Globalization's Dual Power by variablepitch338

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									Globalization’s Dual Power Tasks:
Pre-tasks: 1. Find out more about Robert J. Samuelson. 2. How does the author define the word “globalization”? What is his attitude toward it? Task cycle: 1. How many parts can this text be divided into? What are the main ideas of each part? 2. Try to understand some of the difficult sentences. Post-task: discussion 1. Is globalization a good thing or a bad thing? 2. Will globalization simply mean Americanization?

Lesson Plan: I. Introduction to the Text
Globalization is a trendy word today. More and more people now believe the world is becoming more and more integrated. Indeed, people now think that it is becoming a small global village. Globalization, they say, is not just an irresistible trend. It is already a fact. Actually, in its broadest sense, globalization started a long time ago. One could trace it to the early caravans across the Sahara Desert and along the Silk Road; the trade around the Mediterranean or in the wake of the Crusaders, or across the Atlantic after Columbus discovered America. The Process reached its first peak around the end of the nineteenth century, and although it was temporarily suspended by widespread protectionism which led to the two world wars in the first half of the twentieth century, the tide returned in the latter half with more tranquil international relations supported by the United Nations, GATT(today the WTO, the World Bank and IMF. The Pace of international economic integration accelerated in the 1980s and 1990s, especially after the Cold War ended. Many political barriers that hampered international trade were reduced or removed, and great technological development facilitated easy transportation and communication. The most. dramatic example of this new round of globalization is no doubt the opening-up of China. But China is not the only country caught up in this process. Today even the most secluded and isolated countries are taking their first cautious steps in this direction. However, this is only one side of the story. There also exists the opposite tendency, the tendency of protectionism, regionalism, unilateralism, separatism, anti-globalization. The reason for this is simple. As the author puts it, globalization is a double-edged sword. It cuts both ways. On the one hand, it can bring new products and services; new investment and markets; new technologies and management skills
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and generally higher living standards. Bu it can also bring more debt, more instability, a greater gap between the rich and poor, far worse environmental degradation, and the loss of national and cultural identity. In spite of all the promises of a win-win situation, in this game, nations are not equally positioned. They do not have a level playground. Therefore, there are bound to be winners and losers. People in many developing countries are afraid that they stand to lose their hard-won independence. They suspect that globalization is just another name for Americanization. They feel that they are being marginalized rather than integrated. No wonder there has been an increasingly intense mass protest against globalization around the world in recent years. This does not mean of course that globalization is completely wrong. It simply means that it is more complicated than we thought. It means that many new problems will have to be looked into and properly resolved. Globalization probably will eventually prevail. But it will have to be a more equitable, more humane, more universally beneficial kind of globalization. In this essay written at the edge of the twenty-first century, the author draws our attention to the dual character of this trend and urges people to deal with the new problems.. China's 15-year-long unremitting efforts to join the WTO show that we have made our choice. We have decided, after weighing the pros and cons carefully, that we cannot afford to be left out of this trend, the trend that we decided to embrace in 1978. Our achievements since that time have proved the wisdom of this policy. However, we must not forget that there is the other side. Our real challenges are still ahead when globalization requires big changes in ideas, attitudes, practices, policies and institutional structures. It is for this reason that we believe our students ought to know about globalization in all its subtlety and complexity. They should think about how they, as individuals, can adjust themselves to the challenges of a more open country and avail themselves of the new opportunities.

II. Detailed Study of the Text
1. At the edge of a new century, globalization is a doubIe-ed9ed sword: ….erodes local culture and tradition and threatens economic and social instability. As the new century approaches, globalization means two different things. It can have both negative and positive effects. On the one hand, it can greatly increase economic production, spread new technology and improve the living standards in both rich and poor countries; on the other hand, it is highly controversial because it threatens national sovereignty, destroys local culture and traditions, and is likely to cause economic and social instabi1ity. the edge: (fig) the point just before sth very different and noticeable happens, e. g. it was reported in today’s paper that the company is on the edge of (or: on the verge of )collapse. double-edged: Sth that is double-edged acts in two ways, both positive and negative, e. g. The increase in petrol prices is double-edged because it will make life harder for some, but it will reduce congestion and pollution.
