International Development and Globalization Program
The forces of globalization affect everyone, but are understood by only a few. Columbia University’s IGERT International Development and Globalization Program is grounded intellectually in a critique and reformulation of standard economic theory and trains students to effectively incorporate the economics of the globalizing world into their research. Directed by Professor Joseph Stiglitz, the program draws top faculty and students from across the social sciences at Columbia, including the departments of economics, political science, sociology, urban planning, sociomedical sciences, journalism, and sustainable development. Globalization – the integration of nations and regions through the flows of people, goods, capital, and ideas – has far-reaching potential for spurring economic development. Paradoxically, in many developing countries, globalization has been associated with increasing poverty, inequality, and concomitant political and social turmoil, inevitably affecting the US and other developed countries. Debates on development strategies are often confined to a narrow range of options; one of the goals of this program is to investigate why and to provide a deeper understanding of the impact of globalization on developing countries. This requires models that systematically incorporate the social and political institutions that can modify the impact of markets, as well as the geographic and environmental factors that can shape the course of development. To that end, the program is organized around six research cores: -global institutions and the international architecture -role of the state, politics, and civic engagement -poverty and social development -global and local networks -geography and environment -macroeconomic policy and political economy
Columbia University, New York, New York
Patrice Z. Howard
Decentralization and the Promotion of Effective Bureaucratic Structures Current research on African politics has been inundated with theoretical and empirical investigations into the reforms that promote or hinder economic growth and development. Two trends in the vast literature on this topic include investigating the roles that decentralization efforts and bureaucratic organizational structures play in impeding or fostering political and economic development. This literature has primarily focused on questions such as: How do bureaucratic authority structures facilitate economic growth and political development? What are the economic, political and social impacts of decentralization? A topic that has not been given as much attention is the role played by decentralization in promoting effective bureaucratic structures and replacing ineffective ones, especially in the rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Decentralization itself has been a popular tactic to cure the ails of bad governance and improve the capacity of the government to be effective across the political, social and economic landscapes of African countries. In addition, studies on the relationship between bureaucracy and growth have been a salient part of the discourse on the study of African politics and development. These two approaches to development studies have not yet been synthesized to examine the relationship between them. Two related sets of questions have also largely gone unanswered. The first is: of the countries that have decentralized, in what capacities do we see decentralization take place? And, where do the decisions to decentralize come from: the central government, outside development institutions imposing policies upon the state or both? The second set of questions is: How have decentralization programs affected the bureaucratic organizational structures of African states? Why does decentralization bring about improvements in bureaucratic structures in some cases and not in others? My dissertation will look at these questions in order to investigate the politics of decentralization and its effects on economic and political administrative agencies.
A Spatial Approach to Electricity Planning in Kenya What is the most cost-effective way to scale up electricity access in Sub-Saharan Africa? Using a spatial model, we show that national grid extension is usually the least cost solution, particularly after considering spatial patterns of electricity demand.
Ashley M. Fox
Poverty or Inequality as an Underlying Cause of HIV in Africa? The HIV-Poverty Thesis Re-Examined
Human Capital, Growth, and the Structure of the Product Space This paper presents a theoretical growth model that addresses two aspects of human capital. First, I consider the “transferability” of human capital, by which I mean the ability of human capital to move across sectors. I show that the transferability of human capital has important implications for an economy’s production structure, which may in turn affect growth outcomes. Second, I show one way to incorporate the “quality” of human capital into a growth model. Predation, Taxation, and Inequality in a World of Heterogeneous Agents This paper presents a theoretical model in which individuals choose to be workers or predators depending on their returns from each activity, which in turn depends on their initial endowment of human and physical capital. A New Approach to Testing the Median Voter Hypothesis Previous tests of the median voter hypothesis have relied on obtaining some measure of the level of redistributions in an economy. I propose a method for measuring the median voter hypothesis that avoids the need for data on the level of redistributions by noting that, when other factors affecting the income distribution are controlled for, the median voter hypothesis suggests that there will be mean reversion in the distribution of disposable income in the economy. I implement this approach using data from the Luxembourg Income Study. My preliminary results support the median voter hypothesis.
