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					New Globalization Platform



SUMMARY INDEX

Founder’s Note Executive Summary Summit Participants Summit Sessions

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GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT 008
GLOBALIZATION PLATFORM FOUNDER’S NOTE
Welcome. The Global Creative Leadership Summit, is a three-day think tank and discussion forum hosted in collaboration with the United Nations Office for Partnerships, aimed at addressing the challenges and the opportunities that confront us in our era of globalization.The Summit brings together a multidisciplinary cast of world leaders who provide insight into such international issues as the financial crisis and climate change while sharing the best practices of their respective fields and proposing practical solutions.A key feature of this forum, and what turns innovative ideas into concrete action, is the engagement and support of heads of state, leaders of global agencies and CEOs, who are able to utilize the Summit discussions in managing the domestic and global concerns of their country, business or agency. The Summit is committed to presenting innovative and creative approaches to the world’s pressing problems. Issues such as climate change, poverty in Africa and conflict in the Middle East cannot be solved by political or economic means alone, but rather require an awareness of cultural values, as well as the participation of science and technology in bridging long-standing divides and bringing about sustainable economic and social development. For instance, how can climate change be addressed without creating new political covenants, green technologies and competitive industries? How can poverty in Africa be alleviated without a simultaneous emphasis on education, trade and industrial development leveraging science and technology? How can conflict in the Middle East can be mediated without taking into account the culture and traditions of the Arab and Islamic world and the great value it places on land and religion? The Summit’s principal objective is to develop practicable solutions to these and other global issues that combine an understanding of cultural and ethical values with scientific and technological innovations, while acknowledging the global implication of local actions and the importance of trade and economic development in bringing hope and dignity to communities and helping them realize their aspirations.

Cultural and Ethical Values
The Summit is unique in recognizing the role of culture in foreign policy, scientific research and economic development. For instance, in 006 the Foundation commissioned the OECD to conduct research into the importance of culture to the well-being of cities and nations. The study found that cultural industries accounted for between . and 5.8 percent of the GDP of Australia, Canada, France, the United Kingdom and the United States and between 98,000 (in Montreal) and 55,000 (in London) city jobs. As for the importance of culture to scientific research, during the 007 and 008 Summits, the Nobel laureate Sir Paul Nurse and Dr. Robert Ridley, of the World Health Organization, stated that to address African nations’ local medical needs and ensure the health of the continent, it is not sufficient to rely on the distribution of medicines developed in the West for Western populations. Rather, the only viable long-term approach is to develop local research capabilities to seek solutions to culturally specific problems. With respect to foreign policy, it is evident that America’s lack of respect for Arab and Islamic culture has fueled radicalization and conflict in the Middle East. By instigating a war in Iraq and turning a blind eye to the Palestinians’ plight, the United States, the world’s leading nation and one that aspires to be a model for others, has lost allies and support within the region. What is required to bring peace to the Middle East and repair America’s reputation is a new foreign policy that shows fairness and evenhandedness to all the nations and political groups rather than privileging one—that is, a new policy based on cultural understanding and respect. Ethical values are also crucial in addressing the challenges of globalization, since they provide a framework for determining what is a correct action. In retrospect, it is glaringly obvious that greed at all levels contributed to the global financial crisis. Banks were willing to lend to unqualified borrowers so they could repackage the mortgages as securities and sell them, using the proceeds to feed their bottom lines and make new investments. Borrowers, meanwhile, were glad to take on the debt, assuming their homes would continue to rise in value, and the regulatory agencies saw no harm in the practice as long as everyone was making money. None of the parties involved questioned the soundness of the foundations of the enterprise. We are now bitterly aware that those foundations were shaky, and individuals who did scrutinize the system have not only avoided losses, but actually benefited from the melt-down.Trust is necessary for the financial system to work and contribute to long-term economic well being, and trust requires transparency and accountability in all business, political, cultural and economic transactions.


GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT 008
Scientific and Technological Innovation
At the Summit, leading figures in science and technology participate alongside heads of state, policymakers and economists in inventing new solutions to global issues. For instance, Nobel laureate Dr. Eric Kandel and Dr. Antonio Damasio, leading researchers in the field of neuroscience, have demonstrated not only how understanding the brain can help in developing new educational techniques, but also how our emotions affect decision making and thus foreign policy. In the area of technology, Nicholas Negroponte has shown how his One Laptop Per Child project, which provides children in impoverished regions lacking sound education systems with basic computers, increases the recipients’ ability to learn and grow. Building on the Summit’s findings, the Foundation is working with engineers from Google and Wikipedia on the LINK Project, an online search engine and data repository for international aid agencies, NGOs and philanthropic organizations. The goal is to facilitate information sharing and collaboration on the ground by allowing participants to identify similar development programs and areas of focus. LINK will also increase aid agencies’ accountability and strengthen their efforts by enabling Internet users to rank them and comment on their work.

The Impact of Local Policies on Global Affairs
A theme running through the Summit is the role of globalization in making individuals and nations more interdependent and interconnected. For instance, the food crisis of the summer of 008 can be attributed in part to crop failure in Australia, lower yields in Canada and distribution constraints in Southeast Asia, all of which boosted prices worldwide, leading to riots in India and Africa. Similarly, although the terrorist attacks of September , 00 occurred in the United States, they involved individuals from more than  countries funded and directed by Al Qaeda. Finally, the most recent Doha round of trade talks was derailed by the $0 billion farm bill passed by the U.S. Congress during the spring of 008, which included $7 billion in direct subsidies at the very time Indian and Brazilian representatives to Doha were negotiating to lower such subsidies to between $ billion and $5 billion. Although the amount was not significant in terms of the overall bill, it showed that local politics were more important than a global covenant beneficial to both the developed and the developing worlds. Each of these examples is local in impact or origin, but all have global ramifications. Accordingly, national governments must craft policies that go beyond local constituencies to address the global political, economic or social situation. At the same time, individuals operating at the global level, in particular heads of international agencies, must provide leadership and guidance for promulgating sound policies that take into account worldwide concerns. This need to coordinate between local and global levels applies not only to economics and security, but also to trade, development, poverty alleviation and climate change. Since weather-related catastrophes are unpredictable and affect populations across borders, since weapons of mass destruction are becoming more accessible and transportable, since prolonged poverty can create unrest in Africa with the potential to spread outside the continent, national leaders and leaders of global agencies must make greater efforts to work together.

Trade and Economic Development
Trade and economic development have been the most effective instruments of poverty alleviation during the past 0 years, with almost half the gains made in China. They can play a similar role in Africa and also aid in defusing protracted regional conflicts such as those in the Middle East. This is because economic development not only enables greater consumption, but gives individuals, groups and communities hope and tools to better their situation. A major problem in Gaza and the West Bank, beyond the continued fighting, is the Palestinians’ inability to grow their own economy through export and trade. This lack of control has resulted in feelings of hopelessness and loss of dignity, with many taking up arms as the only solution.

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GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT 008
The Doha Round trade talks were initiated by the United States shortly after September , 00 in the belief that greater openness, sharing and trade will increase prosperity in developing and developed nations alike, persuading those in need to realize their potential rather than turn to violence and terrorism. Although difficult to realize in a trade agreement, as we have seen over the past several years, this ambition still speaks to the central role of trade and economic development in enabling individuals and communities to better themselves and work together to reach their goals. It is only through cooperation and mutual support and trust that we can truly turn such challenges as the financial crisis, climate change, terrorism and poverty in Africa into opportunities.. With a multidisciplinary approach emphasizing culture, science, policy and economics, the Global Creative Leadership Summit seeks to identify best practices and generate innovative solutions to the challenges of globalization. Our aim is to provide a forum for discussion and reflection among leaders of global agencies, industry, science, technology and the arts as well as heads of state to better prepare countries, corporations and individuals for our present and future challenges. We simply cannot afford to maintain the status quo. Our primary obstacle is the difficulty of replacing or transforming methods we have become accustomed to over decades. How can we develop measures to avoid rather than create emergencies, of which the global financial crisis is only the latest instance? If we do not halt climate change, not only will our ecosystem and economy suffer harm, but the brunt of that harm will be borne by those in the developing world. If we do not address African poverty, we risk exacerbating conflict and strife lasting generations. If we do not bring the Middle East conflict to a peaceful conclusion, there will be greater radicalization and terror. These are not someone else’s problems; they affect all of us—our well-being and our collective security. By working together at the local and global levels, we may steer through our current crises and develop sound policies, corporations, institutions and practices to carry us into the future. I hope you can join us at the 009 Global Creative Leadership Summit this September.

Sincerely,

Louise Blouin Founder and Chairman Louise Blouin Foundation Amir Dossal Executive Director United Nations Office for Partnerships

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GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT 008
Executive Summary
Introduction The 008 Global Creative Leadership Summit, held in NewYork from September -, served as a globalization platform and think tank for Heads of State, leaders of global agencies, Nobel laureates and thought leaders from the humanities and sciences to address current and future global threats and challenges.Through tackling broad set of challenges – ranging from trade and development in Africa, creativity in education, IT and human security threats, global health, climate change and foreign policy in the Middle East – the Summit functioned as a cross-cultural forum for action and as a support mechanism for decision-makers, leaders and innovators who are in the position to implement change at the policy and institutional levels. The Global Creative Leadership Summit operated according to a methodology that privileged the multi-disciplinary address of global challenges – drawing on the business and government, arts and sciences, humanities and the social sciences - to demonstrate the degree of interconnectivity in global challenges and opportunities. The 008 food crisis is a highly topical example of this multi-sectoral reality – it has clearly had a dramatic negative impact on poverty, but has also resulted in violence and instability in many regions throughout the world. This interdisciplinary perspective of the Summit brings to bear the most comprehensive and innovative thinking on the issues at hand. The Global Creative Leadership Summit The, building on the past two annual Summits, the 008 Global Creative Leadership Summit brought together 0 delegates including eight heads of state, leaders from global agencies including the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the International Criminal Court (ICC); Nobel Laureates Sir Paul Nurse and Edmund Phelps, business leaders including Intel Chairman Craig Barrett and Bloomberg CEO Lex Fenwick, as well as cultural luminaries including Sir Salman Rushdie and Richard Meier. The multidisciplinary gathering of delegates addressed global social issues including education, the financial crisis, security threats, and climate change, in the geographic areas of Africa, China, Russia and the Middle East. . In addressing these regions and issues, each head of state or global leader was placed in dialogue with leading experts in politics, business, science and the humanities, with the aim of finding truly comprehensive and innovative solutions to pressing global challenges.

THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: DAY 
‘We need to change noW, not just internally but also in the international vieWs We hold. it is very important for us to look at the World in a different Way, because We do not have a choice anymore. We Will pay With our lives and the lives of our children and grandchildren if We do not do What is right.’

Louise Blouin
‘our oWn security and prosperity are protected only if We successfully promote international stability and global progress.’

Prime Minister Ivo Sanader of Croatia

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GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT 008
The Summit opened with a session titled What If? Scenarios:The Futures of Globalization. According to Summit founder Ms. Louise Blouin, the session aimed to address a world in transition: a world in which the challenges of globalization have culminated in a global financial and food crisis, a looming water crisis, and pandemics that know no boundaries; a world in need of creative and cohesive solutions premised on an appreciation of the fundamental interconnectedness of hunger, disease and conflict.. The second session titled ‘Economy, Inclusion and Dynamism’ focused on the global economy as a forum for progressive reforms aimed at encouraging innovation and competitiveness in contemporary societies. Prime Minister Ivo Sanader of Croatia began the discussion by outlining the key milestones in Croatia’s path toward reform and full integration into Europe and the international community. He emphasized the need for renewed commitment to the value structures of liberal democracies, and noted that only by forging an inclusive agenda for change could progress in the socio-economic realm be achieved. Subsequent sessions focused on the specific challenges that Africa faces in forging a dynamic for sustainable development, with President Mutharika of Malawi delineating the conditions for economic and political empowerment on the continent in his commanding keynote address in the ‘Africa: Development, Trade and Economy session. President Mutharika argued that self-sustaining success could only be ensured by including Africa in the global trade system on full and fair terms, and by embracing the continent as a valued member in the ‘global village’. The themes of empowerment and agency were developed further in panel discussions on Global Health, The “I” in IT: Individualism, community and the democracy of the Internet, Innovation and Impasse: Economics, Israel and Palestine, and Dialogue, Détente and Distrust: Iran and Iraq. Particular emphasis was placed on the responsibility of the media in highlighting the interconnections and shared aspirations of people in conflict regions as a prerequisite for successful peace-building.These sessions also underlined the importance of building networks in order toharness the collective intelligence of different actors, communities, and leaders when developing interventions intended to be sustainable.

THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: DAY 
‘for countries that Want to compete in today’s World, an increasingly important question is: to be creative or not to be.’

Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende of the Netherlands

The second day of the Summit opened with sessions on Internet Security, Education and Creativity, Human Security, Financial Security and Climate Change.The session titled Education, Creativity and the Mind was opened by Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende of the Netherlands, and focused on the importance of creative educational policies that encourage innovation and growth in an increasingly competitive global economy. The session titled Climate Change versus Globalization focused on the need to develop motivating messages in the public discourse on the environmental preservation, and on approaching the climate crisis as a ‘civilizational opportunity’: a chance to engage people in a common effort and to align the global environmental governance structures with the needs of the st Century. Subsequent sessions on human and financial security focused on the deep interconnectedness threats and challenges of the globalized world.The session entitled Economies of Crisis, Economics of Change: was opened by H.E Shaukat Aziz, Former Prime Minister of Pakistan, who argued that the financial crisis reminded the world of the full impact of globalization – the good and the bad - including effects on the financial markets and the global economy.The day concluded with sessions on India, Cities and Culture, Philantro-capitalism and also featured a special session with Sir Salman Rushdie.

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GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT 008 THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: DAY 
‘get people involved through the right imagery and right message, and you can do Wonders. it is easier to progress in policies With broad-based grassroots support.’

President Bharrat Jagdeo, of Buyana

The final day commenced with a session focused on the reform of international institutions, titled Global Agencies: Relevance, Reform and Re-application. The session was opened by President Bharrat Jagdeo of Guyana who put forward the argument that in an age of rapidly accelerating globalization, the mandates and operating structures of agencies such as the IMF and the World Bank need to adjust to reflect global realities.This concept of expanded ownership of values and agency in the international arena also provided the thematic heart of the final session titled A New Language of Foreign Policy. With keynote addresses by Lord Mark Malloch-Brown, the Minister of State in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office of the United Kingdom, and Luis Moreno-Ocampo, Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), the session focused on the need to refashion the value structures and modes of participation in the global forums that seek to promote justice and build peace. Arguing that the moment ofpost-Cold War clarity of purpose vis-à-vis human rights had passed,, Lord Malloch-Brown painted a picture of unprecedented complexity in current efforts to promote human rights globally. He noted that such an agenda could only reclaim its relevance by allowing expanded ownership to translate into expanded responsibility at the institutional level; most notably in the ICC. The day also featured a session titled Coping with Change: The future of the corporation.

Closing Remarks
‘We are all global citizens of the World. When We say that, it means We need to invest in it.’

Louise Blouin

A final keynote speech by President Jose Ramos-Horta of Timor-Leste, addressed the changing geopolitical realities from a more general perspective, after which Ms Blouin closed the Summit by emphasizing the need to approach the enormous global challenges that face us with a spirit of humility, creativity and inclusive engagement. She reconfirmed the Foundation’s commitment to this approach and outlined ways in which the Foundation would continue to develop its interdisciplinary agenda. She highlighted two projects in particular:(i) the China Cultures Fund,an international fund designed to preserveTibetan culture and to promote Chinese culture as a form of cultural diplomacy; and (ii) the LINK Project, which is a cooperative venture with the engineers Google aimed at providing a comprehensive, searchable database of NGOs that will serve as a forum for sharing best practices - By working to increase dialogue, understanding and information-sharing among global stakeholders, Ms Blouin argued, the Foundation would contribute to the interrogation of assumptions that often lead to conflict and crisis. The Foundation would also provide a platform for leaders and civil society to engage creatively in the formation of a cross-cultural and multi-disciplinary coalitions for change.

