage. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 52 Fully differential two stage OTA 1st stage with gain: two 2nd stages with gain: 1 gm1 gm5 A1 = A2 = 2 gds1 + gds 4 gds5 + gds6 Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 53 Fully differential single stage OTA Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 54 COMMON MODE FEEDBACK continuous time sampled data Continuous-time common mode feedback Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 55 VB is such that M1 and M2 are in the linear region; (W/L)1 = (W/L)2; M1 and M2 are like the parallel of two voltage dependent resistances. W 1 2 I1 = µCox L (V + ) VTh VDS 2 VDS 1 W 1 2 I2 = µCox L (V ) VTh VDS 2 VDS 2 1 W 2 Iout = I1 + I2 = µCox 2 L (V B VDS VTh ) 3 With a differential signal Iout = cost With a common mode signal: if positive, Iout increases if negative, Iout decreases Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 56 Fully differential folded cascode with CMFB Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 57 Fully differential folded cascode with CMFB (2) Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 58 Problems: dynamic range linearity Compensation of the non-linearities of the n-channel and p- channel CMFB cell. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 59 Sampled-data common mode feedback The common mode feedback operates on slowly variable signal. It can be implemented at discrete time intervals. The sampled data feedback is essential for low bias voltage and low power. linearity (mean value with capacitors) low power consumption no limitation to the dynamic range clock signal necessary clock feedthrough effect Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 60 Micro-power op-amps Required in battery operated systems (portable/wearable equipment: pocket calculators, PDA's, digital cameras, …; medical equipment: pace makers, hearing aids, …); Use of MOS transistors in weak inversion; Low current (< 10 A) low slew rate. ID gm = gds = ID nVT B gm1 B Av = = gds6 + gds8 nVT n + ( p ) high dc gain (Av 60 dB) Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 61 Dynamic biasing of the tail current Basic idea: Generate |I1 - I2| and increase the current in the differential stage by k|I1 - I2|. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 62 Since ID i1 i2 = gm (vin + vin ) gm = ID = IB + k i1 i2 nVT vin + vin ( i1 i2 = IB + k i1 i2 nVT ) The current increase becomes significant when: vin + vin k >1 nVT Typical performance: DC gain 95 dB ft 130 kHz SR 0.1 V/ s IB 0.5 A Itot 2.5 A Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 63 Class AB single stage with dynamic biasing For maximum output swing VBIAS-p and VBIAS-n must be as close as possible to the supply voltages. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 64 During the slewing the current source of the output cascodes can be pushed in the linear region, hence loosing the advantage of the AB operation. The problem is solved with the dynamic biasing: Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 65 Noise The noise of an operational amplifier is described with an input referred voltage source vn. The spectrum of vn is made of a white term and 1/f term. vn is due to the contributions, referred to the input, of the noise generators associated to all the transistors of the circuit (assumed uncorrelated). Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 66 Consider the input stage of a two stage op-amp. The output noise voltage is given by: 2 1 v 2 n,out [ 2 2 2 2 = g (v + v ) + g (v + v ) m1 n1 n2 m3 2 n3 2 n4 ] gds2 + gds 4 Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 67 We assume gm1 = gm2; gm3 = gm4 (we assume the noise source of M5 does not contribute) moreover since usually W1 = W2; L1 = L2; W3 = W4; L3 = L4; v2n1 = v2n2; v2n3 = v2n4; if we refer v2n,out to the input, we get: 2 2 2 vn,out vn,out 2 gm3 2 A 2 2 = vn,in = g2 (g ds2 + gds 4 ) 2 = 2 vn1 + 2 vn3 gm1 1 m1 The contribution of the active loads is reduced by the square of the ratio gm3/gm1 It is worth to remember that W 2 8kT KF 1 1 gm = 2µCox I v = n + f L 3gm 2µCox WL f Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 68 The attenuation by the factor (gm3/gm1)2 gives, for the white term: 2 2 vn,in,w = 2vn1 1+ gm3 2 = 2vn1 1+ µ3 W / L 3 ( ) gm1 µ1 W / L ( )1 and for the 1/f term: 2 KF1 1 KF 3L2 vn,in,1/ f =2 1+ 1 µ1CoxW1L1 f KF1L23 Where KF1 and KF3 are the flicker noise coefficient for transistors M1 and M3. The white contribution of the active load is reduced by choosing (W/L)input >> (W/L)load. The 1/f noise contribution of the active load is reduced by choosing Linput < Lload. If the above conditions are satisfied the input noise is dominated by the input pair. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 69 Cascode scheme: The noise is contributed by the input pair and the current sources of the cascode load. 2 2 2 gm4 2 v n,in =2v + n1 vn 4 gm1 Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 70 Folded cascode scheme: The noise contributed by the same source as in the cascode and by the current source M2. 2 2 2 2 gm2 2 g 2 vn,in = 2 vn1 + vn2 + m5 vn5 gm1 gm1 Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 71 Two stage op-amp: (feedforward + zero nulling comp.) The noise is modeled with two input referred noise sources: one at the input of the first stage and the other at the input of the second stage. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 72 In the low frequency range the noise is dominated by vn1. In the high frequency range the noise is dominated by vn2. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 73 Frequency response: The input referred noise generator is transmitted to the output as a conventional input signal The feedback network around the op-amp must be taken into account. One stage amplifier: The cutoff frequency is: p1 = -gm/C0 Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 74 Power of noise: We consider only the white term. Single stage amplifier: df 8 1 df 8 kT v 2 n0 = v2 n 1+ s / p1 = 2 1+ ( ) 3 kT gm1 1+ 2 fC / g 2 = 1+ 3 ( ) C0 0 0 ( 0 m1 ) Two stage amplifier: we consider only the white term contributed by the noise source of the second stage 8 kT 2 2 df v 2 n2 ( = 2 1+ ) v n0 = v n2 3 gm2 0 1+ s / p2 + gm2 4 kT p2 = C1 + C2 2 vn0 = 3 1+( ) C1 + C2 Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 75 Layout Rules: Use poly connections only for voltage signals, never for currents, because the offset RI 15 mV. Minimize the line length, especially for lines connecting high impedance nodes. Use matched structure (necessary common centroid). Respect symmetries (even respect power devices). Only straight-line transistors. Separate (or shield) the input from the output line, to avoid feedback. Shield high impedance nodes to avoid noise injection from the power supply and the substrate. Regular shapes and layout oriented design. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 76 Stacked layout: Csb = Cdb = CjbW (d + 2x j ) Structure A: 1 W Csb = Cdb = Cjb (d + 2x j ) 2 2 Structure B: 2W Csb = Cdb = Cjb (d + 2x j ) 3 Capacitances are further reduced if the diffusion area is shared between different transistors. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 77 Key point: use of equal width transistors Transistors with arbitrary width are not allowed. Placement and routing: If we divide a transistor in If we divide a transistor in an odd number of parallel an even number of parts transistors the resulting the resulting stack has stack has the source on source or drain on the two one side and the drain on sides. the other side. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 78 Example: Routing into stacks: use of comb connections or serpentine connections. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 79 Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 80 Example: Fully differential folded cascode. Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 81 Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems 5. CMOS Operational Amplifiers Franco Maloberti 82

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