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She paid me a double--edged compliment, saying my work was excellent for a beginner. The successful program to grow cash crops for export turned out to be a double-edged sword because it created a local food shortage. to spread: to popularize vehicle: sth you use to achieve sth else,e.g. The conference was seen as an ideal vehicle for increased cooperation between the member states. to assault: to attack to erode: to wear away; to reduce gradually 2. A daunting question of the 21st century is whether nations will control this great upheaval or whether it will come to control them. daunting: intimidating; disheartening; discouraging, e. g. In spite of unification, the country was still faced with the daunting prospect of overcoming four decades of division. upheaval: a great change, esp. causing or involving much difficulty, activity or trouble 3. In some respects, globalization is merely a trendy word for an old process. To some extent, globalization is not new. The world has always been in the process of market expansion. What is new is the term "globalization", which became fashionable only recently. trendy: (infml) modern and unconventional; of the latest fad or fashion 4. The Cold War, from the late,1940s through the 1980s, caused the United States to champion trade liberalization and economic growth as a way of combating-communism. The Cold War was a state of extreme hostility between countries with opposing political systems existing after the Second World War to the demise of the Soviet Union the "socialist camp" headed by the Soviet Union and the "free world" headed by the United States, which expressed itself not through shooting wars, but through fierce economic competition, as well as through political and military pressure and threats. During the Cold War, the United States enthusiastically fought for trade liberalization partly in order to prevent communism. to champion for: to fight for; to support or defend a principle, movement or person to combat: to try to stop sth unpleasant or harmful from happening or increasing, e.g. The government is spending millions of dollars in its attempt to combat drug abuse. 5. Europeans saw economic unification as an antidote to deadly nationalism. Europeans regarded economic unification as a way to prevent nationalism. They knew that what had caused two world wars could cause more if they could not curb this nationalism by turning Europe into a common market first and then organizing it
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into some kind of Political union. This was the vision of a few far--sighted po1iticians in Europe. Today, after nearly half a century's Herculean effort, this dream is beginning to come true. antidote: a chemical, esp. a drug, which limits the effects of a poison; (fig) a way of preventing or acting against sth bad, e. g. Humor can be an effective antidote to hostility. High interest rates are the only known antidote to a persistent consumer boom. 6. As recently as 1990, government---either individually or through such multi-lateral institutions as the World Bank--provided half the loans and credits to 29 major developing countries. multilateral: involving more than two groups or countries. Notice the prefix "multi--", which means having many, e. g. multilingual, mu1timedia, multiple, multinational. credit: Here: an amount of money p1aced by a bank at the d1sposa1 of a client, against which he may draw loan: a sum of money which is borrowed, often from a bank, and has to be paid back, esp. together with an additional amount of money that you have to pay as a charge for borrowing--called "interest" She's trying to get a $50,000 loan to start her own business. the World Bank: an international organization which was formed in l940 to help rebuild war torn Europe, but soon afterward began to focus on the underdeveloped world to bring them into the international economy. 7. A decade later, even after Asia's 1997-98 financial crisis, private capital flows dwarf governmental flows. Ten years later, even after Asia's financial crisis of 1997--98, private capital flows are still greater in number than governmental capital flows. to dwarf: to make sth seem small by comparison The new skyscraper will dwarf all those near it. flow: movement in one direction, esp. continuous1y and easily, e. g. the flow of traffic/goods/supplies/ideas/information 8. Meanwhile, multinational companies have gone an international acquisition binge….$500 billion in both advanced and developing countries. cross-border: between countries Notice the prefix "cross". Also: cross--culture, cross--state, cross--breed, cross--examination mergers and acquisitions: 兼并与收购 9. The recent takeover struggle between British and German wireless giants is exceptional only for its size and bitterness. The only difference between the recent takeover struggle between British and German radio giants and other cases is that this takeover is much bigger and a lot