Miriam Boyer (Sociology) Dan Choate (Economics)
Global Governance through Biotechnology in Latin America Relationship between Transportation Networks and Regional Development in Developing Countries
Elena Krumova (Sociology)
Rule Transfer from the Developed Countries of the European Union and Local Adoption by the Less Developed EU Newcomers
Emily Lundberg (Communications)
The Use of Wikis to Advance Scientific Knowledge
Anisa Khadem Nwachuku (Sustainable Development)
Political Dimensions of Health Equity in Mozambique
Laura Paler (Political Science) Cuz Potter (Urban Planning) Prasanna Sethupathy Matthew Wai-Poi
Economic and Political Determinants of Variation in Personal Income Tax Effort in Developing Countries Containerization, globalization, and development (Economics) Making Trade Reforms Successful: The Role of Complementary Policies (Economics) Measuring Income, Wealth and Living Standards
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Some economic impacts of tropical cyclones on the Caribbean with implications for global climate change
Using a storm model fitted to historical data, the distribution of tropical cyclone incidence on the Caribbean can be reconstructed. This data set can then be used to measure immediate, short-run economic responses occurring in the year-of and years following individual events. Mean incidence levels can be used to model "tropical cyclone climates" and the adaptive long-run, economic responses of populations. Both the short and long run costs of climatic change must be considered; and in the case of tropical cyclones in the Caribbean, there appear to be ways in which the long run response dominates the short run response by an order of magnitude.
Regional Gini Coefficient hivpreva Fitted values
Graphs by country
PI: Joseph Stiglitz (Economics, SIPA, Business, Co-director: CGT and IPD) Co-PIs: Peter Bearman (Sociology, Director: ISERP); Akbar Noman (SIPA); Jose Antonio Ocampo (SIPA, Co-director: CGT and IPD) Affiliates: Akeel Bilgrami (Philosophy, Director: Heyman Center for the Humanities);
Sub-National Ginis by HIV Prevalence
Aziz Khan (SIPA); Christopher Weiss (ISERP, Quantitative Methods in the Social Sciences); Elliot Sclar (Urban Planning); David Epstein (Political Science); Frank Moretti (Center for New Media Teaching and Learning); David Stark (Sociology); Geoffrey Heal (Business); Jeffrey Sachs (Director: Earth Institute); Katharina Pistor (Law); Macartan Humphries (Political Science); Mamadou Diouf (Director: Institute of African Studies); Michael Doyle (SIPA and International Law); Miguel Urquiola (Economics); Patrick Bolton (Business, Economics); Sherry Glied (School of Public Health); Saskia Sassen (Sociology); Victoria Murillo (Political Science, SIPA); Stephany Griffith-Jones (IPD)
Political Economy, Urban Space, and Health Behavior: Changing patterns of HIV risk among adolescents in South African townships and Brazilian favelas"
A street soccer team in Musina, South Africa
Initiative for Policy dialogue
The Initiative for Policy Dialogue at Columbia, headed by Joseph Stiglitz, brings together a global network of almost two hundred of the world’s top economists, polititcal scientists, and policymakers from both North and South to examine alternative policies for globalization and development.
Musina lies on the border with Zimbabwe on an international trucking route famous for its contribution to the spread of HIV. Civil strife in Zimbabwe has contributed to the rapid growth of informal settlements and increased pressure on Musina’s physical and social infrastructure. In this context, HIV prevention organizations have attempted to use soccer as a platform for popular mobilization to promote social cohesion, deter youth from illicit activity, and link them with health promoting resources.
Benjamin Mason Meier & Ashley M. Fox
Refugees, Conflict and Drought in the African Sahel
The Earth Institute
Under the leadership of Jeffrey Sachs, the internationally-recognized Columbia Earth Institute is undertaking a major initiative on globalization and sustainable development, an initiative that has invigorated the connections between the social and environmental sciences.
Development as Health: Employing the Collective Right to Development to Achieve the Goals of the Individual Right to Health
Although there exists widespread recognition that the shared benefits of economic development can improve health, health advocates rarely appreciate the connections between the right to health and the right to development. The collective right to development, transcending the right to health’s focus on the individual, offers public health actors an opportunity to work through development discourses to obligate and empower states to allocate public goods for the public’s health. This article concludes that health scholars and advocates could employ the right to development to ensure that development policies guide states in realizing the highest attainable standard of health, fulfilling underlying determinants of health through the strengthening of national public health systems.
Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy
ISERP works to produce pioneering social science research and to shape public policy by integrating knowledge and methods across the social scientific disciplines. Most IGERT IDG faculty are ISERP Faculty Fellows.