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Naval Warfare Doctrine: Air Warfare Agenda Illustrate the role of Naval Aircraft in the following components of naval warfare – – – – – – – – – Strike Warfare Air Warfare/Antimissile Defense Surface Warfare Undersea Warfare Command and Control Electronic Warfare and Intelligence Mine Warfare Mobile Logistic Support Special Warfare Air Warfare Actions required to destroy or reduce the enemy air and missile threat to an acceptable level – Offensive Measures – Defensive Measures Offensive Measures Air Warfare: – Strikes against enemy shipping, air bases, missile sites Defensive Measures Protect or Defend against offensive threat Defense - in - Depth – Surveillance Area – Destruction Area – Vital Area Defense in Depth Surveillance Area – HVU to max detection range – Depends on aircraft, ship sensors – Aegis SPY radar vs E-2C – Always changing E-2C USS Ticonderoga USS Nimitz Defense in Depth USS Ticonderoga USS Nimitz Classification, Identification, and Engagement Area (CIEA) – AW weapons can be employed – Depends on assets weapon capabilities – FEZ, MEZ, CEZ, JEZ CEZ MEZ FEZ Defense In Depth Vital Area – HVU to max Weapons Release Range of Enemy – Changes depending on threat – Determines AW doctrine If a hostile aircraft enters the Vital Area it could fire a weapon at the High Value Unit. USS Nimitz CIEA Classification – “It’s an aircraft” Identification – “It’s a hostile jet” Engagement – “Shoot it” Area Classification Identification Engagement HVU’s C & I - Surveillance and Detection Airborne Early Warning Aircraft E2C Hawkeye – Long Range Air Search Radar – Link 11/Link 16 – ES – 4 Hour on-station time – Air control capability C & I - Surveillance and Detection Shipboard Sensors – Long Range Air Search Radars SPY1 (A, B, D) SPS-48 (3D) SPS-49 (2D) – ES/EA SLQ-32 – I&W SSES OUTBOARD – DATA LINK Link 11 Link 16 (CVN, CG, DDG) C & I - Surveillance and Detection RADCAP – F-18 RADAR Picket Classification Identification Engagement HVU’s E I C CIEA Area - Engagement Fighter Engagement Zone (FEZ) – Engage enemy with organic aircraft – Defensive Counter Air (DCA) - CAP F/A-18 – Ships must have comms with A/C before engaging “Scram/Bittersweet” CIEA Area - Engagement Missile Engagement Zone (MEZ) – Engage with Surface to Air Missiles CG, DDG – SM2 ER CVN – Sea Sparrow – Fighters should not enter MEZ “Bittersweet” Close-in Engagement Area CIEA – Engage enemy with Guns, CIWS, Sea Sparrow – Super RBOC – BRACE FOR IMPACT! More on CIEA Joint Engagement Zone – Overlap of FEZ, MEZ, CEZ – AWC must determine best Weapon F/A-18 vs SM2 ER from CG? Vector Geometry Range Must have positive control of A/C FEZ - Fighter JEZ - Joint MEZ - Missile CEZ Close FEZ JEZ MEZ CEZ SURVEILLANCE AREA PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER Maximum Sensor Range DEFENSE IN DEPTH CIEA (FEZ) AREA (FEZ) CIEA (JEZ) VITAL AREA DESTRUCTION Threat CIEA (MEZ) AREA (MEZ) DESTRUCTION DESTRUCTION Enemy Weapons Range Fighter Range CIEA (CEZ) AREA (CEZ) Missile Range Close-in Weapons Range High Value Unit DETECT TO ENGAGE 1. Detection – ES – Airborne Radar – Shipboard Radar 2. Entry - Enter into NTDS/CDS 3. Track - Determine and Predict Position DETECT TO ENGAGE 4. Identification – – – – – – – – – – – – Correlation Other Sensors/ships VID IFF Flight Profile ES I&W NCTR Does the Air Contact Pose a threat? Hostile Intent? ROE Warning/Weapons Status Threat Priority 5. Threat Evaluation DETECT TO ENGAGE 6. Weapons Pairing - Optimum weapon for threat 7. Engagement - Employ weapons 8. Engagement Assessment – DCA if available – SOFT KILL - EA SLQ 32 SM2/SM1/Sea Sparrow – SAM – GUNS/CIWS/CHAFF “Shoot the Archer not the Arrow” CHALLENGES Fast Pace – Mach 4 missiles! Working in a Littoral environment – Radar close to land – Close proximity to enemy Air bases Low flyers – Radar doesn’t curve around the Earth! Assets of Air-to-Air Warfare F-18 AEW Role of E-2C Sidewinder, Sparrow, AMRAAM, Phoenix