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more bitter. take-over: the act of assuming control or management of 接管;合并 giant: a large company exceptional: being an exception; uncommon j extraordinary She has exceptional ability as a pianist. The company has shown exceptional growth over the past two years. 10. Behind the mer9er boom lies the growing corporate conviction that many markets have become truly global. The reason for the merger boom is that more and more business people now believe that many markets have truly become global. They are no longer producing just for the people in their own country. They want to combine or merge with others to become multinational companies. corporate: of corporations conviction: a firm belief or a fixed opinion, e. g. She had a firm conviction that life would be better. 11. In Europe, the relentless pursuit of the single market is one indicator. This reflects a widespread recognition that European companies will be hard--pressed to compete in global markets if their local operations are hamstrung by fragmented national markets. In Europe, the persistent and unremitting effort to turn all countries on the continent into a single market shows that there is a general agreement that if the European market remains divided into many small parts behind national borders, their companies will not be able to compete in the international market. relentless: steady and persistent; unremitting, e. g. He believes that the relentless push for economic growth is damaging the environment. a widespread recognition: a general opinion; a general agreement; a general consensus to be hard-pressed: to be heavily burdened; to have serious difficulties to hamstring: to cripple; to destroy or hinder the efficiency of , e. g. The company is hamstrung by its poor management. operation: business operation 企业运营;经营;业务 fragmented: broken into parts 12. Among poorer countries, the best sign of support is the clamor to get into the World Trade Organization... And 32 are seeking membership. Many poorer countries want to join the World Trade Organization. This shows that they support globalization. clamor: a noisy outcry to seek membership: to try to join; to apply for the membership; to try to be a member of

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13. Despite its financial crisis, rapid trade expansion and economic growth sharply cut the number of the desperately poor. In spite of the financial crisis, rapid increase of trade and economic growth drastically reduced the number of the very poor people. to cut the number: to reduce the number desperately poor: extremely poor 14. Meanwhile, Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa---whose embrace of the world economy has been late or limited---fared much less well. Meanwhile, Latin America and sub--Saharan Africa, whose integration with the world economy has been late and limited, were not so lucky. Sub-Saharan Africa: the African countries south of the Sahara Desert (See Notes to theText. ) Sub-: 1 ) below or under, e. g. sub-Sahara; submarine 2) almost or nearly e. g. subtropical; subhuman; subconscious 3) less important or lower in rank, e. g. subordinate; substandard 4) a smaller part of a whole, e. g. subcontinent, subcommittee, subculture fare: (slightly dated) to get along; to turn out, e. g. How did you fare in your exams? The coal miners have fared badly in recent years because the coal mine is depleted. 15... .two problems could neutralize its potential benefits. Two problems could offset the possible benefits. This is a transitory sentence. The fo1lowing paragraphs are going to discuss the negative aspects of globalization. to neutralize: to offset; to negate; to make ineffective 16. The global economy may be prone to harsher boom-bust cycles than national economies individually. Once integrated with the wor1d market, nations will naturally be more vulnerable to the fluctuations of the world economy. The capital flows in and out a country, for example, can create a boom or bust very quickly and with much harsher effects. to be prone to sth: liable to sth; likely or inclined to do sth, e. g. The fierce competition makes students more prone to nervous breakdowns. Workers who are forced to work long hours are prone to accidents. She is prone to asking stupid questions on such occasions. boom: a period of sudden economic growth or prosperity as opposed to bust There are many idiomatic pairs of nouns like boom and bust. For example: She walked out, bag and baggage, and left him. I am all for it, body and soul. It was just a bread and butter (not very interesting) job. Modern spies no longer fit in with our traditional image of cloak and dagger adventures. A new nation was born through the test of fire and sword.