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GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT - 008 PARTICIPANTS
Heads of State shaukat aziz prime minister jan peter balkenende president olafur ragnar grimsson president bharrat jagdeo president bingu wa mutharika president josé ramos-horta prime minister ivo sanader president manual zelaya rosales former prime minister of pakistan prime minister of the kingdom of the netherlands president of the republic of iceland president of the republic of guyana president of the republic of malawi president, democratic republic of timor-leste prime minister of the republic of croatia president of the republic of honduras

Diplomatic and Non-Governmental Leaders dr. parvez ahmed dr. seth berkley graciana del castillo antonio maria costa dr. jacques diouf jane goodall dr. allan goodman dr. William haseltine stephen heintz fred mednick luis moreno-ocampo nicholas negroponte kenneth roth Warren sach guy sebban dr. ismail serageldin k.a. taipale ann veneman jimmy Wales jennifer Windsor dr. kandeh yumkella former chair, council on american-islamic relations president, international aids vaccine initiative associate director, center on capitalism and society executive director, unodc director-general, unfao founder, jane goodall institute president, institute of international education chairman, haseltine global health president, rockefeller brothers fund founder, teachers Without borders prosecutor, international criminal court founder and chairman of one laptop per child executive director, human rights Watch assistant secretary-general, controller, un secretary general, international chamber of commerce director, bibliotheca alexandrina, egypt senior fellow, World policy institute executive director, unicef founder, Wikipedia executive director, freedom house director-general, unido

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GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT - 008 PARTICIPANTS
Innovators from the Academic World thomas malone robert beauregard lord paul bew homi k. bhabha colin blakemore richard bulliet andrea califano john henry clippinger antónio damásio padma desai vishakha desai peter fonagy majid fotuhi howard gardner dr. eric kandel nancy kanwisher pradeep khosla vladimir kvint itamara v. lochard leonard mlodinow sir paul nurse stephen pacala arvind panagariya edmund phelps michael prather lisa randall falguni sen richard silberstein john stein evgeny velikhov linton Wells ii torsten Wiesel larry young jonathan zittrain professor of management, mit sloan school of management professor of urban planning, columbia university chair of irish politics, queen’s university, belfast director, humanities center, harvard university professor of neuroscience, oxford university professor of history, columbia university professor of biomedical informatics, columbia university senior fellow, berkman center, harvard university professor of neuroscience, usc professor of comparative economic systems, columbia university president and ceo, asia society professor of psychoanalysis, university college london director, center for memory and brain health professor of cognition and education, harvard graduate school professor of biochemistry and biophysics, columbia university professor of cognitive nueroscience, mit professor and dean of engineering, carnegie mellon president, international academy of emerging markets senior researcher, the fletcher school professor of physics, caltech president, rockefeller university professor of ecology and evolutionary biology, princeton university professor of economics, columbia university professor of political economy, columbia university professor of earth system science, university of california, irvine professor of physics, harvard university professor of management systems, fordham university professor of neuroscience, swinburne university professor of physiology, oxford university president, kurchatov institute force transformation chair, national defense university professor of neurobiology, rockefeller university professor of neuroscience, emory university professor of internet law, harvard law school

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GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT - 008 PARTICIPANTS
Participating Members from the International Business Community lex fenwick craig r. barrett stanley bergman david boies harold burson stewart butterfield kaj den daas edward dolman david fenton morel fourman jeffrey friedberg alan hassenfeld lord michael hastings robert hormats dr. mohan kaul leonid makaron dr. amit mitra dambisa moyo craig newmark richard o’neill sr. alayne reesberg john rendon jr. richard robb marko saravanja henry silverman john studzinksi martin varsavsky jody Westby lord mark malloch-brown b.j. panda sheikha lubna al qasimi n.k. singh ceo, bloomberg ventures chairman, intel corporation chairman and ceo, henry schein chairman, boies, schiller & flexner founding chairman, burson-marsteller cofounder, flickr chairman, philips lighting na ceo, christie’s international founder and ceo, fenton communications ceo, gaisoft chief trust architect, microsoft chairman, hasbro global head of citizenship and diversity, kpmg vice chairman, goldman sachs director general, commonwealth business council president, pronto-moscow secretary general, ficci head of economic research and strategy for africa, goldman sachs founder, craigslist president, highlands group owner, reesberg partners llc ceo and president, the rendon group ceo, christofferson, robb & company founder and ceo, regenesys business school, south africa chairman and ceo, reology corporation senior managing director, the blackstone group founder and ceo, fon ceo, global cyber risk uk minister for africa, asia and the un member of the parliament, india minister for economy and planning, united arab emirates member of parliament, india



GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT - 008 PARTICIPANTS
Pioneers in Global Media david andelman matthew bishop juan luis cebrian raghida dergham lane greene riz khan jared kushner femi oke michael oreskes ned parker bill roedy vijay vaitheeswaran ali velshi lally Weymouth dr. gino yu Key Figures in the Arts jacques d’amboise richard meier gérard mortier susan robb axel ruger sir salman rushdie peter sellars paul Warwick thompson juan ignacio vidarte Dedicated Public Officials akwasi osei-agyei h.e. mr. nizar baraka dr. ashwani kumar rajeev chandrasekhar michael green bert koenders mitchell landrieu minister of foreign affairs, republic of ghana deputy minister for economics & general affairs, morocco minister of state for commerce and industry, india member of parliament, president of ficci, india co-author, philanthrocapitalism minister of development cooperation, netherlands lieutenant governor, louisiana


editor, World policy journal chief business Writer, the economist editor in chief, el pais senior diplomatic correspondent, al-hayat international correspondent, the economist tv host, al jazeera english publisher, the new york observer contributor and interviewer, Wnyc’s the takeaway managing editor for u.s. news, associated press baghdad correspondent, the los angeles times chairman and ceo, mtv networks international correspondent, the economist chief business correspondent, cnn senior editor, newsweek cofounder, polyu merecl

founder, national dance institute president, richard meier & partners director general, opéra national de paris artist director, van gogh museum, amsterdam author theatre director and professor of arts and culture, ucla director, cooper-hewitt national design museum director general, guggenheim

THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT SESSIONS: INDEX
September 21, 2008
Summit Introduction and Opening A. What If? Scenarios: The futures of Globalization Parallel Stream B B. Economy, Inclusion and Dynamism B. “I” in IT: Internet, Community, Democracy Parallel Stream C C. Africa: Development, Trade and Economy C. Global Health C. Innovation and Impasse: Economics, Israel and Palestine C4. Dialogue, Détente and Distrust: Iran and Iraq GCLS Gala Dinner p. 4 p. 8 p.  p. 6 p.  p. 4 p. 5

September 22, 2008
Parallel Stream D D. Internet Security D. Education, Creativity and the Mind Parallel Stream E E. Climate Change v. Globalization In Conversation: Salman Rushdie with Homi K. Bhabha Parallel Stream F F. Human Security F. Economies of Crisis, Economics of Change F. Spotlight on India Parallel Stream G G. Philanthro-capitalism G. Cities, Culture and Globalization p. 9 p. 4 p. 45

p. 50 p. 54 p. 58 p. 59 p. 6

September 23, 2008
Parallel Stream H H. Global Agencies: Relevance, Reform and Reapplication Parallel Stream I I. Coping with Change: The future of the corporation I. A New Language of Foreign Policy GCLS Closing Speech J. Closing Keynote Speech J. Closing Remarks and Pledges p. 64 p. 68 p. 70 p. 74 p. 75



THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION A
WHAT IF? SCENARIOS - The Futures of Globalization
Featured Delegates Professor Howard Gardner, harvard graduate school of education Dr. Vladimir Kvint, head of department, moscow school of economics Sir Paul Nurse, president, rockefeller university Robert Hormats, vice chairman, goldman sachs international Professor Lisa Randall, harvard university Professor Arvind Panagariya, columbia university Professor Padma Desai, columbia university Evgeny Pavlovich Velikhov, president, russia research center, kurchatov institute Key Session Concepts
This roundtable session outlined delineated some of the key challenges arising within a rapidly transforming and inextricably interdependent world. Leading academics and scientists put forward a variety of solutions to prolems ranging from education and scientific development, to geo-economics and resource scarcity.

Education
Professor Howard Gardner opened the panel session of ‘What if? Scenarios’ by outlining the kinds of minds that we want to cultivate in young people in order to create conditions in which individual skills and strengths, creativity and a sense of responsibility thrive. He divided those minds into five: (i) the disciplined mind that creates and sustains expertise in a given field, the (ii) synthesizing mind that filters and processes information, the (iii) creative mind that is able to ‘think outside the box’, (iv) the respectful mind that recognizes and cherishes the differences in people and (v) the ethical mind that recognizes the individual’s responsibilities as a worker and as a citizen. The societal balance between creativity and discipline is particularly important, Howard argued, as it is only possible to ‘think outside the box’ when there is a ‘box’ to branch out of. Its confines, however, should not be allowed to stifle innovative thinking and change.

Geoeconomics and Emerging Economies
In looking to the future, Vladimir Kvint stated, a strategic mindset was key, particularly in light of the rapid rise of emerging economies that were increasingly challenging the position of the United States as a sole superpower. He projected that in this new multi-polar global order and particularly for emerging countries, water scarcity would pose the biggest challenge in the future. Despite doom scenarios, Kvint noted, there also existed positive examples of how this vital resource can be responsibly shared and developed, most notably in the Nile basin. Professor Arvind Panagariya echoed Vladimir Kvint’s views on the immense growth potential of emerging economies and the vital role of trade that had brought unparalleled transformation in many countries. Professor Panagariya singled out the 99-005 period as a time of unprecedented growth in 4 emerging economies that contained nearly half of the world’s population. He noted that trade had fuelled this growth as 0 out of those 4 countries had witnessed export expansion of 5 percent a year or more. In India this expansion had lifted more than 50 million people out of poverty; in China even more. He argued that the most successful mechanism for poverty alleviation was the growth of trade and the improvement of wages and living standards in poor countries and concluded that , the conclusion of the Doha Round wound be important in further levelling the playing field for multilateral trade.
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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION A
Resource Scarcity: Food and Energy
While emerging economies were reaching new heights, the whole world was facing unprecedented and potentially disastrous resource shortages. He argued that everyone had a moral imperative to encourage change so that food, energy and water shortages would be addressed effectively.
‘the food situation has become more vivid, more difficult, and more challenging in the last months especially because of its impact on very poor countries.’

Robert Hormats The reason for food scarcity and recent price hikes, Hormats argued, was the lack of new investment in the past decades in the old economic sectors, particularly in agriculture and energy. While investors were focusing on the high-yielding information technology, these vital sectors were neglected and sidelined. As new capacity was lacking, supply could not meet growing demand and prices rocketed following a succession of systemic shocks, most notably the Australian droughts and harvest problems in rice-producing countries. In addition, Hormats noted, a shift to more protein-rich diets and increased demands from the bio fuel-industry had pushed demand for grains to unsustainable levels. Investment and capacity-building had to be reoriented to basic agriculture, he suggested. Subsidies, moreover, needed to be dismantled n order to create an open and freely flowing global food market. Like generations and leaders before us, faced with periods of turmoil and stress to the global system, he offered that we should harness our imagination and commitment to create new and effective institutions to address these crucial problems. Professor Padma Desai echoed Robert Hormat’s assessment and pointed out that food prices had doubled in the past year due to both systemic and circumstantial pressures. She noted that the threat of even more-severe scarcities was driving countries to look for food resources beyond their own borders, with several Middle Eastern countries buying up agricultural land in Southeast Asia, Sudan and Eastern Europe. This was, she said, a sign that fertile land was increasingly becoming a strategic asset.

The Globalization of Science and Health
Although globalization presents great challenges, Professor Lisa Randall stated that it also provides a framework for cooperation, particularly in the sciences. Professor Randall pointed to existing successful international scientific collaborations, such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider, which involves 80 countries. The challenge is to apply this cooperative model to other fields. Sir Paul Nurse agreed, adding that science was in many was at the forefront of the globalization process and presenting several examples in which intensive international collaboration could help overcome seemingly insurmountable problems. The same dialogue and cooperation in hostile circumstances that helped bring the Cold War to an end could now be brought to bear on the global health crisis. Although tuberculosis, malaria and HIV/AIDS primarily affect the developing world, disease crosses border and is fundamentally indiscriminate:
‘these problems are truly global… .a boeing 747 makes a disease that is in africa today a disease that is in the u.s. tomorroW.’’

Sir Paul Nurse
‘hoW can science help? it is the most reliable Way to acquire knoWledge of the natural World. With that knoWledge We generate poWer to change the World.’

Sir Paul Nurse

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION A
The challenge for scientists, researchers and doctors is to contextualize the health problems of each country and to recognize that in some regions, particularly in Africa, the imposition of Western research models is neither correct nor sustainable. Not only should more scientists from developing countries be trained in the developed world, Nurse argued, but local training and research work should be encouraged, since this would greatly improve our collective ability to address health emergencies in a cost-effective and equitable way. Evgeny Pavlovich Velikhov concluded the panel by discussing the importance of scientific cooperation in an age of energy scarcity and nuclear proliferation. In addition to seeking new sources of oil and gas in the Arctic and promoting the biomass industry, Velikhov argued, we need to foster scientific cooperation in the nuclear field. Such cooperation is crucial to harness the field’s best practice and shared knowledge and to protect the world against nuclear proliferation.
‘We need to move to an idea of building a corporation similar to airbus [in europe] in the nuclear field. We need to involve all countries and make them shareholders in the full industry…. control of technology and full access to the fruits of that technology Will encourage responsibility.’

Evgeny Pavlovich Velikhov

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Education
• Educational policies need to encourage the development in young people of minds that are disciplined, respectful and able to synthesize and prioritize among the pieces of information with which they are inundated.

Geoeconomics and Emerging Economies
• • • The world is already multipolar. Emerging economies have grown at a staggering pace and are set to challenge the geopolitical global order. Export-led growth has been an effective in alleviating poverty; the Doha Round of talks needs to be concluded to create a level playing field and allow more countries to grow through trade. Water scarcity will be a key threat in the future, and policy makers must address this issue with urgency. Cooperative efforts in localities where the problem is particularly acute have the best chance at succeeding.

Resource Scarcity: Food and Energy
• • • • Stakeholders must increase investment and build capacity in basic agricultural production to avoid precipitous food price increases and enhance food security. More attention needs to be paid to reaching the correct balance between how much agricultural produce is used for fuel, how much for livestock feed and how much for human nutrition. Existing global institutions should address food security urgently. If they are not equipped for this task, they must be reformed or new ones created. Because of the food crisis, many countries are seeking to reduce their dependence on imports by buying agricultural land outside their borders, with the result that fertile land is increasingly becoming a strategic asset.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION A
The Globalization of Science and Health
• Scientific research needs to become more responsive to the needs of the developing world to provide solutions in a cost-effective and equitable manner. This is particularly important with regard to research into health issues and new treatments for pandemics like HIV/AIDS and malaria. A nuclear corporation, similar to Airbus, that shares knowledge and technologies should be created to make states shareholders in the industry and encourage cooperation on nuclear development.

•

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION B
ECONOMY, INCLUSION AND DYNAMISM
Featured Delegates Edmund Phelps, Master of Ceremonies, professor of political economy, columbia university Richard Robb, ceo, christofferson, robb and company Graciana del Castillo, associate director, center on capitalism and society, columbia university Keynote Address Ivo Sanader, prime minister of croatia Committing to Core Values
Prime Minister Sanader, of Croatia, opened Economy, Inclusion and Dynamism, which featured the Nobel laureate Edmund Phelps; Richard Robb, the CEO of Christofferson, Robb & Company; and Graciana del Castillo, the Associate Director of the Center on Capitalism and Society at Columbia University. The panel looked at how entrepreneurship can be coupled with progressive government policies to encourage greater dynamism and well-being within Western societies. Prime Minister Sanader said that while the end of the Cold War had given rise to a profound desire for freedom, peace and progress, the ideology of terror embodied in the September , 00, attacks was a concrete threat to these values and thus changed the world. He said that the instabilities and uncertainties resulting from rapid globalization and exemplified by the current financial turmoil and energy instabilities tempt us to reject internationalism, turning inward and becoming protectionist. Instead of seeking refuge in short-term populist policies, Sanader argued, governments should renew their commitment to the principles of freedom, democracy, human rights and free markets and use these common values as the foundation on which to build future prosperity.
‘on these premises other countries can make use of global processes for the advancement of the international system based on principles of cooperation rather than confrontation, inclusion rather than marginalization, economic dynamism rather than bureaucratic regulation and democracy rather than authoritarian populism.’

Prime Minister Ivo Sanader, of Croatia The promotion of common values, he argued, would help build a broad international consensus to fight poverty, climate change and terrorism. Both governments individuals must strive to find creative and lasting solutions to these problems both locally and globally.

The Croatian Success Story
Prime Minister Sanader said that Croatia had overcome its own difficult past by adopting a progressive socioeconomic agenda whose goal was full integration into international and Euro-Atlantic structures. Croatia’s ambition to join the EU and NATO, he stated, was the driving force behind ambitious reforms aimed at increasing the dynamism and competitiveness of its economy and society. Sanader also noted that by basing its economy on firmly liberal grounds, Croatia was in a better position to both face the challenges of globalization and maximize its benefits. He said that the reforms primarily involved creating a dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy. By removing bureaucratic and regulatory barriers to business and streamlining the investment process, Croatia had generated GDP growth of 4 to 6 percent, on average, in recent years. Another area of reform was in education, involving a commitment to the Bologna process for standardizing degree requirements in European higher education.
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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION B
‘this is not a time to back pedal but to accelerate the pace of our transition toWard full integration… to increase the dynamism and competitiveness of the croatian economy and society.’

Prime Minister Ivo Sanader Prime Minister Sanader also highlighted his government’s efforts to create a consensus around the so-called Croatian Model for accession to EU and NATO membership. He emphasized the uniqueness of the National Committee structure, created to survey and control the pace of accession negotiations, which involved a broad range of stakeholders, including government officials, opposition leaders, trade unions and academics. A Paradigm of Cooperation Prime Minister Sanader concluded by noting that Croatia was committed to fostering regional cooperation in the Balkans. Through the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) and the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC), it helped establish effective mechanisms for practical cooperation and encouraged regional integration into the international system. He argued that cooperation in itself was not sufficient, however, and that countries needed to support the expansion and consolidation of liberal democratic values regionally and globally.
‘our oWn security and prosperity is protected only if We successfully promote international stability and global progress.’

Prime Minister Ivo Sanader

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Committing to Core Values
• • • Countries must avoid short-term populist policies and resist the temptation to turn inwards.. Democracies should renew their commitment to the core values of freedom, human rights and free markets to face global challenges. Governments and civil society must find and implement creative solutions to both local ad global challenges.

The Croatian Success Story
• • • • Croatia’s commitment to a progressive reform agenda and full integration into Euro-Atlantic structures has allowed it to overcome its difficult past. The Croatian government has created a dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy through market and educational reform and by opening the economy to international investment. Croatia needed to accelerate the pace of reform and integration in order to create a self-sustaining dynamic in the socio-economic realm. The ‘Croatian Model’ has enabled a variety of stakeholders to become involved in the EU and NATO accession processes. National consensus is key for sustainable and dynamic growth.

A Paradigm of Cooperation
• • Croatia has fostered regional cooperation and integration through institutional initiatives. Cooperation in itself is not enough. Countries must actively promote the values underlying their own success and global progress.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION B
Panel Presentations
Following the keynote address by Prime Minister Sanader, the distinguished panellists presented their views on the challenge of creating economies that are inclusive and dynamic.

A Higher Path to Productivity
Professor Edmund Phelps, a Nobel laureate in economics, opened the panel presentations by discussing the importance of innovation in achieving and sustaining a productive economy. He noted that while emerging economies such as China are increasingly innovative and dynamic, Europe and Japan and partly even the United States are falling behind in achieving sustainable productivity and competitiveness. He argued that although France has managed to maintain high productivity through imitation, technical know-how and superior education, it has not reached its full potential because it is not engaged in truly innovative activities,. Germany, conversely, is innovative, but this innovation is limited by being bureaucratic, policy driven and top-down. The key, he stated, is to encouragebottom-up innovation that is more in tune with the needs and requirements of the marketplace. Professor Phelps also identified a broader socioeconomic significance to bottom-up innovation, argued: An innovative society encourages dynamism and inclusion through higher levels of employment and greater job satisfaction. As people feel more connected with and attuned to the dynamic nature of the economy and participate in its innovative processes, they feel more engaged with their work and are therefore more satisfied and committed to it. To facilitate the formulation of governmental policies that encourage innovation, Phelps concluded, a less narowly defined more inclusive economic theory with a creative orientation must be developed

Encouraging Innovation
Richard Robb expanded on the idea of innovation as a source of growth and examined the ways in which societies can and have encouraged it. He noted that a comfortable yet mistaken foundational myth of venture capital is that it drives innovation through start-up financing. Because America is a leader in innovation and has a comparatively large venture-capital sector, a causal line was drawn between innovation and its funding sources. This is misleading, he argued, because the sector is comparatively small and in any case focuses almost exclusively focused on information -technology start-ups. To foster innovation, Robb stated, we should focus not on financing but on economic and investment reforms and investment in education. He warned that there was no such thing as automatic innovation or even clear causal relationships between policies and innovative, dynamic industries. Robb concluded by noting that real entrepreneurial activities are funded by individual investors and financiers, not venture-capital institutions. The power of engaged and committed individuals, he stated, was immense and formed a core component of a dynamic society.