Missiles CAP, Air Superiority F 18 Hornet Super Hornet Specs Long Range, All Weather, Multi Mission Strike Fighter E= Single Seat F=Double 1800 nm range Mach 1.5+ Weapons One 20mm MK-61A1 Vulcan cannon, AIM9 SidewinderAIM-7 Sparrow, AIM-120 AMRAAM, Harpoon, HARM, Strike, SLAM, SLAM-ER, Walleye, Maverick missiles, Joint Stand-Off Weapon (JSOW), Joint Direct Attack/Munition (JDAM), and various general purpose bombs, mines, and rockets AMRAAM AIM-120 advanced medium-range airto-air missile Range: 20+ Miles SIDEWINDER 10 to 18 miles SPARROW 5 Miles Undersea Warfare SH-60 LAMPS Helo, P3C, S-3B Dipping Sonar, Sonobuoys Mk46 Torpedoes SH-60 Seahawk (B/F/R/S) SH-60 Seahawk SH-60F operates primarily off of aircraft carriers, providing close-in anti-submarine protection of the carrier battle group, and search and rescue (SAR) support during carrier flight operations HH-60H is designed specifically as a Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) and Naval Special Warfare platform. SH-60B LAMPS MK III Seahawk FLIGHT DECK EQUIPMENT AND PERSONNEL P-3 11 person Crew 10-13 Hour Flight Time Armament – Bomb Bay: 8 MK 46/50 Torpedoes 8 MK 54 Depth Bombs 3 MK 36/52 1000 lb mines 3 MK 57 Depth Bombs 2 MK 101 Depth Bombs 1 MK 25/39/55/66 2000 lb mine - Under Wing Pylons: 2 Harpoon (AGM-84) 2 Maverick (AGM 65) 2 MK 46/50 Torpedoes 2 2000 lb mines Strike Warfare F/A-18s LGBs HARM (high-speed anti-radiation missile) Harpoon/SLAM [Stand-Off Land Attack Missile] JSOW JSAM JSOW Joint Standoff Weapon JDAM Joint Direct Attack Munition HARM High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile Seek and destroy enemy radarequipped air defense systems 30 plus miles Surface Warfare Aircraft F/A-18 P-3 SH-60 Weapons Maverick Harpoon Hellfire Penguin Electronic Warfare Jamming, Listening in, Intel gathering EA-6B, EA-18G, EP-3E, E-6A, E-2C EA-6B Prowler EA-18G Growler E-2C Hawkeye • E-2C+: maximum speed 350 knots; range 1,500 nautical miles •Ocean, Radar, and Surveillance Systems AN/APS-145 •AN/ALR-73 Passive Detection System E2C “Hawkeye” Airborne early warning command and control aircraft (AEW&C). All-weather, real-time intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft High-wing, all-weather, carrier-based airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) aircraft that patrols task force defense perimeters Provides early warning of approaching enemy aircraft and vectors interceptors into attack position AN/APS-145 radar system, IFF System, L-304 Enhanced High Speed Processor, tactical displays (EMDUs/MFCDUs), Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS), and navigation and AFCS upgrades In addition to its primary AEW function, can also provide strike and traffic control, area surveillance, search and rescue guidance, navigational assistance, communications relay, and drug interdiction Carrier Air Wing (CVW) CVW Make Up Four Navy Strike Fighter Squadrons (VFA) of F/A-18 Hornets (48) One Electronic Attack Squadron (VAQ) of EA-6B Prowlers (4) One Sea Control Squadron (VS) of S-3B Vikings (8) One Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron (VAW) of E-2C Hawkeyes (4) A detachment from a Fleet Logistics Support Squadron (VRC) of C-2 Greyhounds One Helicopter Antisubmarine Squadron (HS) of SH-60F & HH60H Seahawks. (4 & 2) * Total of 70 Aircraft Amphibious Warfare Airborne Insertion: VERTOL aircraft V-22 CH-53 SH-60S Spec Ops Logistics Ugly planes, important job Mine Clearance MH 53 Sea Dragon 16 Ton 50 nm 10 Tons 500 nm 55 troops Mine sweep gear Largest Helo in the Western World Max Gross Weight 69,750 700nm or 6.6 hours at 150 knots Phasing Out to be replaced by SH 60S and R variant Joint Strike Fighter Specs 50 K Max Take Off 35 feet long with a 30 foot wingspan Supersonic with 600 nm combat radius Deploy 2008 Navy to purchase 300 at $38 million each Twice range of F 18C on internal fuel Deployment SKEDS (CVW vs Other) Questions?
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