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We will never go to war against our own flesh and blood. They were bound hand and foot. Other examples: friend and foe; 1and and sea; heart and soul; part and parcel; vice and virtue; skin and bone; profit and loss; pins and needles 17. The Asian financial crisis raised questions on both counts. The Asian financial crisis brought these two questions to people's attention: investment funds were not well used and trade flows became too lopsided. on both counts: on both points under discussion, e. g. I'm afraid I do not agree with you on all counts. 18. The ensuing spending boom in turn aided Europe, Japan, and the United States by increasing imports from them. The growth in spending that followed helped Europe, Japan, and the United States by increasing imports from them. to ensue: (fm l) to happen as a result of sth, e. g. If the Middle East crisis is not resolved, terrible problems will ensue. An argument broke out between them and a knife fight ensued. in turn: in proper order or sequence , e. g. If you treat workers better and make them happier, they in turn will work harder. The government should respect people's democratic rights, and the peop1e in turn should obey government regulations. 19... it became apparent that as a result of "crony capitalism", inept government policies and excess optimism. much of the investment had been wasted on unneeded factories, office buildings and apartment.. It became clear that because of the corruption in those countries where political and financial resources are in the hands of a few privileged people along with their dishonest friends, their foolish government policies and unreasonab1e optimism, much of the investment was wasted on unneeded factories and a rea1 estate bubble. crony: a close friend or companion crony capitalism: an economic, political and social system controlled by a small gang of people bonded by private interests and based on favoritism inept: not effective; foolish; clumsy excess ad j: (an amount which is) more than necessary or reasonable, e. g. Excess enthusiasm can impede our calm reasoning. We seem to be carrying excess supplies but they might be necessary in an emergency. office building and apartments: 写字楼和公寓楼 20. What prevented the Asian crisis from becoming a full-scale economic downturn has been the astonishing U.S. economy. It was the surprisingly vigorous growth of the U. S. economy that saved the Asian crisis from escalating into an all--round economic depression.
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downturn: a reduction in the amount or success of sth, such as a country's economic activity, e. g. There is evidence of a downturn in the building trade. Notice the structure of the word (adverb + noun = noun). Also: upturn, downpour, downfall, uproar, input, output, outcome, outset, outlook, onrush 21. Since 1996, the U. S. current-account deficit in its balance of payments.., current-account: (here) an account of credits, debits, receipts, and expenditures between two countries 经常项目帐目 balance of payments: the difference between a country's imports and exports 国 际收支 balance of payments surplus 国际收支顺差/赢余 balance of payments deficit 国际收支逆差/亏损 22. The world economy.. .has been flying on one engine. The world economy has been driven by only one country's economy, namely the economy of the United States. In other words, the world has become too dependent on one country's prosperity. 23.... a slowdown or recession--reflecting a decline in the stock market. a loss of consumer confidence or higher interest rate---might snowball into an international slump. A slowdown of the U. S. economy might develop into a serious international depression because the world economy is so dependent on it. to snowball into: to grow into; to escalate into; to develop into with escalating speed, e. g. This project will have a snowball effect in creating a lot of new possibilities for the company. Ten years ago, we started raising money for helping poor childrens education. Soon the project snowballed into a nationwide campaign. Poor economic performance is usually described as economic stagnation, a slowdown, a slackening, a downturn, a decline, a setback, a recession, a depression, a slump, or a crisis, roughly in this order of seriousness. 24. In 2000, the European Union's gross domestic product will grow 2.8 percent, up from 2.1 percent in 1999, according to projections by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and development in Paris. For European Union and OECD, see Notes to the Text. gross domestic product: (GDP) 国内生产总值 projection: forecast; estimate 25. Japan is projected to grow.,. Japan is expected to grow... / Japan is predicted to grow... / Japan is estimated to