Inclusion and Dynamism in Post-conflict Societies
‘unless people perceive themselves to be better off in peace, they Will go back to War.’

Graciana del Castillo

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION B
Graciana del Castillo discussed the special challenges facing societies transitioning from conflict to stability and peace. She drew heavily on the example of Croatia, pointing out that alongside El Salvador, it was one of the few countries that had successfully evolved from conflict to dynamic growth. Indeed the record of postconflict societies is bleak: More than half, according to UN statistics, return to conflict and the rest continue to struggle with discord and stagnation. Aid dependency in such countries is particularly problematic, she argued, holding back sustainable development. These countries’ stagnation and aid-dependency create instability and divert resources in the international community as a whole.
the reason Why [post-conflict reconstruction] is so difficult in these countries is that they are trying a multipronged transition: a political, social, economic and security transition all at the same time.

Graciana del Castillo Forging a dynamic and competitive future is extremely complex for countries that have to grapple with the legacy and tensions of past conflicts. The task is complicated, moreover, del Castillo argued, by the need to reintegrate formerly hostile groups, which requires job creation. Only by ensuring that people can see an alternative future for themselves will they renounce war and violence. Del Castillo concluded by noting that a successful transition from conflict to prosperity can be facilitated by providing assistance that encourages economically productive activities and forging macro- and micropolicies tailored to the situation of the particular society. International financial institutions have so far failed in countries that continue to grapple with basic security, most notably in Afghanistan, because these organizations do not reconize the unique needs of these societies and tend to focused on economic optimization rather than the political objective of a sustainable transition to peace. The needs of postconflict societies and the methods for fostering their sustainable growth, she asserted, are fundamentally different from those of “normal” countries.

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions A Higher Path of Productivity
• • Countries need to encourage bottom-up innovation to achieve a greater productivity and a more satisfied and committed work force. Economic theory needs to leave its narrow concerns and embrace to a broader framework focused more on creativity. Good theory is important because it informs decision making.

Encouraging Innovation
• • Countries must put more effort and money into investment reform and education and rely less on venture capital to create a dynamic economy. Individual investors are crucial to supporting the entrepreneurship that creates an innovative economy.



THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION B
Inclusion and Dynamism in Post-conflict Societies
• • • • Few countries are able to make the transition from conflict to dynamic growth. More than half of such countries fall back into conflict and many others struggle with stagnation and aid dependency. The legacy of conflict affects not only the countries themselves but also the international system as a whole, fostering instability and diverting funds from development and environmental protection. The needs of post-conflict societies, even the best practice associated with their sustainable growth, are fundamentally different than those in ‘normal’ countries. This is particularly so the case because reintegra tion can only succeed if it results in job-creation. Transitions are multipronged, involving social, economic, political and security issues.They are thus immensely difficult to manage successfully. The international community can support the process by developing con textualized and peace-oriented macro- and micro policies, executed through financial institutions and technical assistance, and by developing assistance models that foster the productive capacities of the post-conflict country.



THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION B
I IN IT: Individualism, Community and the Democracy of the Internet
Featured Delegates Dr. Gino Yu, Cofounder, polyu merecl Dr. Pradeep Khosla, professor and dean of engineering, carnegie mellon Jimmy Wales, Founder, Wikipedia Nicholas Negroponte, founder and chairman of one laptop per child Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of cognition and education, harvard Stewart Butterfield, cofounder, flickr.com Craig Newmark, Founder, craigslist Master of Ceremonies Jonathan Zittran, professor of law, harvard law school Panel Discussion - Key Session Concepts
The session took the form of free-flowing debate and discussion on the limits, potential and consequences of freedom and community on the Internet. Jonathan Zittran opened the discussion by noting that the Internet age is characterized by an unprecedented level of interconnectedness, leading to complex and overlapping identities and a unique sense of community. He argued that this interconnectedness affects how we position ourselves as members of a global community with shared responsibilities as well as of multiple other communities that coexist and function side by side. The panel explored the following questions: Are we capable of governing ourselves online, in particular in seeing and enforcing limits in cybercommunities where differences arise? What are the limits and strengths of democracy on the Internet? What impact does technology have on people and on society? is it isolating or connecting us? Is it encouraging responsible behavior or conflict and rejection? Where is the sense of connectedness and community fostered by the Internet used most effectively?

Control, Freedom and the Nature of Community
The challenge for constantly evolving online communities like Wikipedia, Jimmy Wales argued, is to balance the desire and need for freedom with the need to avoid chaos. The question is not only how to enforce rules but also who has the authority to do so. The majority of Internet-related rules, Wales argued, are commonsense and shared by participants, and they are enforced through collective action. He noted that the Wikipedia community is fairly effective in governing itself and weeding out the bad apples that defy its rules and principles. He acknowledged, however, that the balance between freedom and control online is difficult to achieve and not dissimilar to the balance a good municipal police force tries to maintain. In this sense he stated, Internet communities are no different from those that we inhabit offline.



THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION B
From a cognitive perspective, Professor Howard Gardner wondered what it means to be a good member of either the global community or a more local community like Wikipedia. What is the definition of a good citizen in the Internet age, and are the responsibilities of such a citizen any different online than in the real world? Craig Newmark said that the online community displays a remarkable commonality of values and that users of Craigslist, for example, tend to follow the real-world principle “treat others as you would be treated.” Although there is certainly potential for discord and disagreement, Newmark noted, shared interests still dominate interactions in most such communities. Indeed virtual and real communities share many needs, with the former largely managing to govern themselves in the absence of a clear enforcing authority. Stewart Butterfield, however, urged caution when speaking about online communities, their ways of operating and their value structures. Most such groups are communities only in a metaphorical sense, he argued, citing his company Flickr, whose members form communities based on common interests, not shared lives or commitments.

Community and Learning in Cyberspace
The panel was in agreement about the immense potential of information technology and the Internet in advancing education and educational policies, in developing countries in particular. Nicholas Negroponte, stressing that his One Laptop per Child initiative made information accessible to children in developing and very poor countries, argued that children without access to traditional forms of education could and should be engaged in learning by doing through their laptops and genuinely collaborative educational exercises. He noted that in poor countries, the One Child initiative did not replace, traditional teaching methods but supplemented them, filling in where the traditional structures were absent or deficient. Jimmy Wales noted that Negropontes project developed community through collaborative learning and broadened participation in the educational process and that the Internet together with sites such as Wikipedia had increased exponentially the opportunities for informal learning for everyone This was, he argued, part of a longer-term trend of democratizing modes of learning and information acquisition. Professor Gardner and Professor Pradeep Khosla wondered if such collaborative, cyberspace-based and thus borderless models could be extended to all levels, from preschool to university. Gino Yu took this notion further, stating that information technology could unlock the methods the mind uses to understand the real world, thus creating new realities that are open and emotionally attuned. Neurosciences insights into emotions and rationality and how these affect decision making, Louise Blouin argued, can help us increase our capacity for empathy and strengthen our sense of community and shared responsibility.
‘What We need to do is to tap into What We are given at birth. We have a lot of capabilities that We are not tapping into. We need a better understanding of certain processes, and through neuroscience, for example, We can tap into the development of senses that increase and improve our creative capacities.’

Louise Blouin

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION B
Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Control, Freedom and the Nature of Community
• • Online communities need to find ways to balance the desire for freedom against the need for control in cyberspace. Many communities have proved to be adept at self-regulation based on shared values and nterests. We should not overstate the case for community in cyberspace, since most groups are still communities only in a metaphorical sense and do not necessarily share values or objectives, simply interests and ideas.

Community and Learning in Cyberspace
• • • IT and the Internet can make learning a truly collaborative exercise that can be extended to places and communities where formal educational structures do not exist or are deficient. Information technology has expanded the opportunities for informal learning for everyone, particularly for those outside of the formal educational structures of schools and universities. Information technology can be used to unlock realities and develop and cultivate emotional and creative intelligence.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION C
AFRICA: Development, Trade and Economy
Featured Delegates Keynote Introductions Bingu wa Mutharika, president of malawi Craig R Barrett, Chairman, intel corporation Stanley Bergman, chairman and ceo, henry schein inc David Boies, Chairman, boies, schiller and lexner, llp Peter Sellars, theater director and professor of arts and culture, ucla Bert Koenders, minister of development cooperation, netherlands Kaj den Daas, chairman, philips lighting north america Ann Veneman, executive director, unicef Guy Sebban, secretary general, international chamber of commerce Dr. Kandeh Yumkella, director general, unido Marko Saravanja, founder and ceo, regenesys Dambisa Moyo, head of economic research for africa, goldman sachs Master of Ceremonies Femi Oke, editor and anchor, Wnyc’s the takeaway The Battle Against Poverty
President Bingu wa Mutharika, of Malawi, opened Africa: Development, Trade and Economy, a three-hour panel session devoted to poverty reduction and economic development, with an address highlighting two key goals for Africa: to integrate fully into a fair global trade regime and to move from being a simple supplier of raw materials to processing and manufacturing goods.The president argued that only by achieving these goals could the continent become an integral and active member of the global village.

Walking Side by Side
President Mutharika said that Africa must battle, on both economic and political fronts, against abject poverty, which continues despite its great mineral wealth and fertile lands. The crux of the problem is the marginalization of the continent that dates to colonial times, rooted in the idea that the world gains from its underdevelopment This idea, he argued, is fundamentally wrong, since an industrially, commercially, scientifically and politically prosperous Africa would be a better trading partner than a poor one.
i Would rather have somebody i can Walk With side by side doWn the road than somebody i have to carry on my shoulders. that is What europe and others have been trying to do—to carry africa on their shoulders in trade. as a result, When they tumble, everybody tumbles. indeed, if We ride on their back, We also fall. but We Would like to Walk.

President Bingu wa Mutharika

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION C
President Mutharika identified two major factors holding Africa back: a lack of facilities for processing its resources and developed nations subsidization of their own farmers and other domestic industries. He cited the fact that despite its wealth of commodities, Malawi had not increased its share of global trade because it merely exported these products, rather than processing them locally. This meant that jobs were shipped abroad as well; hampering the development of a sustainable industry based on the export of manufactured goods. The president also blamed a lack of financing for holding back the continents economic growth.

The Way Forward
President Mutharika asserted that Africa’s fortunes can be reversed through two key changes. First, the developed world must come to see Africa as a partner in its own development. Second, multilateral institutions must form new partnerships on the continent in industrial development, and food production and processing. The Doha round of talks, moreover, needed to dismantling the barriers to global trade. The president concluded by noting that truly free global trade was necessary to secure the worlds food supply. In natural disasters, for example, such a trading regime would enable nations to move goods and relief t to devastated areas with ease and speed. It would also increase world and intra-African trade and facilitate economic and social development.
‘can We as a global nation sit doWn and use best practices and try to change this so that the majority of people noW engulfed in abject poverty can break this trap and go on a road to prosperity? hoW can We change the scenario in order to bring africa into the global trading system?’

President Bingu wa Mutharika

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions The Battle Against Poverty
• • It is essential for African countries to move away from simply exporting raw materials and develop processing capabilities. It is important to include Africa in the global trade system on full and fair terms.

Walking Side by Side
• • • • Africa needs to be fully integrated into the global economy. European and other OECD countries need to recognize that it is to their advantage for Africa to be industrially, commercially and politically prosperous and encourage this development. Subsidies and other trade barriers must be dismantled globally. African countries need financial assistance and investment to build domestic industries and to diversify their exports.

The Way Forward
• • • • Africa needs to be seen as a partner in its own development and not merely as a recipient of aid. Multilateral institutions need to form new partnerships on the continent in industrial development and food production and processing The Doha round of trade talks must dismantle structural barriers to Africa’s full and fair participation in global trade. A fair and free trading system will improve global food security, encourage economic and social development in Africa and boost global growth.
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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION C
Panel Discussion
The panellists agreed on the importance of a wide-ranging and holistic agenda for development in Africa. Many noted that although a broadly defined agenda already existed, it needed to be fleshed with specifics and effective practical cooperation was needed on the ground.

A Holistic Development Agenda
‘it is noW time to take a system that is out of balance and balance a feW things. and as things come into balance, all kinds of possibilities present themselves to us. We have not even begun to dream of What they are and What the next generation is going to do.’

Peter Sellars Bert Koenders opened the discussion by describing the Dutch government’s collaboration with Phillips to produce solar lamps in Africa, a successful and innovative public-private partnership of the type urgently needed, he said, to remove bottlenecks holding up development. The Phillips venture helps remove the obstacle to investment posed by lack of light in the evenings. According to Koenders, such projects strengthen African economies and build a sustainable foundation for African independence. He stressed the need for an aid model focusing on infrastructure, education and health and treating the continent as an opportunity rather than an intractable problem, which would take advantage of its enormous self-confidence. Ann Veneman argued that the abilities, talents and confidence of African countries must be enlisted in promoting sustainable development. The key, she stated, is cooperation between local bodies and companies, with less reliance on aid and national government initiatives????, tailoring the approach to the particular circumstances, problems and strengths of the different countries. This view was echoed by President Mutharika and Dambisa Moyo, who both argued that aid was often only a life-support mechanism and did not create the conditions for sustainable growth. David Boies stressed that aid is important as a bridge to the future, particularly in creating the right environment for growth, but that it does little to add value and dynamism to African economies or encourage investment. Kandeh Yumkella agreed, adding that aid is still important in removing supply-side barriers to trade and in developing educational and health infrastructures. Marko Saravanja said that although a holistic approach is important, a lack of focus and specificity threatens to undermine the overall agenda. He called for new global and cross-disciplinary coalitions that harness objectives as well as resources to deal with education, job creation, health care and trade, suggesting as an example investment by U.S. universities in African higher education.

Added Value and Independence
All the panels agreed on the importance of developing indigenous industries that manufacture products for sale in the global marketplace to generating wealth and jobs. Without such initiatives, Craig Barrett argued, Africa will not be able to compete for jobs with countries like China, India and Malaysia, which have enjoyed phenomenal growth in the past decades. Increased competitiveness, he added, clearly requires a forward-looking and comprehensive educational system that nurtures broader learning as well as training in specific skills, suggesting that direct investment was needed in countries’ production capacities. Kandeh Yumkella added that Africa needed to shed its dependence on sales of raw materials, developing facilities to process locally agricultural produce and minerals.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION C
Panelists cited several obstacles to attracting increased investment in Africa. David Boies noted the lack of confidence in the countries’ legal and regulatory systems. President Mutharika countered that several nations have strong legal frameworks but that foreign companies often ignore them, demanding concessions and rebates that could undermine the host’s stability and prosperity. Craig Barrett said that international organizations should put pressure on companies to promote sustainable development in the countries they invest in by building roads and infrastructure and relying on local resources for their workforce and operational needs. This would energize local economies and create the conditions for long-term growth. He argued that such commitments from all parties—the governments of both developed and developing countries and multinational companies—is necessary to change the dynamic of development on the continent.

The Promise of Public-Private Partnerships
Panellists agreed that engaging governments, companies and nongovernmental organizations in cooperative ventures with clear deliverables and practical solutions is an innovative way to energize economies. They indicated other areas in which the Phillips might be brought to bear. Stanley Bergman noted the promising public-private partnerships already emerging in the health and emergencyresponse area, attributing their existence to the realization by companies and governments that it is in their interest to facilitate progress and innovation through such projects in the developing as well as the developed world. Kaj den Daas said that these collaborations also made business sense and that Phillips was eager to expand its market share in the African market through the solar lamp project. Craig Barrett mentioned broadband-wireless communications and IT as other areas where public-private partnerships would be beneficial, not only expanding access to information in African countries but also facilitating the development of electronic governance and health care. These collaborations have a high chance of success when partners share targeted and carefully delineated goals and resources. Kandeh Yumkella argued that combining aid flows with private-sector capital can build long-term prosperity by engaging diverse stakeholders and actors in projects with tangible objectives.

The Importance of Human Capital
‘the principle of development is that it has to happen from the inside, not outside. We cannot develop africa. africa has to develop itself, and the only Way this can be achieved is through developing its human capital.’

Marko Saravanja The discussion focused on the importance to successful development of an educated and skilled workforce. Craig Barrett argued that only with capable, inquisitive and dynamic workers can African countries hope to improve their economies long-term and avoid further exploitation. Marko Saravanja agreed with Barrett, suggesting that Western universities and corporations cooperate with institutions of higher education in African nations to develop those nations’ knowledge and innovation bases—for example, Phillips and U.S. colleges could team up to fund a faculty of engineering in a local university, or the 0 top U.S. universities could set up branches in Africa, much as they have done in the Middle East. David Boies noted the difficulty of breaking the vicious cycle: only successful educational policies can produce the calibre of human capital necessary to create sustainable economic growth, but they can’t do this unless opportunities for work and innovation are there.

A Positive View of Africa
‘We have not been listening to africa in its oWn voice. We have been listening to external agencies that have particular objectives and aims. as a result, What We see are catastrophes and crises. but there are also success stories on the continent: malaWi, rWanda, ghana, tanzania. We need to catalogue these successes and build on them.you do not build on failure;you build on success. but We have ignored success and emphasized failure.’

President Bingu wa Mutharika
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africa speaking to the World in its oWn voice is extremely important. We hear about africa, but We don’t hear from africa. this is urgent at this moment, as history moves from a position of receivership into a position of direct action. this is a question of empoWerment, and it is active, active, active engagement What We need to move toWards.

Peter Sellars Femi Oke, Peter Sellars, President Mutharika, Dambisa Moyo and Kandeh Yumkella all emphasized the urgency of presenting Africa in a more positive light. The international media have a particular responsibility to show Africa‘s strengths, in terms of human, cultural and mineral resources, and its progress on numerous fronts. Dambisa Moyo said that many positive developments on the continent are being ignored in public discourse, including market growth of 6 percent on average and improvements in education and HIV/AIDS containment. Femi Oke added that building African’s pride in their culture and their sense of nobility will help them embrace innovation and progress. Peter Sellars concluded the panel by noting the importance of culture and cultural appreciation as a sources of strength and sustenance in countries struggling to overcome difficult pasts, arguing that by celebrating and promoting African culture, locally and internationally, we lay the foundations for honest, balanced and committed cross-cultural relationships.

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions A Holistic Development Agenda
• • • We need an aid model which focusing on infrastructure, education and health and treating Africa as an opportunity rather than a problem. The development agenda must be tailored to the vastly different circumstances of different African countries. Aid can serve as a bridge to the future, particularly in removing supply-side barriers to trade and improving education and health services, but it cannot by itself make African economies dynamic or encourage investment. Local bodies and companies must cooperate and rely less on aid and national government initiatives.

•

Added Value and Independence
• • • • Direct investment in the productive capacities of African countries and companies must be increased. Africa needs to shed its dependence on raw-material exports and develop local processing of agricultural and mineral products. The rule of law and confidence in the legal and regulatory systems of African countries must to be strengthened as must mechanisms for resolving business disputes. International organizations need to put pressure on companies to promote sustainable development in the countries they invest in.

The Promise Of Public-Private Partnerships
• • Governments, companies and nongovernmental organizations should cooperate in ventures with clear deliverables and offering practical solutions. Companies and governments should form public-private partnerships that harness their strengths and resources in such projects as providing energy and health-care services and promoting democracy.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION C
The Importance Of Human Capital
• • The continent’s educational system must be reformed and developed to lay the foundation for successful, independent economies. Western universities and companies should develop African countries’ knowledge and innovation bases by collaborating on such initiatives as world-class research laboratories in African universities.

A Positive Outlook On Africa
• • The media should highlight Africa’s successes and the opportunities for building on them. We need to promote Africans’ sense of dignity and self-worth by celebrating their culture and setting up cultural exchange programmes with African nations.



THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION C
GLOBAL HEALTH
Featured Delegates Dr. Majid Fotuhi, Director, center for memory and brain health Dr. William Haseltine, Chairman, haseltine global health Sir Paul Nurse, President, the rockefeller university Dr. Antonio Damasio, professor of neuroscience, usc Dr. Larry Young, professor of neurobiology, emory university Dr. Andrea Califano, professor of biomedical informatics, columbia Dr. Seth Berkley, president, international aids vaccine initiative Master of Ceremonies Dr. Colin Blakemore, professor of neuroscience, oxford university Panel Discussion
The Global Health panel addressed the broad theme of health and the field’s evolving set of challenges, from research funding to aging populations to increasingly strained health-care systems.

Another Inconvenient Truth
Dr. Colin Blakemore opened the panel by stating that governments and health-care professionals around the world are dealing with a growing set of health-related issues and challenges, ranging from acute pandemics like SARS, AIDS and the avian flu to diseases associated with particular behaviors or with aging to mental health. He said that global health policy needs to ensure our ability to quickly react and isolate outbreaks, while also promoting prevention. Dr. William Haseltine pointed out that as populations age, health care costs are threatening to spiral out of control, in the developed world in particular. Such expenses in the U.S,. he noted, are already approaching 0 percent of GDP, a proportion that will rise without comprehensive reforms that increase efficiency. Dr. Haseltine warned of a looming but still invisible crisis, stating that unless costs were brought under control, access to health care in the United States will be restricted by cost-effectiveness considerations. Spiraling expenses stem in large part from the increase in people suffering from ailments—like diabetes, heart disease and Alzheimer’s—that are associated with age, poor eating habits and sedentary lifestyles. Dr. Majid Fotuhi described his work on Alzheimer’s, specifically on preventing the associated vascular degeneration. Dr. Fotuhi argued that the disease is not one-dimensional and in fact is largely preventable through a healthier, more active lifestyle. He cited recent studies showing that regular exercise such as walking not only improved cardiovascular health but also drastically reduced the incidence of Alzheimer’s in older patients. Such exercise, good nutrition and continuing education can, he said, cut the overall risk by ask much as 68 percent and add to the longevity and health of brain tissue, improving brain function. The doctor added that a although it is an inconvenient truth for some that our lifestyles impact our health in very profound and often unexpected ways, recognition of this fact also enables us to make an unprecedented shift in the health policy paradigm. Dr. Andrea Califano continued in this strain, pointing out t that increasing incidents of cancer prevalence will strain health infrastructures worldwide if preventative care and innovative research is not pursed more aggressively. Dr. Antonio Damasio agreed and argued that it a holistic healthy-living paradigm must be the foundation of public health policy.



THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION C
Innovation and Efficiency in Research and Health-Care Delivery
The panel focused on two aspects of global health policy in urgent need of attention: health-services delivery and research and development (R&D). Dr. Seth Berkley asserted that it is vital to invest in and support R&D efforts in the developing world to find local solutions to local problems, as the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative does. The initiative, he said, aims to discover the best science and technology, even outside the health-care sector, and apply it in innovative ways to HIV. Dr. Larry Young identified the willingness to take risks as key to medical innovation, particularly in fields such as Autism research. Sir Paul Nurse added that local and creatively funded research initiatives can investigate problems and diseases under the radar of big pharmaceutical companies. He cited the role of networks of hospitals, universities and public-private partnerships in researching complex issues affecting minorities. This is necessary, pointed out William Haseltine, because consolidation of the pharmaceutical industry has resulted in a few giant companies that often focus on blockbuster products, stifling innovation in more marginal fields, warned.
‘if We cannot deliver those technologies, We might as Well not develop them. We need to bring costs under control and develop effective systems of delivery and care. While We tend to think of global health as a problem impacting others, global health is clearly an issue that impacts everyone. it refers to the health of everyone.’

Dr. William Haseltine

Dr. Haseltine stated that delivering cost-effective, high-quality health service in both developed and developing countries is crucial and cited as models four projects in India that have shown immense promise: privately run effective and affordable eye-surgery hospitals in central and southern India, hospitals providing low-cost heart surgery, a highly efficient, technology-based 9 emergency call system in select states and telemedicine programmes linking medical professionals and patients in remote areas in real time.What these projects share, Dr. Haseltine said, is the assumption that cost-effectiveness is compatible with high-tech, high-quality care and that d redistribution of less-skilled tasks within the health-care system eases resource pressures and allows doctors to be more effective. The telemedicine system, moreover, presents an unprecedented opportunity to survey disease, possibly on global scale, Haseltine asserted.

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Another Inconvenient Truth
• • As populations age, health-care costs threaten to spiral out of control. In addition to containing and managing infectious diseases, global health policy needs to address prevention. A holistic healthy-living agenda must be implemented worldwide. Educating people about the positive effects of physical and mental exercise and healthy eating will have a dramatic impact on the incidence of such diseases as diabetes, cancer and Alzheimer’s.

Innovation and Efficiency in Research and Health-Care Delivery
• • • • It is important to invest in and support R&D efforts in the developing world to find local solutions for local problems, particularly those big pharmaceutical companies are uninterested in. Innovative public-private partnerships, cross-disciplinary research networks and local laboratories are vital in addressing marginal and cutting-edge health issues. Health-services reform, in developed as well as developing countries, should focus on cutting costs and driving innovation, while assuring affordability, accessibility and quality of care. Telemedicine presents an unprecedented opportunity to survey disease, possibly on global scale, leading to cost-effective, high-tech interventions.



THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION C
INNOVATION AND IMPASSE: Economics, Israel and Palestine
Featured Delegates Raghida Dergham, senior diplomatic correspondent, al hayat Craig Newmark, founder, craigslist Riz Khan, TV host, al jazeera english Richard Bulliet, professor of middle eastern history, columbia university Lord Paul Bew, chair of irish politics, queens university, belfast Ned Parker, baghdad correspondent, la times Dr. Torsten Wiesel, professor of neurobiology, rockefeller university Master of Ceremonies David Andelman, editor, World policy journal Panel Discussion
This panel explored the possibility of a renewed and broadened peace process between Israel and the Palestinians and identified key conditions for its success.

Bridging Differences and Empowering People
‘at the end of the day, no matter hoW far radicalism goes, people just Want to live.’

Ned Parker
‘What is really absent is the immediate sense of dignity that underlies all of this lack of respect and perceptions that fail to alloW each side to regard the other With something more than mistrust and animosity.’

David Andelman Both David Andelman and Ned Parker stressed the importance of giving Palestinians back a sense of dignity and hope, linking this to the success of economic development in the territories, a precondition for peace, Andelman said that Palestinians must see the possibility of attaining the same standard of living that Israelis enjoy and argued for make resources available to Palestinian entrepreneurs and businesses to strengthen the peace process. Parker cited Jenin, on the West Bank, as an example of economic growth and empowerment, noting that its success has aided the Palestinian Authority and advanced efforts to unify the governance of the territories, now divided between Hamas and the PA. He further argued for enhancing the status of Mahmoud Abbas to strengthen the hand of the PA as a partner for peace with Israel. Raghida Dergham agreed, adding that peace negotiators should examine how to partner with the PA on the ground and thus stop the erosion of its popularity. Israel should also lift its blockade of Gaza, opening it up to trade and diplomatic exchange. Hamas, meanwhile, must not be sidelined. Rather, Parker argued, moderation should be encouraged on all sides. Indeed, reconciliation between Fatah and Hamas is necessary for creating a viable Palestinian state.
‘unless palestinians have the prospect of determining their oWn economic future, a sense of victimization, disenfranchisement and lack of any future to Work for Will fuel negativity toWard the Whole process and entrench bitterness. these feelings are perpetuated When such big economic differences [as those betWeen the palestinians and the israelis] persist.’

Riz Khan

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION C
Dr Torsten N. Wiesel argued that creating a strong and dynamic educational system—in the sciences, in particular—is the only way to ensure that Palestinians recover economically, rebuild their infrastructure and prosper. He said that resources are already being made available for a variety of scientific and educational projects that will empower Palestinians and also build bridges between them and Israel but that more are still needed. Craig Newmark said that equally important in creating a momentum for recovery are grassroots projects with deliverable goals, such as those providing microfinance and loans to Palestinian entrepreneurs. Newmark noted that other recent projects have targeted young people, among them one teaching them programming skills, which has been very successful and is being expanded. Further, young people on both sides of the conflict are connecting more often and in new ways, resulting in a dialogue that can foster understanding.
‘We are really looking at hoW to repair not just the collapsed peace process but the damage and differences of the past eight years and trying to find a Way to build a viable peace process and a prosperous palestinian society beside israel.’

Ned Parker

A Revitalized And Broadened Peace Process
‘at some stage We knoW that people change— that is the lesson of northern ireland—and dialogue becomes possible.’

Lord Paul Bew Much of the discussion concerned external factors affecting the peace process External actors were seen both as major sources of instability and as potential sources of support. Lord Paul Bew argued that the Middle East is awash in self-interested strategies that hamper peace efforts. Because of this, the peace process is thus much more complex than that in Northern Ireland. Another complicating factor is the comparative lack of resources to build and strengthen peace in the region. While the British pumped money into Northern Ireland, very little is being devoted to support positive developments in the Palestinian areas. Bew stated that if the Palestinians had similar funding, they would be farther along on the path to peace,. The key, Richard Bulliet argued, is to identify the positive and negative influences on the process. He said that Gulf states have failed to support the Palestinians financially and that their immense wealth should be harnessed to finding constructive solutions to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. He added that these countries could offer not only financing but also mediation as neutral partners with no history of warfare with Israel and a deep interest in the stability of the region. Unfortunately, he stated, Israel continues to resist bringing new actors, particularly regional ones, into the peace process. Bulliet identified as another factor complicating both the Israeli-Palestinian and intra-Palestinian situation the increased regional clout of Iran and, in particular, its support for Hamas. On the plus side, a grand bargain between Iran and the U.S. could minimize the former’s divisiveness, and Arabs, fearing Iran’s growing influence in the region, might wish to counter this by engaging more constructively in the peace process. Raghida Dergham questioned the value of allowing Iran to influence the peace process, while Ned Parker argued that constructive engagement from all sides was needed. Lord Bew stated that it is important for Israel to engage moderate Palestinian factions. Finally, the resurgence of fundamentalism in the region makes relationships more difficult, hardens perceptions further and contributed to the rise of Hamas in Gaza. Riz Khan, Ned Parker and Richard Bulliet all agreed that religion is a source of power and comfort for millions of disenfranchised people in the region and its influence is unlikely to wane in the future. Policies aimed at resolving the impasse need to take this reality into account. The media, Khan noted, have a particular responsibility to overcome religious and other stereotypes and promote fresh and insightful dialogue on the issue.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION C
Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Bridging Differences and Empowering People
• • • Israel needs to reverse its policy of blockade and open up to exchanges and trade with Palestinians. Palestinian entrepreneurs need to be provided with resources, including loans and microcredit, so that they can embark on sustainable enterprises in the territories. Israel and its partners need to engage moderate parties in the peace process. Although strengthening Fatah is a priority, Hamas should not be isolated and sidelined. Further, reconciliation between Fatah and Hamas is necessary for a viable Palestinian state. A strong and dynamic educational system will ensure that Palestinians are able to rebuild and prosper. Educational and scientific exchanges should be fostered along with dialogue between young people using new technologies.

• •

A Revitalized and Broadened Peace Process
• • • • Gulf states should participate in the process, providing it with legitimacy and the Palestinians with financial support. Iran should also be brought in, though a broader agreement with the U.S. The resurgent fundamentalism in the region must be recognized as a factor and moderates engaged with. The media need to communicate more positive and insightful stories about religion and its place in Middle Eastern societies to overcome stereotypes and negative sentiments.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION C4
DIALOGUE, DÉTENTE AND DISTRUST: Iran and Iraq Featured Delegates Riz Khan, tv host, al jazeera english Dr. Parvez Ahmed, former chair, council on american-islamic relations Raghida Dergham, senior diplomatic correspondent, al hayat Lord Paul Bew, chair of irish politics, queens university, belfast Ned Parker, baghdad correspondent, la times Dr. Ismail Serageldin, director of the bibliotheca alexandrina, egypt Master of Ceremonies Richard Bulliet, professor of middle eastern history, columbia university David Andelman, editor, World policy journal Panel Discussion Key Session Concepts
The panel explored the following questions: What does Iran want? Is détente between Iran and the U.S. possible? If so, how would this impact Iran-Iraq relations and the broader region?

Seeking Respect and Reconciliation
Richard Bulliet argued that the West’s approach to Iran is overly simplistic, tending to lump all Iranians into one anti-American mass, so that positive statements—for example, announcements of pragmatic foreign policy initiatives—are construed as lies while belligerent rhetoric is taken as a true representation of Iranian policy. Riz Khan seconded Bulliet’s characterization, adding that a complete reassessment of Iran must occur before any negotiations can be successful. Parvez Ahmed noted that in recent opinion polls the majority of Iranians supported consensus building and finding common ground among different cultures and between the West and Islam.
‘i believe the arab World and iran are mirror images of one another: in iran the leadership is a hostile but society by and large is not profoundly antagonistic; exactly the opposite is true in the arab World. instead of looking at iran as an enemy, one should think in terms of recrafting this relationship in the Way u.s. recrafted its relationship to latin america.’

Ismail Serageldin Because political and public discourse in the West focus on the belligerent rhetoric of President Ahmadinejad, any subtleties in the Iranian position tend to be ignored. Raghida Dergham argued that to forge more effective policies vis-à-vis Iran, the West needs to look beyond the rhetoric and seek out what Iran really wants. David Andelman and Dergham agreed that what Iran want most is respect and recognition. In addition to recognition of its regional interests, Parvez Ahmed said, Iran wants recognition that it has the right to secure its energy supply through nuclear power. Dergham added that Iran also wants to secure a regional position and influence similar to those of Turkey and Israel, asserted. Bulliet stated that Iran wants sanctions to be lifted and for the U.S. to radically scale back its presence in the region. He added that Afghanistan is an area where interests converge, since both the U.S. and Iran want a stable Afghanistan and wish to avoid a full-scale Taliban resurgence. Indeed, a land route through Iran to Afghanistan would significantly ease logistical pressures for NATO and U.S. forces, Bulliet noted.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION C4
A Grand Bargain in a Regional Context
‘iran does not Want to be seen as being forced into any agreement. subtle back-room action Will most likely result in an agreement, particularly because the u.s. has taken such a hard public stance. any talks, therefore, Will be done quietly.’

Riz Khan

Several panellists the U.S. and Iranian presidential elections, the latter to take place in late 009, presented a unique opportunity or a pragmatic shift in relations. Bold political leadership is required, Ahmed argued, to overcome public resistance to conciliatory moves and to build on the two countries’ common strategic goals. Ned Parker stated that the West needs to take a two-pronged but flexible approach, combining active engagement with tough measures against noncooperation. Ismail Serageldin said that the U.S. and the European Union together can persuade Iran to sit down, negotiate and compromise. Parker added that for the long-term stability of Iraq, an agreement needed to be reached with Iran on its role in that country, which continues to be complicated and contentious.
‘iraq is either a battleground or a potential meeting point betWeen the u.s. and iran.’

Ned Parker

Raghida Dergham argued that, while continuing to support its Arab allies the U.S. must start viewing Iran as a major partner in the Middle East as well. Bulliet went further, stating that any resolution to the problems involving Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict require a reconfiguration of the entire Middle East as an area with more complex strategic balances but that is potentially more stable as well. Lord Paul Bew cautioned that the U.S.-Israeli relationship would have to be reconfigured as well to ensure the latter’s security in the likely event of a U.S.-Iran bargain based on acceptance of Iranian nuclear capabilities. Raghida Dergham concluded by noting that it will be interesting to see if the West, particularly the Europeans, will accept a nuclear Iran as part of a détente arrangement.

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Seeking Respect and Reconciliation
• • Media representations of and public discourse about Iran need to move beyond stereotypes and highlight common aspirations and interests. Policy makers need to become more sensitive to Iran’s wishes and needs in the region, while retaining their firm overall position of seeking dialogue and compromise on the issues surrounding nuclear armament, Hamas, Afghanistan and Iraq.