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grow 26. If the forecasts materialize--and the OECD's growth estimates for Japan exceed most private forecast--they will restore some balance to the world economy and relieve fears of a global recession. If the forecasts come true--and the OECD's growth estimates for Japan are higher than most private forecasts--they will, to some extent, help the world economy return to its earlier balance, and reduce the fear of a worldwide recession. to materialize: to become actual fact; to come true to relieve:to alleviate or to reduce (fear, pain, suffering, etc), e. g. She was given a shot of morphine to relieve the pain. The good news relieved me of my anxiety. The counci1 is considering banning certain vehicles through the town center to relieve congestion. 27. It remains possible that abrupt sur9es of 9lobal capital, first moving into Asia and then out, will have caused, with some delay, a larger instability. It is stil1 possible that sudden increase or withdrawal of the world's capital, first moving into Asia and then out of it, will have made Asia more unstable. surge: a sudden and great increase, or a sudden and great movement forward, e. g. There has been a surge in house prices recently. A sudden surge of imports can threaten a domestic industry. The company did not expect the surge in demand for their products. 28. The street protesters at the Seattle meeting of the World Trade Organization in early December may have lacked a common a9enda or even a coherent case against trade. But they accurately reflected the anxiety and anger that globalization often inspires. So do European fears of genetically modified food or nationalistic opposition to cross-border mergers. The street protesters... may not have a common program or even good reasons against free trade. But they showed clearly their worries and anger about globalization. European fears of GM food or opposition to cross--border mergers also showed their worries and anger. agenda: a 1ist of things to be done; a program a case against sth: grounds for opposing sth to inspire: (said of emotions) to stimulate; to create genetically modified food:转基因食品 nationalistic opposition: opposition based on your loyalty to your nation's interests viewed as separate from international common interests 29. Just because globalization is largely spontaneous propelled by better communication and transportation--does not mean that it is inevitable or completely irreversible. Government can …shield local industries and workers against imports or
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discriminate a9ainst forei9n investors. Just because globalization on the whole occurred quite naturally as a result of better communications and transportation, it does not mean that it is bound to happen and can not be turned back. Government can... protect local industries and workers against imported products or discriminate against foreign investors. irreversible: incapable of being reversed; impossible to return to a previous condition, e. g. Technology has had an irreversible impact on society. He listed some of the irreversible effects of aging. to shield: to protect, esp. from blame or lawful punishment, e. g. The ozone layer shields the earth from the suns radiation. Several officials are accused of trying to shield the defendant. to discriminate against sb: to act on the basis of prejudice against sb, e. g. She felt she had been discriminated against because of her age. 30. It is precisely this logic that has persuaded so many countries to accept globalization. It is exactly this way of thinking that has persuaded so many countries to accept globalization. logic: a particular way of thinking, esp. one which is reasonable and based on good judgement, e.g. There is no logic in the decision to reduce staff when orders are the highest for years. If prices go up, wages will go up too----that's just logic. 31. But this does not mean that a powerful popular backlash, with unpredictable consequences, is not possible. But this does not mean that a powerful hostile reaction from ordinary people, which will have unpredictable consequences, is not possible. popular: carried on by the common people or people at large backlash: an excessive or marked adverse reaction 32.A plausible presumption is that practical politicians would try to protect their constituents from global gluts. We can presume that practical politicians would no doubt try to protect their voters from the flood of products from other countries. plausible: seeming likely presumption: supposition; assumption constituent: sb represented by an elected official glut: an oversupply of sth 33.If too many countries did, globalization could implode. If too many countries did, globalization could collapse violently from the inside. to implode: if sth such as an organization or an economic system implodes, it is
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completely destroyed by things that are happening within it, e. g. The country's economic system is facing very serious problems. If they are not addressed immediately and effectively, it could implode any day. Cf. to explode: to burst or be destroyed by an explosion 34. It's a scary prospect. Economic interdependence cuts both ways. It's a terrifying possibility. Economic mutual dependence can have good and bad effects. prospect: sth to be expected; possibility 前景 interdependence: mutual dependence; the condition of depending on each other to cut both ways: (infml) to have disadvantages as wel1 as advantages 35. Globalization's promise may exceed its peril--but the peril is still real. But await the new century. One of the great dramas will be to see which prevails. Globalization may bring us more advantages than disadvantages--but the dangers are still there. But let's wait and see how things will develop in the new century. One of the most interesting things will be to see which wi1l be greater: the advantages or the disadvantages. to await: (fml) to wait for drama: a series of events or a situation which is exciting like a dramatic play to prevail: to triumph; to succeed; to win out

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