A Grand Bargain in a Regional Context
• • • A unique window of opportunity exists for a pragmatic shift in U.S.-Iranian relations, particularly in light of the U.S. elections. The EU and the U.S. must start viewing Iran as a major partner in the Middle East, and persuade its government to sit down, negotiate and compromise. The greater Middle East should be approached with a comprehensive regional strategy of which Iran is a part.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION D
INTERNET SECURITY
Featured Delegates Professor Thomas Malone, professor of management, mit sloan school Dr. Pradeep Khosla, professor and dean of engineering, carnegie mellon K. A. Taipale, Senior Fellow, World policy institute Jody Westby, CEO, global cyber risk llc Jonathan Zittrain, professor of law, harvard law school Richard O’Neill, president, the highlands group Dr. Itamara V. Lochard, senior researcher, the fletcher school Jeffrey Friedberg, chief trust architect, microsoft John Rendon, ceo and president, the rendon group Master of Ceremonies John Henry Clippinger, senior fellow, harvard law school Panel Discussion
The Internet Security panel addressed the issue of Internet security, proposing ways to make policies more responsive to the ever-evolving threats.

A Global Dialogue on Challenges and Solutions
‘the nature of threats has changed. We are no longer talking about hackers and amateurs. malicious acts are becoming part of the strategy of some nation states and criminal groups. their effectiveness is largely based on the internet. ‘

John Henry Clippinger The centrality of the Internet to business and government operations and in the lives of private citizens worldwide make particularly disturbing the unprecedented set of threats to online security that have resulted from its explosive growth and rapid evolution. Ranging from hacking and “hacktivism” to cybercrime and cyberwarfare, a variety of malevolent acts are either perpetrated or organized online. In effect, Jeffrey Friedberg said, the Internet has become a battlefield characterized by a broad range of sophisticated threats to which there is as yet no equally sophisticated response. Friedberg argued that we should be doing much more to educate the public about phishing and malicious software and developing protection technologies and law-enforcement mechanisms. He added that it is crucial to see and understand the threats as they evolve and create global responses. He warned, however, that the scale of threats and the imperfectability of technologies and online consumer behavior make perfect solutions impossible. K.E Taipale agreed, adding that any solutions will have to focus on managing insecurity, much as the public health system deals with unknown diseases by isolating and managing threats as they arise. Jonathan Zittrain warned that, in terms of online security and the manageability of threats, each day is a little bit worse than the last. The nature of the Internet as a largely uncontrolled and unsupervised open-source environment where benign and malicious actors coexist and interact anonymously poses a fundamental challenge to those trying to improve security without encroaching on users’ privacy . Zittrain argued for the necessity of some form of anonymous supervision to get a better sense of the threat’s parameters, as well as for gatekeeping software and consumer education in control of private information. Pradeep Khosla said it will be difficult to inject more responsibility and tougher quality warranties into software development because the Internet as a global public good often clashes with the interests of private companies that provide operational tools and content. He noted however that some basic things can be done to the next product cycle more secure.
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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION D
Jody Westby discussed three key areas in which practical improvements should be made. First, noting that only 7 percent of corporations have effective online-risk governance structures in place, she said that a governance guide that could help them with this has been developed. Second, with respect to a global response to cybercrime and cyberwarfare, she argued for more holistic legislation and international enforcement mechanisms,. Finally, she called for enhanced cooperation capabilities, noting that this has been resisted in the area of cyberwarfare, which many countries, including the U.S., have engaged in. Westby concluded that with .5 billion users in  countries connected to the Internet, the challenges are clearly enormous.

The Shape of Things to Come
John Rendon discussed cyberactivist campaigns—most recently in China, Estonia and Georgia—as self-organizing systems and alliances between individual actors and state entities aimed at mounting cyberprotests and cyberattacks against perceived enemies. Often temporary and shadowy, these alliances are very hard to trace or prevent, Rendon said, noting that although state complicity is evident in some cases, often it is merely individual citizens who feel justified and empowered by acting in concert. Because of lack of accountability, the possibility of deniability by actors and growing numbers of platforms for action, deterrence is a monumental task, said Richard ONeill, adding that, lack of transparency and low barriers to entry fundamentally challenge old notions of deterrence. Echoing Jody Westby, he said that governments must harmonize legislation and enforcement mechanisms, raising the costs to actors and building resilience into every aspect of the system. Itamara Lochard argued that the overall security picture is complicated by old issues of freedom of speech and new challenges in the form of coordinated strategic nonviolent action and “hacktivist campaigns.” She questioned whether posting online instructions on building a bomb is a crime and noted the growth in terrorist recruiting on the Web, where individuals and inflammatory images and speech are increasingly accessible. Strategic nonviolent action and so-called hacktivist campaigns—often aimed at jamming system or information networks— challenge state control and prove how easy it is for groups to damage a nation’s stability. She added that local and global crime syndicates use information technology to coordinate across borders and threat categories. To tilt the balance of power in favor of the good guys, argued Tom Malone, public and private entities must promote collective intelligence efforts and enforcement actions.

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions A Global Dialogue on Challenges and Solutions
• • • • • The Internet has become a battlefield characterized by a broad range of sophisticated threats to which an equally sophisticated response is lacking. We need to educate users about the dangers they face on line and provide practical mitigating advice and solutions. Technical components, including gatekeeping software, need to be improved and coordinated. Legislative and enforcement efforts need to be harmonized, and corporations must improve their onlinerisk-governance structures. To create adequate solutions, we need an exhaustive picture of the threat network. Using a public-health model, we need to manage insecurity by isolating and controlling threats as they arise.

The Shape of Things to Come
• • • Coordinated cybercrime, cyberwarfare and hacktivist campaigns pose a fundamental challenge to state control, the concept of free speech in cyberspace and the traceability of perpetrators. Enhanced cooperation capabilities are crucial to any international efforts to curb and control cybercrimi nality and warfare, including the development of more holistic legislation and international enforcement mechanisms. Anonymous surveillance may be needed to gauge rising threats.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION D
EDUCATION, CREATIVITY AND THE MIND Featured Delegates Dr. Allan Goodman, president, institute of international education Dr. Gino Yu, cofounder, polyu merecl Alan Hassenfeld, chairman, hasbro inc Dr. Nancy Kanwisher, professor of brain & cognitive sciences, mit Richard Meier, President, richard meier & partners Dr. Richard Silberstein, professor of neuroscience, swinburne university Gérard Mortier, director general, opéra national de paris Dr. Majid Fotuhi, director, center for memory and brain health Jimmy Wales, founder, Wikipedia Dr. Peter Fonagy, professor of psychoanalysis, university college london Dr. Colin Blakemore, professor of neuroscience, oxford university Susan Robb, artist Dr. Leonard Mlodinow, professor of physics, caltech Fred Mednick, Founder, teachers Without borders Dr. John Stein, professor of neuroscience, oxford university Master of Ceremonies Dr. Antonio Damasio, professor of neuroscience, usc Keynote Address Jan Peter Balkenende, prime minister of the netherlands Creativity Belongs to Everyone In his keynote address to the session on Education, Creativity and the Mind, Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende, of the Netherlands, discussed how creativity can be cultivated through education to maintain competitiveness and encourage innovation and growth. He referred to the Dutch educational system and its emphasis on diversified, specialized and creative education.
‘for countries that Want to compete in today’s World, an increasingly important question is, to be creative or not to be?’

Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende

Prime Minister Balkenende began by arguing that creativity is crucial to competitiveness and success in the world today and that national governments must stimulate and encourage creativity to this end. He argued that through educational policies, governments can help develop children’s talents and nourish their natural openness, curiosity and sense of commitment.
‘creativity is not restricted to the elites. everyone has a seed of creativity inside and has the right to an education that makes this seed groW and floWer.’

Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION D
Nourishing Creativity and Challenging Children
Prime Minister Balkenende told the delegates that Dutch schools grant parents and children maximum freedom in choosing which talents to develop. Children throughout the country can be enrolled in schools with different creative programmes, from design and IT to the arts. In addition to learning reading, writing, math and general information about the world, children are encouraged to nurture their unique strengths in these special schools. Prime Minister Balkenende said that this diversified educational system was achieved by allowing schools to choose how they teach and meet nationally mandated education levels and criteria. By granting schools the main responsibility, he argued, the government has created a system tailored to the needs of individual children and that nurtures the type of thinking and skills applicable to each field. The prime minister cited as examples two schools: One develops creativity and independent honking by engaging children in business projects; the other partners with the private sector to couple formal education with practical work experience. In the first, he said, children learn about communication, planning, commitment and teamwork through setting up their own businesses, while in the second, they pursue their interests in the film and music industries by participating in real-life event management. Both ensure that creativity is given a practical and meaningful outlet.
‘happiness lies in the joy of achievement and the thrill of creative effort. roosevelt made a direct connection betWeen creativity and happiness.’

Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende

Challenges
Prime Minister Balkenende identified several socioeconomic obstacles to educational programs. Disadvantaged children, for instance, are more likely to leave school without diplomas. The government and schools, he said, try to keep children from dropping out by focusing on early childhood education, thus establishing a strong foundation for future development. The prime minister also discussed children’s inequality of opportunity: While some have active and culturally engaged parents who support their learning process, the families of others have little contact with their communities. The latter include immigrant families, who are often unable to communicate in the native language. Schools can ameliorate the situation by engaging all children with their communities in a variety of ways, the prime minister pointed out, adding that the government grants all children under  free access to the country’s museums.

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Creativity Belongs to Everyone
• • Governments and schools need to encourage creativity to ensure that their economies and societies are competitive. Educational policies should develop children’s natural curiosity and creativity.

Nourishing Creativity and Challenging Children
• • Governments need to encourage educational diversity and specialization by allowing schools to choose how to teach. Schools must engage children in their communities,—through business ventures and private-sector projects, for example.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION D
Challenges
Governments and schools need to address inequality of opportunity by encouraging children to engage in cultural activities in their communities. Children must be instilled with a commitment to education at a very early age to reduce the numbers of dropouts.

Panel Discussion Back to Basics
‘nature is to a great degree indifferent. there is a neutrality about nature that We need to learn to control.’

Antonio Damasio The panellists agreed that in addition to emphasizing creativity and community participation, education must to provide for children’s basic needs, such as good nutrition, open communication and play, without which formal education cannot bear fruit. Majid Fotuhi stated that recent research has connected childhood obesity to a significantly higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s and warned that it can harm their physical development and ability to learn. To improve the capacity to learn, he noted, we must to take nutrition and healthy living more seriously. John Stein agreed, stating that poor nutrition, particularly a lack of certain vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, has been linked to brain impairment that plays a role in dyslexia and the inability to understand social clues. He argued that independent play outdoors—a natural part of active learning—is undervalued, even ignored, in discussions about education and parenting and asserted the importance of independent adventure and a connection to nature. Alan Hassenfeld and Peter Fonagy also emphasized the importance of play in developing children’s natural creativity and empathy with other beings and nature as whole. Richard Silberstein argued against the current excessively linear view of learning and creativity, citing neurobiological research indicating that children with ADHD and high IQs are highly creative and use different thought processes and therefore require different educational approaches. Fonagy pointed to the need to take into account children’s subjective states. Antonio Damasio argued for the importance of neurobiology in formulating effective educational policies, because it helps us understand social processes and the ways in which positive emotions and reactions can be encouraged in young people. Gino Yu added that we need to look at how new technologies, including games, can be used to this end. In formulating educational policies, Nancy Kanwisher argued, it is important to use common sense, as well as neuroscience. The key, she stated, is to nurture children’s empathy and intelligence and promote understanding through cultural and educational exchanges. Colin Blakemore argued for a new educational paradigm combining common sense with an understanding of the neurological basis of learning, building on the brain’s plasticity at key developmental stages, particularly with regard to language acquisition and teaching.

The Making of Global Citizens
‘if We Would use art more in education, We Would understand our unity much more naturally.’

Gérard Mortier

Gérard Mortier argued that culture is important not only because it helps us connect with and understand others but also because it allows us to know ourselves better, as individuals and as societies . He said that it was vital to once again make art and culture central to educational and government policies, rather than mere appendixes. John Stein and Susan Robb stated that the arts are critical to the learning process itself and to the development of visual and critical thinking in young people. Critical abilities, said Prime Minister Balkenende, are required to filter the visual and other information with which we are overloaded today and are thus vital to the happiness and development of responsible and engaged citizens. Antonio Damasio added that by promoting cultural self-awareness and active engagement, education could help mold good global citizens.
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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION D
‘people are increasingly learning from and With each other rather than about each other.’

Fred Mednick

Sound educational policies support economic growth and sustainable development. Fred Mednick argue that crosscultural networks connecting students and teachers can serve as forums for sharing knowledge and the best practices of different professions across educational systems. Informal channels of communication and sharing like Wikipedia and Flickr are becoming increasingly important in children’s and adult learning. Allan Goodman added that scholarly exchanges in more formal settings contributes to “brain gain” worldwide and should be supported more vigorously. Damasio argued, however, that despite the growing importance of communal knowledge and allegiances, educational policies still must to be formulated within a national context, necessitating a focused and balanced approach to education overall.

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Back to Basics
• • • • • • Education must provide for children’s basic needs, such as good nutrition, open communication and play. Poor nutrition impairs children’s learning capabilities and makes them vulnerable to illnesses such as Alzheimer’s later. The development of dyslexia, among other conditions, is thought to be related to nutritional deficiencies. Children need to play more outdoors to learn independently about the world around them. Parents and schools must foster spontaneous and uncontrolled encounters with nature. The learning environment needs to take into account children’s individual needs and ways of learning and understanding the world. Neurobiology’s insights into social processes should serve as the basis for innovative educational policies aimed at encouraging children’s empathy and connectedness. Education can promote cultural understanding through formal and informal exchanges between students and teachers.

The Making of Global Citizens
• • • • Art and culture needs to again become central to educational policy, not only because they facilitate self-knowledge but also because they encourage connections between individuals, thus creating good global citizens. Art can stimulate the critical thinking that is increasingly important in a highly competitive and innovation-driven world. Cross-cultural networks connecting students and teachers should be encouraged and nurtured. Scholarly exchanges in more formal settings contribute to “brain gain” worldwide and should be vigorously supported.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION E
CLIMATE CHANGE VERSUS GLOBALIZATION Featured Delegates Stephen Heintz, President, rockefeller brothers fund Dr. Stephen Pacala, professor of ecology and evolutionary biology, princeton Dr. Michael Prather, professor of earth system science, uc irvine Evgeny Velikhov, President, russia research center, kurchatov institute Vishakha Desai, president and ceo, asia society Bill Roedy, chairman and ceo, mtv networks international Master of Ceremonies Vijay Vaitheeswaran, correspondent, the economist Keynote Address Olafur Ragnar Grimsson, president of iceland Time for Action
In his keynote speech to the session on Climate Change Versus Globalization President Olafur Ragnar Grimsson, of Iceland, stressed the urgency of a comprehensive and cohesive new approach to climate change. He argued that fundamental shifts in the way we see the world can occur, citing the transformation that ended of the Cold War as an example. He noted that we should draw inspiration from that success and not be discouraged by the challenge ahead.
‘it is possible to change the World. it Was possible to overcome the enormously heavy odds of the cold War. climate change is an enormous challenge that We noW face together. i take inspiration and courage from that time.’

President Olafur Ragnar Grimsson President Grimsson said that a rise in sea levels is just one threat that climate change poses and t a conference on the matter in Bangladesh that he visited demonstrated the interconnections among phenomena to which all countries are vulnerable. Unknown a few decades ago, melting glaciers in Iceland and Greenland, for instance, have raised sea levels, threatening the very existence of Bangladesh.
‘rising sea levels are an important demonstration of the fact that We are noW all in this together.’

President Olafur Ragnar Grimsson

A New Alliance
President Grimsson stated that an effective response to climate change requires a new alliance among the scientists, businesses and policy makers as well as a new diplomacy that goes far beyond traditional treaty negotiating t to build an innovative alliance among stakeholders. He said that renegotiating the Kyoto treaty would take too long and that immediate action is needed.
‘i believe very strongly that the time for talking is over. time for action has already started.’

President Olafur Ragnar Grimsson

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President Grimsson argued that a more-integrated clean-energy system harnessing the strengths, knowledge and technological capabilities of each country is our most urgent task. Only by combining Icelandic geothermal energy with Spanish solar power and Danish wind power, he said, can we prove that the renewable energy sources are viable alternatives to fossil fuels.

A New Activism
President Grimsson welcomed more discussion and debate on the issue of climate change to encourage stronger activism on the matter. He said that the science and technology communities need to put forward solutions to climate change debate, proposing concrete avenues to global change. Initiatives are necessary at every level of society. The president concluded by arguing for the need to transform our lifestyles and economies, how we organize our cities, build houses, travel, even eat. He pointed to the cattle industry as fundamental part of the problem and seconded the suggestion of Dr. Rajendra Pachauri, the chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, that we stop eating beef in order to reduce the its destructive impact.

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Time for Action
• • We can effect a fundamental shift in climate change if we believe it is possible and work hard for it. We are all in this together. The rise in sea levels in Bangladesh resulting from the melting of glaciers in Iceland proves how interconnected and global the problem is.

A New Alliance
• • A new alliance among the scientists, businesses and policy makers is needed to take climate policy beyond the traditional diplomatic method of negotiating treaties. Practical action is needed now. A more integrated clean-energy sector is needed to harness renewable energy sources and present them as viable alternatives to fossil fuels.

A New Activism
• • • The science and technology communities need to advance solutions to climate change. Every level of society must take initiative, rather than relying on international climate change treaties. We need to transform our lifestyles, from our eating habits to the way we structure societies and economies.

Panel Discussion Awareness, Action and Political Will
‘globalization and climate change have both created a level playing field and have flattened the World. both phenomena have also affected the bottom of the pyramid much more negatively. but the difference is that climate change brings up even more of a level playing field than globalization. as melting ice in iceland affects bangladesh, it becomes clear that this is everybody’s business.’

Vishakha N. Desai

‘climate change is both a manifestation of globalization and probably the premier example of hoW far globalization has gone.’

Stephen Heintz

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The panellists agreed that the juxtaposition of climate change and globalization masks the complexity of the relationship between the two phenomena, in which causality is no longer clearly distinguishable and where each reinforces the other. In seeking solutions, however, the possibility of global dissemination of information and opinions represents an unprecedented opportunity to mobilize international action on climate change. Several panellists argued that raising awareness and educating people about the importance of immediate action on the issue is vital. Steve Pacala noted that increasingly bad news on the scientific front is creating a sense of urgency in the political realm. Vishakha Desai said that even in developing countries with insufficient political will to act, public opinion is turning decisively in favor of change to mitigate the impact of rising temperatures. He favored cultural and political solutions that change views about development and progress, particularly in India and China, where much of the current wrangling over international agreements is playing out. Stephen Heintz argued for effecting real political, economic and cultural change by combining education with major policy initiatives. Bill Roedy emphasized the media’s role in raising awareness and encouraging activism among young people and suggested that media companies around the world launch a global climate initiative modeled after the AIDS initiative. The activism of new generations, he said, is important not only because it pushes political leaders into action but also because it creates a broad progressive mandate for climate change action. Vijay Vaitheeswaran stressed the importance of providing people with an empowering message and avoiding excessive pessimism and doomsday scenarios. The key, he and Desai argued, is to combine grassroots activities with the resources of governments and IGOs.
‘if you look at history, you see that really profound social change takes place When you have enormous energy coming from bottom up that meets Willing leadership at the top—this converts the energy to systemic change. We should therefore be pursuing strategies that encourage both.’

Stephen Heintz

A Civilizational Opportunity
‘it is easy to despair, given the bleak prognosis. yet, this is also a Wonderful opportunity for humankind. it is a civilizational opportunity to get an economy that is productive, efficient and reduces disparities, as Well as giving us an unprecedented opportunity to devise a system of global governance for the 21st century.’

Stephen Heintz Stephen Heintz said that mounting an effective and sustainable response to the climate change requires a fundamental shift in behavior, governance and economics. Heintz argued that as the loss of biodiversity intensifies and the number of climate exiles rises, we will be faced simultaneously with an unprecedented threat and a wonderful opportunity to forge a more just and effective global system.To this end, he said, we need to increase energy efficiency, invest in carbon sequestration, develop a clean economy and institute a cap-and-trade system. The potential gains in efficiency and economically will be immense, he stated, noting that some have called green energy the largest economic opportunity of the st century. Evgeny Pavlovich Velikhov argued for incorporating financial incentives and involving small and medium-size businesses in developing a green economy. Several panellists said that businesses and governments need to employ existing technology more effectively in combating global warming.

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Awareness, Action and Political Will
• • • The ability to disseminate information and opinions globally represents an unprecedented opportunity to mobilize international action on climate change. International agencies, governments, NGOs and the media need to work together to raise awareness and encourage activism in young people. A strengthened civil platform for change will encourage governments to act and commit to new policies and emission caps.
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• The message needs to be positive and unified. Confusion will give rise to scepticism, while doomsday scenarios will increase pessimism and discourage meaningful action.

A Civilizational Opportunity • • • • Governments, International agencies and NGOs need to develop a global green economy based on energy efficiency, carbon sequestration, clean energy development and a cap-and-trade system. Governments and businesses need to employ existing technologies to cut emissions and develop green products and services. Views about development and progress need to be changed. Green energy may be the greatest economic opportunity of the st century.

IN CONVERSATION—Sir Salman Rushdie with Professor Homi K. Bhabha
The working lunch conversation between Sir Salman Rushdie and Professor Homi K. Bhabha explored multiculturalism, identity, textuality and the right to interpretation, the critical power of art and the elusive and illusory nature of security in our lives. The conversation was based on ideas expounded in the works of Sir Rushdie and a broader critical framework.
‘creativity is chaotic, not ordered or disciplined. through the process of Writing and exploration of garbage,you begin to find yourself thinking about things of interest and questioning Why these things are still sticking around. out of this process, a story emerges.’

Sir Salman Rushdie

Cultural Gulfs, Cultural Clashes: The Self and the Collective
Professor Bhabha said that Midnight’s Children, in describing the experience of adolescence in multicultural, diverse and rapidly changing post-Colonial India, “introduces ourselves to ourselves.” The Satanic Verses, on the other hand, by delineating the experience of a generation of South Asians in Britain, is as much a history of Britain and London as of global diasporas, immigration and alienation in a foreign land. Sir Rushdie responded that it was his sense of London as “visible but unseen” in the Thatcher era that drove the story in Satanic Verses, and that as an author, he wanted to make visible the London of the minority populations that had been ignored. In a broader sense, Professor Bhabha noted, these works reflect an emerging global world and the complex patterns of human experiences within it. Professor Bhabha noted that multiculturalism in India, particularly in Mumbai, arrived intrusively and in effect characterized the birth of the city as a place where Indian, British Colonial and Portuguese culture met. Growing up in such a city, Sir Rushdie said, it was impossible to see culture or literature as pure or to approve of promoting some kind of cultural purification. Instead of purity, he suggested, we should seek refuge and solace in dirt and impurity. The Satanic Verses, he added, was born out of perceptions of this clash, this impurity and the experience of spending one’s youth and adulthood in a foreign country and having to construct a self anew in this alien environment.
‘the human self is rooted in society and in language, in a place you knoW, in a community that knoWs you and in an intellectual system Within Which you live. you construct your oWn self from those roots. ‘

Sir Salman Rushdie

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Sir Rushdie said that those roots were severed through the act of migration from South Asia to England, to a place that was foreign on all levels, a place that was alien and scary both to the individual and to the group. A painful reconstruction of one’s identity followed, he said, marked by uncomfortable questions about what to accept and what not to accept about the new culture, about one’s place within it. A key consequence of this process was tension between generations and between immigrants and the majority population. A simple act of migration, he argued, necessitated a radical questioning of all that had been taken for granted.

The Power of Language, the Power of Art: An Interpretative Struggle
Another key theme in The Satanic Verses—and one of immense contemporary significance—is textuality: the right to interpret, to question and to challenge the written word and, more specifically, the transmission of the word of God in the Koran. Professor Bhabha argued that any form of textuality has authority that is always open to interpretation. Language does not tolerate dictatorships, because it is born out of and open to creative interpretation. Sir Rushdie responded that the Koran exhibits an element of confused composition, because not all its pieces and chapters were in the right order.This confusion, he said, awoke an interest in him in the idea of imperfection in transcription and transmission of ideas and traditions. In reading the Koran as the word of God, for example, we have to blindly trust the accuracy of transmission and repetition that translated the word of God into the Arabic language and into the Koran. Ibn Rushd, Sir Rushdie said, attempted to forge a philosophical logic for the right to interpret the Koran by arguing that the Koran itself is a product of interpretation, since it is not possible to put into human words the divine quality and divine message of God without interpreting them. By putting into language what was originally not linguistic, Rushdie continued, Ibn Rushd set a philosophical precedent for the interpretative freedoms on which The Satanic Verses was based. A rejection of this openness—either theologically or culturally—was one of the great internal tragedies and self-inflicted wounds of the Muslim world. Sir Rushdie stated that literature and, more generally, art are tools for critical reflection, as well as for defiance and questioning. He noted that his instinct as a writer has always been to question, to be iconoclastic and to satirize reality.
‘the ability of literature is to do something neW, to go to the edges of the possible and push outWards, not to stay in the safe middle ground Where everything is knoWn but to go out to the Wilderness, to the frontier, and try to push that outWards in order to slightly increase the sum of What is possible to knoW and think, to understand and therefore be.’

Sir Salman Rushdie Answering a question from the audience, Sir Rushdie acknowledged the political power of art and argued that by their very natures, art and literature can be deemed political, even if not originally produced with that purpose in mind, because they confront excesses of power and tyranny by offering competing interpretations of reality, history and identity. Midnight’s Children, he said, was in part a reaction to the denials and distortions of India’s official history.
‘memory in itself can become a political act if the author Writes What he or she remembers and if political poWer denies this reality. there is a sense in Which artists are running up against poWer, because the very nature of an imaginative act cannot be carried out Within political constraints.’

Sir Salman Rushdie

The Inescapability of Insecurity
Professor Bhabha noted that there is a new tone, a new approach in Shalimar the Clown—a way of looking at culture that involves the notion of security and the prevalence of security concerns in today’s society. What is interesting in this work, Bhabha continued, is that it gives security a phenomenological and experiential character, making it a psychological issue. Sir Rushdie noted that this is very much a function of his own experiences amid the furor that followed the publication of The Satanic Verses, and that the book reflects his belief that security is always transient and never absolute. If one lives from the point of view of worst-case scenarios and allow security to define one’s world, one is entirely paralyzed. There is no way to satisfy the literal requirements of security. We have to accept a degree of insecurity in our lives to function. Just as artists have to take chances, to challenge, to question and to avoid a sense of creative security, everyone has to accept that anxiety and creativity are part and parcel of the human experience.
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HUMAN SECURITY
Featured Delegates Thomas Malone, professor of management, mit sloan school Dr. Linton Wells II, transformation chair, national defense university Richard O’Neill, president, the highlands group K.A. Taipale, senior fellow, World policy institute Jody Westby, ceo, global cyber risk llc Kenneth Roth, executive director, human rights Watch Dr. Itamara V. Lochard, senior researcher, the fletcher school John Rendon, ceo and president, the rendon group Master of Ceremonies John Henry Clippinger, senior fellow, harvard law school Keynote Introduction Antonio Maria Costa, undersecretary general of the un Malign Neglect
‘We have the poWer to Work against drugs, crime and human trafficking. We share a responsibility as human beings in public office and in corporations to help our brothers and sisters escape. let us assume this responsibility.’

Antonio Maria Costa

Antonio Maria Costa, undersecretary General of the United Nations and executive director of the United Nations Office and Drugs and Crime (UNODC), opened the session on Human Security by discussing three areas of concentration for the UNODC: drug dependency, human trafficking and corruption. Costa stated that we have a shared responsibility for human security because security is a shared aspiration. It is a part of human nature to desire security at home, on the streets, within our borders and within cultures and faiths. Although we all seek security, we tend to dismiss drugs, slavery and corruption as others’ problems. This, he said, is a form of malign neglect that continues to characterize our approach to these problems.
‘We are citizens in an increasingly interdependent and globalized World. if something happens someWhere else in the World, it could very Well flash back to our oWn front yard. it is not somebody else’s problem; it is our problem.’

Antonio Maria Costa

Costa said we need to change how we define human security, because interconnected threats call for shared responsibility.

Drugs
Although drug addiction has stabilized to a certain extent in the developed world, Costa said, the third world is experiencing a sharp rise. In addition to fuelling the cycle of marginalization and crime, drug addiction strains poor countries’ scarce resources of and contributes to the erosion of their social fabric. He argued that focusing through legislation and law enforcement solely on curbing the supply of drugs is misguided, that a lasting solution requires addressing demand and the circumstances that fuel it, as well. Marginalization and social isolation, poverty and misery lead to drug use and can be remedied only through society-wide engagement. Parents need to develop self-esteem and healthy habits in their children, while society needs to prevent marginalization and provide treatment for addicts. In addition to political and legal measures, the media must cease glamorizing drug use.
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‘yes, We need supply measures, yes, We need laW enforcement. but parents, social Workers, governments, health-care providers and the media all have to play a role in this. if they do, the result Will be a sort of civil vaccination injected into everybody, and i believe We can [curb drug use].’

Antonio Maria Costa

Human Trafficking
Human trafficking—forcing women and young girls into sexual slavery, in providing unpaid labor for plantations, mines and sweatshops— is booming all over the world, Costa warned. Although increasingly visible and recognized, this modern form of slavery flourishes because greed and willful hamper efforts to address it. .
‘the blood, sWeat and tears of these people stain Whatever We buy everything We eat and Wear.’

Antonio Maria Costa To keep greed, from prevailing, individual consumers and corporations must become aware of their responsibility for this evil and demand that governments take their obligation to eradicate it seriously. Although the UN adopted a protocol on human trafficking in 000, very few countries signed on to it, Costa said, and very few countries have done enough to pursue offenders and protect victims. Many countries’ legal systems, for example, prosecute sexual slaves rather than treat them as victims. Costa also stressed the need for the private sector to ensure that its supply chain is free of exploitation.
‘not enough is being done. it is a crime that screams for revenge in this World and the next.’

Antonio Maria Costa

Corruption
Many still see corruption as inevitable, Costa said. Only by challenging this assumption can law enforcement reduce corruption’s destructive impact. Greed drives businesses and individuals in all industries and all countries to engage use corrupt means to boost gains, both personal and corporate. The solution, he argued, is for business leaders to promote integrity by incorporating it into their operations, for the public to scrutinize political campaigns and parties and for banks to be held accountable for sheltering stolen assets. He point to the Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative recently launched by the UNODC and the World Bank to reclaim stolen assets stashed away in countries such as Haiti, Ukraine, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Malign Neglect
• • We need to approach the protection of human security as a shared responsibility and embrace the fundamental uniformity of the human experience. Interconnected threats require interconnected and society-wide responses. As drug addiction increases ,the developing world suffers particularly badly from the effects of farming, processing, smuggling and consuming these drugs. Efforts at curbing supply need to be complemented by a society-wide effort to curb demand, particularly by fighting isolation and marginalization. Parents must develop self-esteem and healthy habits in their children, and society must eliminate marginalization and ensure proper treatment for addicts. The health-care system should provide adequate treatment for addicts, and the media just stop glamorizing drug use.
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Drugs
• • •

THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION F
Human Trafficking
• • • • Human trafficking is pulls women and men into sexual slavery and forced labor all over the world. It impacts everything we eat, wear or use. Consumers must demand products that are free of exploitation. Governments must commit to prosecuting offenders and protecting victims and become parties to relevant UN protocols. The private sector needs to ensure that its supply chain is free of exploitation.

Corruption
• • • Businesses and public officials should lead by example by promoting a culture of integrity in their domains. Governments must cooperate with global agencies in recovering stolen assets. Banks must be held accountable for sheltering stolen assets.

Panel Discussion Managing Insecurity
Richard ONeill stated that the spectrum of threats has changed radically in the past decades and that both traditional and nontraditional ones had to be addressed by holistic, innovative and means. Equally important, said K.A Taipale, is to accept that these threats are highly individual in character and that absolute security is an impossible policy objective, rather, it is possibly only to manage insecurity and avoid cascading failures that spiral out of control. The most fitting analogy, argued Taipale, is with diseases that we can identify, limit and contain, setting up mechanisms to detect new ones as the arise, as they undoubtedly will, and act against them. John Rendon pointed to the corresponding spectrum of opportunities for finding globally acceptable and enforceable solutions to the threats. In an increasingly multipolar world facing an increasingly complex set of diffuse threats to individuals as well as states, simple formulas for cooperation are not sufficient, he said. Rather, policies on security must be specific to the state or group involved. Most important, dialogue with communities affected by threats such as drugs and human trafficking must be the cornerstone of security policy.
‘it is not enough that the leadership discuss the problems; they need to create the space to empoWer and enable citizens Who are affected by them to participate in solutions that change the conditions in Which they live, Work and play.’

John Rendon

Linton Wells II stated that the same broad-based involvement is vital as well in efforts to rebuild communities after conflicts and disasters. At these time, cooperation among the government, corporations and civil society is the best way ensure a sustainable supply of resources. Ken Roth went further, calling on civil organizations to talk an active role in identifying and solving difficult issues such as landmines and cluster bombs.

Transformed Threats, Evolving Opportunities
Tom Malone and Itamara V. Lochard identified two threats that policy makers should address and as well as possible solutions to them. Lochard discussed the threat posed by complex criminal organizations’ taking over weak states from which to launch their activities, citing the example of Guinea Bissau, where Columbian cartels now operate rings that smuggle drugs into Europe. She stated that the influence of such organizations can be reduced through only through the direct engagement of policy makers. Malone explained how collective intelligence and cross-disciplinary dialogue could help in the creation of sustainable and innovative solutions to climate change. He suggested that just as criminal organizations have expand their operations into cyberspace for malicious purposes, global computer simulations and platforms like Wikipedia can be exploited to generate wide-ranging, openly formulated solutions to global warming. At the least, he said, this approach would educate the public in the issues and build a truly participatory st–century form of cyberdemocracy.
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Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Managing Insecurity
• • • • We need to accept that absolute security is unattainable and learn to live with and manage insecurity. As we contain one threat, a new one will always arise. We must recognize that the perception of threats is individual and seek solutions that are tailored to the particular context and needs of the affected communities. Closer cooperation between the public and private sectors is necessary in addressing security issues,especially in post conflict and post disaster situations, in which reliable supplies of reconstruction resources are vital. Civil organization can play significant roles in implementing security strategies, highlighting threats and pressuring governments and global agencies to address them.

Transformed Threats, Evolving Opportunities
• • Complex criminal networks are increasingly using cyberspace and weak states as platforms for expanding their operations, power and control. Policy makers must confront them directly to contain and minimize the threat. The Internet can also be used to harness the collective intelligence of businesses, governments and civil societies to generate innovative and sustainable solutions to complex problems like climate change, creating a form of cyber democracy.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION F
ECONOMIES OF CRISIS, ECONOMICS OF CHANGE: Credit, Commodities and Trade Featured Delegates Vladimir Kvint, President, international academy of emerging markets Matthew Bishop, chief business Writer, the economist Guy Sebban, secretary general, international chamber of commerce H. E. Mr. Nizar Baraka, deputy minister for economic & general affairs, morocco Sheikha Lubna Al Qasimi, minister for foreign trade, united arab emirates Master of Ceremonies Robert Hormats, vice chairman, goldman sachs Keynote Introduction Shaukat Aziz, former prime minister of pakistan The Causes of the Global Financial Crisis
“people have not appreciated the merits and the full impact of globalization, the linkages in the World, the connectivity in the World. as a result of globalization, [the connections} are much more intense than people realize. to say We are different and not impacted [by the crisis] is Wrong. each country is affected differently, but everyone is impacted.”

Former Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz

Former Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz, of Pakistan, introduced the session on Economies of Crisis, Economics of Change with a keynote address describing the causes and effects of the current financial crisis. He argued that globalization has resulted in denser and more complex linkages among economies, societies and corporations. At the same time, banks and financial institutions aggressively seeking ways in which to invest their excess liquidity have perpetuated a mentality of borrow today for a better tomorrow that lies at the root of the subprime mortgage crisis. That in turn led to the global financial meltdown that, together with the rise in commodity prices has shaken the foundations of the global financial system. Aziz identified three key causes of the current crisis: bad risk management and excessive spending by financial institutions, loose regulation and lax enforcement and excessive speculation in the commodity markets. Aziz claimed that greed drove financial institutions to ignore prudence and checks and balances in making deals and investments with an eye on quarterly earnings and personal gain rather than long-term sustainability. This resulted in excessive risk taking including making loans without proper documentation, which in turn encouraged excessive spending by both corporations and individuals. He further blamed outdated and ineffectively enforced regulations for allowing this risk taking to occur without adequate oversight. Finally, he pointed to excessive and unchecked speculation in the oil markets, which drove up oil prices, sparking inflation and hurting the poor in particular. The result of these three factors, Aziz asserted, is slow growth, high inflation, increasing deficits, frozen credit markets and dangerous levels of uncertainty in the financial markets. While companies are affected by tight credit, the poor are struggling to meet even their basic needs for energy and food. When all income goes toward paying for basic sustenance, Aziz said, future prospects suffer.

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The Way Forward
“We succeed in life and in What We do only When We look at all stakeholders: our customers, the public at large and of course ourselves. this Was throWn out the WindoW, and there Was this greed syndrome instead.”

Former Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz

The former prime minister argued that substantive change has to occur at several levels to overcome the current crisis and build a more sustainable future. In the commodity markets, excessive speculation has to be reined in. Sustainable and equitable growth, he stressed, is possible only if speculative activity like the short-selling of stocks and commodities is halted. Aziz also stated that financial regulation has to become more pre-emptive globally and that regulators must develop the skills and foresight to move with the markets. While recognizing the desirability of deregulation in principle, Aziz argued that a more effective regulatory framework would make the system run more smoothly overall. Aziz emphasized the central importance of trade reform that enables developing countries to create wealth more effectively. He pointed out that many countries that have deregulated their financial markets still engage in trade protectionism and identified a lack of political will to change this. Such change is necessary, however, he argued, for sustainable and successful development that improves the quality of life of billions of people. The impact on importing countries, he claimed, would not be as damaging as is often assumed.
“We face a serious challenge. We need to adjust; We need to change. governments need to change, institutions need to change, and individuals need to change. if We do not change, We Will get into deeper trouble. if We do change, hoWever, [the crisis] Will be very manageable. this Will alloW us to protect the institutions and the system and guard us against systemic risk. the customers, the consumers, the people at large deserve better.”

Former Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions The Causes of the Global Financial Crisis
• • • Financial institutions must improve their risk management and manage their assets for the long term, taking no account the interests of all stakeholders. Regulation was lax and failed to spot weaknesses in the financial system. Excessive speculation drove up oil prices, which in turn increased the cost of food and energy around the world, hurting the poor in particular. Speculative activities like selling stocks and commodities short can be very harmful. The regulatory framework needs to be strengthened and modernized to be pre-emptive. Reform of world trade and improved market access for developing countries in particular is needed if sustainable and equitable growth is to return. Adjustments and changes need to take place at all levels: Individuals need to curb their spending, governments need to implement stronger regulation and more sustainable fiscal policies, and world trade needs to be made freer.

The Way Forward
• • • •

Panel Discussion Changing Paradigms
‘in life you learn, and history Will tell us, that some of the biggest mistakes have been made When one is feeling strong and at the top. We need humility, and We need to have our feet firmly on the ground, and We must recognize that success doesn’t stay forever.”

Former Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz

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The current crisis, the panellists agreed, is fundamentally changing the way states perceive and seek to achieve economic security, highlighting the true impact of globalization on individual governments and economies. Sheikha Lubna Al Qasimi said it proves that economic and financial developments must be regulated and overseen more carefully and has reminded people who were caught up in the preceding boom of the possibility of a real and painful bust. She added that this might be a necessary market correction, albeit one of extraordinary scale, and is bringing sovereign wealth funds to the forefront of economic actors. Mathew Bishop added that the crisis signals the end of American or European domination, bringing new actors to center stage and irrevocably changing the global balance of power. Guy Sebban noted that China’s influence—at the geopolitical level and among business elites and in such organizations such as the International Chamber of Commerce—has grown immensely in the past year, perhaps because the U.S. and Europe have been much more severely affected.
“the interdependence of financial markets today is so apparent that you cannot afford to have someone else fail or lose because it Will come back and bite you.”

Sheikha Lubna al Qasimi

Nizar Baraka, of Morocco, noted that pressure to change is also being brought to bear in internal politics. With the real economy suffering as well as the financial markets, citizens, especially in the U.S., are demanding populist measures to shelter them from the vagaries of an increasingly decentralized and diffuse global economy, including the protection of domestic industries and local jobs. .Bishop stressed the detrimental effect of such protectionist measures, which he said could topple the investment and trade systems that have developed over the past decades. Louise Blouin expressed hope that the international community can steer America away from protectionism and isolationism and toward a leadership role in regulatory and trade reform and the active development of a green economy including a robust carbon-trading regime. She added that leaders all over the world need to show unprecedented levels of political will in forging a positive new future out of such grim circumstances.

The Doha Dilemma
“i think the very success of globalization and free trade depends on the process being phased in and measured. if We think that We can press one button and everything changes, it simply Will not happen.”

Former Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz

The unfolding crisis makes it more important than ever to create an open, resilient and effective trading system, the panellists agreed. Sheikha al Qasimi argued that although bilateral trade agreements will continue to play a role in the short and medium terms in advancing manufacturing standards and providing market access to struggling or emerging economies, the conclusion of a new global trade regime through Doha is necessary for the global economy’s long-term success. Nizar Baraka added that the crisis has provided us with an opportunity to visualize and realize big reforms. Guy Sebban said that political leaders have so far failed not only to press for a successful conclusion to Doha but, perhaps more significantly, to create the popular support and momentum needed to build a new global trade system. It is vital to build consensus both among the populace and, particularly, among businesses, he said. If the dialogue and decision making within the Doha framework becomes more committed and forward-looking, climate change policy may also be energized, transforming the way economic and security issues are conceived and discussed. Hormats emphasized the need for a serious dialogue on the economic potential of green technologies and the potential impact of inaction on the world’s climate.

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Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Changing Paradigms
• • •
We need to bring humility and caution back to the financial system. If the current crisis is a necessary, albeit painful, market correction that we should learn from. The crisis signals a new and increasingly complex balance of power, in which U.S. and European dominance is diluted and genuinely multilateral solutions to problems must be sought. It is vital to avoid protectionism, which will only harm the global economy and cause mistrust and isolationism. Politicians must have the courage to resist taking the easy way out of a painful situation.

The Doha Dilemma
• • It is more important than ever to open up trade and conclude of the Doha round of talks. The crisis presents an opportunity to visualize and realize major reforms. Political leaders around the world have failed to create the popular support and momentum needed to commit to a new global trade regime. They need to commit to Doha.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION F
SPOTLIGHT ON INDIA: Globalization and the Need for Inclusion
Featured Delegates Falguni Sen, Professor of Management, fordham university Master of Ceremonies: Dr. Amit Mitra, secretary general, ficci Keynote address: Dr. Ashwani Kumar, minister of state for commerce and industry, india Panel Discussion
‘the disparities of our globalized World stare us in the face, but [globalization] cannot be reversed. the challenge is to mold it in a Way that Will not be alienating and divisive.’

Minister Ashwani Kumar

The Spotlight on India session took the form of free-flowing discussion and exchange of ideas among Dr. Amit Mitra, Dr. Ashwani Kumar and Professor Falguni Sen on inclusion in a globalizing world. Minister Ashwani Kumar stated that dignity is a core value and an organizing principle of an inclusive approach to globalization, a function both of a socially mobile and just society and of the inclusive identity politics of a world that is at peace with its own diversity. He argued that asserting one’s identity is a basic human aspiration and the challenge is to do so without losing the larger picture. In India, he said, the notion of one world is well established and must be incorporated more effectively into today’s identity politics. Professor Falguni Sen noted the tension between traditional values and the homogenizing global system. People in India and elsewhere are trying to assert their dignity, to regain control in an ever-changing and unforgiving global environment. Minister Kumar said that policy makers should follow a model of inclusive growth and focus on creating a democratic, broadly just, not utopian, and mobile society. Only in such a society, he stated, can people be expected to understand and embrace the benefits of a globalized world. Professor Sen agreed but noted the real but manageable difficulties of fostering fast growth and an inclusive and stable society at the same time. Minister Kumar concluded by stressing the importance of spiritual well-being in a rapidly transforming world. He noted that in India, spirituality has long been a force for stability and tolerance but that it has recently come under immense pressure in this function and argued that the world should move toward a broader spirituality and sense of common responsibility and shared destiny to counteract the alienation of globalization.
‘it is for us, for policy makers, citizens and stakeholders to determine and ensure What Will be the consequences of globalization, because globalization has not been Willed by us; it is Willed upon us.’

Minister Ashwani Kumar

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION G
PHILANTHRO-CAPITALISM
Featured Delegates Michael Green, coauthor, philanthrocapitalism Amir Dossal, executive director, un office for partnerships Alan Hassenfeld, chairman, hasbro inc Stephen Heintz, president, rockefeller brothers fund David Fenton, founder and ceo, fenton communications Philippe Douste-Blazy, president, unitaid Master of Ceremonies Matthew Bishop, chief business Writer, the economist Panel Discussion Key Concepts
The panel discussed the changing nature of philanthropy and the strengths and shortcomings of a new generation of philanthro-capitalists who are applying business models to the not-for-profit sector. The panel also identified ways in which NGOs can more effectively leverage their resources and influence.

Seeking Leverage
“the characteristic feature of philanthro-capitalists is their relentless search for leverage over big problems—innovating, experimenting, learning and looking for different Ways to solve problems. this movement has the potential to produce a productivity miracle in philanthropy.”

Michael Green Michael Green opened the panel by arguing that a new generation of philanthro-capitalists is changing the face of philanthropy and impacting governmental policy on development issues. He said that philanthro-capitalism is unique in engaging immense resources and business skills in the not-for-profit field and in being far less risk-averse and more experimental than more traditional, institutional forms of philanthropy. He described philanthro-capitalism as a global movement involving entrepreneurial individuals, many of whom made their fortunes in the technology sector, who take on huge problems in innovative and experimental ways. He said they are increasingly addressing politically difficult issues such as climate change, educational policy, federal U.S. deficits and good governance in Africa. In an age where governments have less discretionary capital to deploy, philanthro-capitalists provide the capital to fund ambitious and risky initiatives. The result, Green argued, is a move toward plutocracy. Stephen Heintz questioned whether the strategies and aims of philanthro-capitalists are really that different from those of traditional philanthropic institutions, suggesting that the main distinction lies in their respective modi operandi and leadership styles: Traditional institutions have more established operational styles, while philanthrocapitalists tend to take immediate action targeting the issue du jour. All philanthropic organizations, he noted, try to leverage their resources as effectively as possible, and although philanthro-capitalists have had successes, they risk committing the sin of hubris in believing their superior resources and business knowledge can solve problems that other philanthropists and governments cannot. The credit for hard-won change in troubled parts of the world, Heintz argued, belongs to the activists and NGOs working in these countries. Amir Dossal agreed adding that philanthropists and philanthropic institutions should exploit local NGOs’ insights and contacts to ensure their projects achieve the desired results.
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Alan Hassenfeld said that all philanthropy is moving toward a focus on sustainability and clear deliverables. Corporate giving is becoming more cause-related and strategically motivated, often linking the corporate brand with charities on specific products or campaigns. Governments, corporations, institutions and civil society cannot by themselves effect real change. New forms of cooperation and alliances will be the basis of future philanthropic success.
‘We have to be the tugboats that push these bigger vessels into the right harbors, toWard the right goals.’

Stephen Heintz

A New Social Contract for Giving
Several panelists noted that philanthro-capitalism is challenging the old ways of doing business in government, corporations and not-for-profits. Green said that by circumventing established channels of power and financing, it is changing policy making and argued that this shift toward a plutocratic system calls for a new social contract that sets rules for the super wealthy as they engage in politics and philanthropy. Philippe Douste-Blazy said this social contract has to go beyond the super wealthy activists, to harness the financial power of the masses. He suggested, for example, allowing people to make a voluntary solidarity contribution when booking plane tickets online using a credit card; since three companies are responsible for the vast majority of ticket purchases, the system would be easy to set up and would help in meeting the Millennium Development Goals Louise Blouin agreed that this would be a simple and practical way to enlist local people in advancing global interests.
‘We noW have neW tools for philanthropy. through the internet and through credit cards We are all citizens of the World.’

Philippe Douste-Blazy

Demand Efficiency, Value Diversity
David Fenton said that the philanthropic sector, particularly NGOs, suffers from duplication and an unwillingness to cooperate and divide responsibilities, resulting in waste and inefficiency that must be eliminated if these organizations are to fulfil their crucial role in assuring the survival of humanity. He argued that they need to recruit management and business expertise to streamline and focus their operations and, to that end, allocate money to attract top talent. Alan Hassenfeld argued that setting clear goals is equally important, while Fenton and Louise Blouin agreed that the organization need to improve their marketing and communications, using the Internet in particular, to build awareness of and support for their activities.
‘global agencies are one of our only hopes in dealing With global challenges. We need to empoWer them.’

Louise Blouin

Stephen Heintz said we must find a way to provide stability and give enough operating support to NGOs for them to function in the longer term, while at the same time preserving their diversity and independence, which are their great strengths.
‘We need to improve their performance but in a Way that does not squeeze out What is distinctive about the role of the not-for-profit sector in being a balance betWeen What is public and What is purely private.’

Stephen Heintz

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Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Seeking leverage
• • • • • Philanthro-capitalists fund projects that governments cannot undertake. As their influence grows, the political process moves closer to a plutocracy. Their business knowledge and financial resources have given philanthro-capitalists leverage on issues that could previously not have been addressed with such force. However, philanthro-capitalists risks undermining their objectives through hubris and excessive risk taking. All philanthropic actors need to exploit local NGOs’ knowledge and expertise more effectively. The major challenge is to find effective ways for government, traditional philanthropic institutions, philanthro-capitalists, corporations and civil society to engage with each other in effective projects.

A New Social Contract for Giving
• • A new social contract is needed to clarify to rules for the super wealthy engaging in politics and philan thropy. The new social contract must be broadened to include giving at the micro level, engaging people in imme diate and painless giving by harnessing the Internet and everyday shopping behaviors—allowing them, for instance, to donate when booking airline tickets online.

Demand Efficiency, Value Diversity
• • • • NGOs must enlist management and business expertise to become more effective. NGOs need to increase their resource base to enable them to pay more competitive salaries and thus attract and retain top talent in vitally important jobs. NGOs must set clear goals for projects and invest more in communications and in marketing their goals and campaigns to the masses, using the Internet, for example Performance improvements must be attained without their valuable diversity.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION G
CITIES, CULTURE AND GLOBALIZATION
Featured Delegates Lord Michael Hastings, global head of citizenship and diversity, kpmg Juan Ignacio Vidarte, director general, guggenheim museum bilbao Paul Warwick Thompson, director, cooper-hewitt national design museum Gérard Mortier, director general, opéra national de paris Susan Robb, artist Sheikha Lubna Al Qasimi, minister for foreign trade, united arab emirates Axel Rüger, Director, van gogh museum Dr. Ismail Serageldin, director of the biblioteca alexandrina, egypt Master of Ceremonies Robert Beauregard, professor of urban planning, columbia university Panel Discussion
This panel discussed culture’s contribution to prosperity and quality of life in cities and how cities can grow and evolve in tandem with culture.

Cities as Global Connectors
‘neW economies and neW technologies Will enable an explosion of rich global-local interactions, cultural manifestations and cities that Will truly be incubators of a better World locally and internationally.’

Dr. Ismail Serageldin

Ismail Serageldin described cities as sociocultural constructs existing within a physical construct, a kind of skeleton with unique features and buildings forming the reference points. He argued that creativity is integral to cities, enabling us to be part of multiple communities and express ourselves in constantly evolving ways. Cities’ cultural activities, he said, express not only the character of the city itself but often the national character as well and are therefore integral to the identity politics of nations. Juan Ignacio Vidarte stated that the significance of cities in an age of globalization is their nature as global connectors, places where citizens connect and learn about one another, where the local and global intersect. He also noted that cultural institutions such as the Guggenheim Bilbao can serve as connection points linking cities and local populations to the global realm. The value of culture and cultural institutions is intrinsic, as well as economic and psychological.
“the most lasting social and psychological effect that this type of investment can have is on hoW a community perceives itself and hoW it confronts change. What is really at the heart of most conflicts today is hoW communities confront change. a cultural institution can have a positive effect and be liberating psychologically.”

Culture as a Tool for Change

Juan Ignacio Vidarte

Vidarte explained that the main feature of Bilbao’s urban transformation strategy is the use of culture as a tool for positive change. As the OECD study commissioned by the Louise Blouin Foundation has confirmed and the Bilbao museum has demonstrated, culture has a measurable effect on both urban renewal and economic activity. Paul Warwick Thompson said that culture has been particularly successful regenerating Chicago and London, where the Millennium Park and the Tate Modern have transformed derelict landscapes into thriving cultural landmarks. Axel Rüger stated that institutions and city authorities are failing to exploit culture‘s potential as a force for social integration, because museum audiences remain unrepresentative of the population as a whole, and in fact are composed mainly of tourists. This may improve cultural exchanges and links, but the local realm is underdeveloped.
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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION G
‘audiences are still not diverse enough. culture doesn’t reach vast chunks of the population. there is a particular issue With local audiences and hoW to reach them. the question is, can We really contribute to social integration through culture, or has the effect so far just not been strong enough?’

Axel Rüger Gérard Mortier said that culture should be brought into the suburbs to reconnect the urban center with its periphery. France, in particular, needs to focus less on the violence of the suburbs and more on their potential as cultural meeting places. Susan Robb said that integration and regeneration can happen by allowing artists to transform the streets of the city into living works of art. Rüger stated that cultural institutions may be losing their significance at a time when art is becoming more participatory and democratic and that we may thus have to find new ways of presenting art.
‘there are a lot of opportunities to tap into this and use the city as a museum instead of using the buildings alone, and if the city alloWs for this multiplicity of vieWs, then the city is going to be vibrant.’

Susan Robb Lord Michael Hastings said we must preserve culture’s positive effects by making art and cultural entertainment permanent features of urban life for everyone, thus reducing social alienation and tensions.
‘through culture people get caught up in another experience—they look differently at the things that bind them and become less inclined to criminal behavior. if you can make that a normative experience rather than an occasional one, you can tackle the social dilemma through cultural realities.’

Lord Michael Hastings

A Word of Warning
The panelists agreed on the dangers of looking at art from an overly instrumental viewpoint and thus forgetting that culture and art have immense intrinsic value. In using culture as a tool, Susan Robb argued, we risk limiting its innovative and critical functions and relegating it to institutions that contribute economically. Gérard Mortier also noted that allowing too much government influence in the arts might subject them to populist pressures. Axel Rüger said that more can be done to promote the arts to the public, particularly through TV, people’s primary source for cultural experiences these days. The panelists agreed that while the arts must remain independent from politics, governments must support and foster them by putting more money into cultural institutions.

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Cities as Global Connectors
• • In a globalized world, cities link the local to the global. Culture and cultural institutions can have a psychologically liberating effect on communities coping with change. Culture can serve as a tool in urban regeneration and social integration. The challenge is to balance the interests of tourists with those of local populations in regeneration schemes. Cities need to enable both cultural institutions and free art, in which artists interact with the city itself and participation is open and inclusive. Culture’s positive effects must be preserved by making it an integral part of urban life. It is important not to consider art and culture only as tools, since they have immense intrinsic value. Governments need to support culture while allowing to remain independent and critical. Culture should be promoted more through TV to reach wider and more diverse audiences.
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Culture as a Tool for Change • • • • • •

A Word of Warning

THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION H
GLOBAL AGENCIES: Relevance, Reform and Reapplication
Featured Delegates Dr. Jacques Diouf, director general, fao un David Boies, chairman, boies, schiller and flexner llp Warren Sach, assistant secretary general, controller, un Morel Fourman, ceo, gaiasoft Juan Louis Cebrian, editor in chief, el país Master of Ceremonies Bill Roedy, Chairman and CEO, mtv networks international Keynote Address Bharrat Jagdeo, president of the cooperative republic of guyana Institutional Relevance
In his keynote address to the session on Global Agencies, President Bharrat Jagdeo, of Guyana, discussed the relevance and future of global agencies in the st century. Using the 008 global financial crisis as an example, he argued that global agencies such as the UN, the IMF and theWorld Bank have failed to adapt to current global realities and challenges.
‘the problem is that We live in the 21st century but are still governed globally by institutions created in the 1940s.’

President Bharrat Jagdeo

These governing agencies are ill suited to address the current multipolar world’s challenges, among which President Jagdeo identified three as key: global financial stability, climate change, and security. To cop with these, global agencies must become more representative and effective. With respect to financial stability, a public good, he said that today’s financial and economic interconnectedness means that market instability anywhere will harm people everywhere. To avoid this, markets must be overseen by effective global institutions.As for climate change, the president noted that environmental degradation affects food and energy security, making effective environmental regulation crucial. New issues such as deforestation as a source of greenhouse gases and the inclusion of forest resources in the carbon-cap trading system called for innovative global administration.

New Structures, New Mandates
President Jagdeo stated that today’s global agencies are unrepresentative and thus lack relevance and effective mandates.Their reform has been stalled by the differing expectations and willingness to cooperate of different countries. While developed countries—especially ones that have traditionally wielded power in these agencies—want to maintain the status quo, emerging economies want a greater say in more flexible organizations. The progress made in reforming the IMF, for example, is still just “tinkering around the edges,” said the president. Changes have to be much more radical for agencies such as the UN Security Council and in the IMF to become relevant again. President Jagdeo said that both the IMF and the World Bank need refocused mandates with more specific aims and objectives. The IMF, for example, must be authorized to oversee the private sector and assure its stability. The World Bank, on the other hand, should concentrate on such areas as funding clean energy projects. President Jagdeo said the reforms should be guided by the principles of relevance, flexibility, legitimacy and accountability and suggested that it be overseen by a Bretton Woods–type conference.

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Public Image and Ordinary Citizens
‘get people involved through the right imagery and right message, and you can do Wonders. it is easier to progress in policies With broad-based grassroots support.’

President Bharrat Jagdeo

Global agencies ignore the importance of public relations in building grassroots support at their peril, the president said.The UN has long suffered from a bad image and consequent meager support, particularly in the U.S. By improving how they are perceived, such institutions can gain public support and achieve much more, he suggested, citing the Jubilee Debt Campaign as a perfect example of using the media to get ordinary citizens behind a project.

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Institutional Relevance
• Global agencies must be reformed to prevent future global financial crises and ensure public goods like environmental well-being and financial stability, Developed countries must allow the power structures within institutions such as the Security Council, the IMF and the World Bank to be reconfigured to make them more relevant and representative. Global agencies need new mandates that take into account today’s new challenges and realities. The IMF, for example, should have authority to oversee the global private sector to prevent a repeat of the 008 financial collapse, and the World Bank should concentrate on such projects as lending to clean energy projects and poverty-reduction initiatives. A Bretton Woods–type conference should oversee the reform and modernization of the global governance system in accordance with the principles of relevance, flexibility, legitimacy and accountability.

New Structures, New Mandates
• •

•

Public Image and Ordinary Citizens
• Global agencies need to be more sensitive to the way they are perceived by the public. To maximize their effectiveness, they need to build public support and harness the efforts and energies of ordinary citizens.

Panel Discussion From Practical Improvements to Systemic Reform
David Boies said the key question before the panel was how global agencies can adapt to better address the array of challenges facing the world. The old international modes of cooperation and problem solving, between nations and primarily concerning affairs between states, are inadequate to solve interconnected and borderless problems such as disease, terrorism, poverty and climate change. He identified three major components of the necessary transformation: a profound appreciation of the agencies’ function, both within them and by outside players, a knowledge base contributed to and accessed by all organizational and operational levels, evolution and goal setting in cooperation with constituencies being served. The aim, said Boies, is to make global agencies more effective and responsive to changing realities. Juan Louis Cebrian added that a precondition for such a reform is a change in the attitudes and policies of many countries, particularly the U.S., and further suggested that agencies and organizations must establish a common ground of values on which to form actionable policies on issues such as climate change and global financial stability,

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Warren Sach pointed out that some change has occurred but that it has been incremental rather than structural, focusing on strengthening governance mechanisms through improved risk management and more transparent and broader operations rather than addressing the imbalances and lack of legitimacy at the heart of the current impasse. Jacques Diouf cited some positive developments in the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization and said that more frequent meetings and wider participation have improved the functioning of the FAO by improving information gathering and sharing. He concluded that global agencies need to act within a framework of political interests and forces. President Jagdeo stated that although systemic reform is necessary in the longer term, current efforts should focus on initiatives that match countries’ interests, particularly in addressing climate change and terrorism.
“We need real, practical improvements in the near term as We Work toWard the ideal. it Will take time to get people to think globally.”

President Bharrat Jagdeo

A New Paradigm of Governance
“some form of sunlight is required here to open these up, to mobilize global public opinion on the questions that relate to bringing reform to a higher level. for real structural and mandate change, you Will need global public opinion to be Well informed, to be able to operate through international ngos and move in a concerted Way to push their oWn governments out of their comfort zone…”

Warren Sach Global agencies will become relevant again only if they regain the public’s support. There is currently a lack of public pressure on governments to act decisively against global threats or to empower global agencies to do so. Warren Sach emphasized the importance of participation by an informed public, including demands that their governments go beyond immediate self-interest in setting the agenda on global matters and in pressing for structural reform. Through more effective, transparent and education-focused NGO work, Sach argued, the public can be mobilized to act. Louise Blouin said that attitudes, as well as the public image of these agencies need serious work, suggesting that better communication, branding and more visible campaigning can bring the mandates and values of these agencies back into harmony with the public will. Morel Fourman added that increased public participation in global policy making must be part of a wider systemic effort to reform and rethink the entire system of decision making on issues like climate change. He argued for bringing together ideas and initiatives proposed at every level in a structured collaboration with a common purpose. Only with such radical collaboration can global governance succeed.
“this is a transition, a necessary and demanded transition, and if We stand in its Way We Will be humbled. it is a transition from controlling nature to learning from nature, a transition from competitive to collaborative, a transition from shareholder value to collective ecosystem steWardship.”

Morel Fourman

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions From Practical Improvements to Systemic Reform
• • • Global agencies need to reconfigure themselves in response to the needs of the constituencies they serve. Knowledge gathering and goal setting must draw from a wider base including the grass to make global agencies effective and responsive. Countries, particularly the U.S., need to be more supportive both politically and financially of global agencies. Global governance needs to be strengthened and agencies’ day-to-day functioning improved to harness countries’ self-interest to practical change.
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A New Paradigm of Governance
• • Global agencies need to regain public support. Through better education, effective communications and branding and more visible campaigning, they can create a powerful public platform for their mandates. Widening global agencies’ base of support, is only part of a structural transformation required by new interconnected challenges, in which decision making and governance will involve more inclusive and effective collaboration.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION I
COPING WITH CHANGE:The Future of the Corporation Featured Delegates Henry Silverman, chairman & ceo, realogy corporation Edward Dolman, ceo, christie’s international Jared Kushner, publisher, new york observer Martin Varsavsky, founder and ceo, fon Juan Luis Cebrián, editor in chief, el país Alayne Reesberg, reesberg partners llc Lex Fenwick, CEO, bloomberg ventures Master of Ceremonies Ali Velshi, senior business correspondent, cnn Panel Discussion Key Session Concepts
The panel debated the future of the corporation with a particular focus on the effects of new technologies and generational changes on operational success.The panel also discussed how leadership has changed in the age of globalization.

New Technologies, Meritocracies and Industries in Transition
New technologies, the panelists agreed, have fundamentally changed the way business is conducted. The instant transmission of information and communications has been particularly important, allowing operations to take place in real time worldwide and also to empower shareholder activism. Henry Silverman pointed out that shareholders dissatisfied with a company’s management can now mount campaigns in real time, instead of just selling their shares, bring more responsibility and transparency to corporate governance. Alayne Reesberg said that successful companies in the future will bee small and innovative, with a focus on transparency and efficient communications. Martin Varsavsky noted that for telecommunications businesses like his own start-up, FON, transparency and teamwork, in which specialists like coders also take on tasks outside their specialties to increase profitability, are key to successful operations. Lex Fenwick advocated the establishment of a corporate meritocracy in which employees have no titles and talent and hard work are nurtured and rewarded. This is particularly important for young people, who tend to react against hierarchies and authority, Fenwick said, adding that job titles are all about ego, serving simply to insulate managers and CEOs from day-to-day operations. Like Varsavsky, he also praised team spirit, commitment and connectedness built through management style, operational structure, office design and communication technologies. Finally, Fenwick stressed the role of work environment in employee satisfaction and recommended investing in the careful office design.

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Jared Kushner and Juan Luis Cebrián discussed the impact on the media of new technologies and the commodification of news. Kushner said that the rapid rise of the Internet, in terms of both consumer interest and money flows calls for a new media business model embracing unconventional styles of communicating and packaging news. Transmitting information and analysis quickly is crucial to success in the industry. Old-style investigative journalism is both to time consuming and expensive, putting pressure on the traditional print news media. Although Juan Louis Cebrián agreed that the Internet was the future of news media, it was not yet clear what the final business model would be. The uncertainties in the business extended from operations to content, argued Cebrián, as news become commodities and the quality of output is lowered in the interest of speed and financial expediency. We should continue to distinguish between such fast food news and more substantive materials that cannot be produced and digested at such breakneck speed. In addition to finding a balance between quality and speed of delivery, Cebrián asserted, it was vital for media outlets and conglomerates to retain their independence from other global business actors. A Shift In Leadership Style The self-invention generation, Alayne Reesberg said, is putting unprecedented pressure on not only the organizational structures of corporations but on the leadership style as well. This generation, Reesberg noted, is profoundly critical of corporations’ seniority system, demanding instead ones based on merit. Although these young people, with their multicultural and technology-saturated lives, present companies with novel challenges, their enhanced problem-solving skills using cutting-edge technologies also present those businesses adaptable and dynamic enough with unparalleled opportunities.
‘the challenge of global leadership is so complex because you have to understand What motivates people and hoW to communicate to people in a Way that Will make them folloW you.’ ED DOLEMAN

Ed Doleman said that the globalization of business and the rise of a globally networked generation present corporations’ leadership with enormous challenges. The organizational efficiency and profitability of multicultural businesses depend increasingly on their management’s ability of to motivate people from different backgrounds to work together. In such an environment, successful leaders need to exhibit cultural sensitivity and understanding. In other words, even in an age where IT rules, people skills and emotional intelligence are still important. Despite the globalization of the consumer culture, Doleman pointed out, culture-specific characteristics still have an impact on business.

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions New Technologies, Meritocracies and Industries in Transition
• • • • • In the information age, corporate governance has become more diffuse and transparent. Corporations need to foster transparency and teamwork in the workplace. A sense of community and shared responsibility is more important than ever. Corporations must move toward genuine meritocracies to attract young people and retain talented employees. Companies should pay attention to design, ensuring that employees are comfortable in and proud of their workplace. The media must find ways to communicate information and news quickly while maintaining the capacity for deep investigative journalism. The self-invention generation distrusts authority and hierarchies. Corporations need to accommodate this deep-seated egalitarianism. Corporations should exploit young people’s technological savvy, problem-solving skills and multicultural experiences to increase operational efficiency and profitability. Cultural sensitivity, emotional intelligence and the ability to lead with authority are crucial to managerial success in the globalized business world
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A Shift in Leadership Style
• • •

THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION I
A NEW LANGUAGE OF FOREIGN POLICY
Featured Delegates Lally Weymouth, senior editor, newsweek Dr. Richard Silberstein, professor of neuroscience, swinburne university Riz Khan, tv host, al jazeera english Padma Desai, professor of economics, columbia university Kenneth Roth, executive director, human rights Watch Dr. Nancy Kanwisher, professor of brain & cognitive sciences, mit Jennifer Windsor, executive director, freedom house Lane Greene, international correspondent, the economist Master of Ceremonies Michael Oreskes, managing editor for u.s. news, associated press Keynote Introduction  Lord Mark Malloch-Brown, minister of state, foreign and commonwealth office, united kingdom A Watershed Moment in International Affairs
Lord Malloch-Brown opened the New Language of Foreign Policy session by arguing that the international community has arrived at a watershed in international affairs following a post–Cold War honeymoon. A backlash is gathering against globalization’s dissemination of free markets, democracy, international legal norms and culture of consumption. Criticism of the UN and terrorism both result from mounting resistance to what are perceived to be a Western dominated human-rights and economic agenda and a loss of cultural independence. Lord Malloch-Brown said that the resurgence of nationalism and nondemocratic political systems have increased conflict and unpredictability while reducing responsiveness to Western leadership. The financial crisis is one manifestation of this new reality. He observed that we must now seek not to impose the Western agenda more successfully but rather to make it relevant again and broaden the ownership of its values, norms and institutions.

Broader Ownership of Values
‘We need to create a broader sense of oWnership in institutional arrangements in the belief that With oWnership Will come responsibility. countries Will start to behave With a better sense of their responsibility for global peace and security.’

Lord Mark Malloch-Brown Lord Malloch-Brown argued that a sense of widened participation is necessary, both conceptually and practically. Human-rights and democracy advocates must be more responsive to the needs of poor countries, where survival is a key concern, by advancing social and economic rights as requisite to the establishment of political and civil ones.
‘We need to go back to arguments We care about and refashion them for a more complicated and critical World. it is not enough to rely on our oWn aspirational and value-based arguments; We have to find Ways to make these things matter to other people as Well.’

Lord Mark Malloch-Brown

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Divisions and Tensions
Lord Malloch-Brown pointed to the International Criminal Court as a focus of conflict. The ICC has succeeded in developing an independent international justice system for holding political leaders to account when their national systems fail to do so, but some nations feel it targets them disproportionately. Lord Malloch-Brown said that several African countries that have supported the ICC are resisting its efforts to prosecute Sudanese leaders for war crimes in Darfur. The humanitarian community is also worried that the ICC indictment is undermining their efforts on the ground in Darfur and will raise tensions in the region.
“We need to find a Way to do the best We can for both justice and peace in darfur and not alloW them to become contradictory objectives.”

Lord Mark Malloch-Brown Lord Mark Malloch-Brown argued, however, that the Sudanese leadership not be allowed to circumvent the ICC indictment.To overcome the obstacles to the international legal system and justice for Darfur, more public relations and lobbying must be done to make clear to all signatories that the ICC serves everyone.
‘i Would hate to see in this divided World, along With the crisis We see in democracy and human rights, more generally a crisis for the icc.’

Lord Mark Malloch-Brown

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions A Watershed Moment in International Affairs
• • • The international community has arrived at a watershed. Human rights, democracy and free-market principles are confronting resurgent nationalism and nondemocratic political systems. The financial crisis is one manifestation of this increasingly complex and unpredictable world. The international human rights agenda needs to broaden its popular base by taking into account the priorities of poorer countries that are more concerned with social and economic rights than civil and political ones. Work must be done to build a broader and stronger consensus behind the ICC’s efforts. Justice, peace and humanitarian concerns need to be reconciled in Darfur. The international community should insist that the Sudanese leadership either stop the killing and destruction in Darfur or stand trial at the ICC. No deals or compromises should be made.

A Broader Ownership of Core Values

Divisions and Tensions
• • •

Keynote Introduction  Louis Moreno-Ocampo, prosecutor of the international criminal court The Sudan indictments
In the second keynote address to the session, Louis Moreno-Ocampo explained the ICC’s case against the Sudanese leadership. He began by noting that the biggest and most urgent mission for the court and the international community is to provide the .57 million displaced people in Darfur with basic security, without which no improvements or production is possible. Moreno-Ocampo then outlined the history of the conflict, stating that Ahmed Haroun, the former minister of the interior and current minister of humanitarian affairs—and the subject of the Court’s first indictment in Darfur— had directed the army and militias that fighting the rebels in the region and killing civilians. He said that Haroun had not only orchestrated attacks on villages in Darfur—ordering the killing, raping and displacement of thousands of people—but had also actively hindered humanitarian efforts. The second indictment is against President Bashir, for protecting and instructing Haroun.
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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION I
‘[the policy of the government is to] kill them sloWly, Without Wasting bullets. in the desert Without food and Without Water, they Will die.’

Louis Moreno-Ocampo

The International Context
Although the ICC clearly has a responsibility to pursue parties suspected of genocide, support for its present actions, particularly in the African region, is lacking. Despite backing from several African countries and a Security Council resolution, the indictments have met resistance among those fearing a break-down in regional relations or a threateningly proactive Court. Given this resistance, Moreno-Ocampo argued, Western politicians must work harder to support the ICC themselves and to build support in Africa and the Middle East. He noted that the United States is still not among the 07 signatories to the ICC.
‘sharing values in a global community is difficult. the icc, connected to and supported by the security council, offers a test for our ability to build effective global 21st-century institutions.’

Louis Moreno-Ocampo

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions The Sudan Indictments
• • The international community needs to provide security in Darfur. The lives of .57 million people remain at risk. Sudanese Minister of Humanitarian Affairs Ahmed Haroun and President Bashir must be brought before the ICC. Lack of regional support continues to hamper the efforts of the ICC in Sudan. Some African and Middle Eastern countries doubt the court’s legitimacy and motivations. The international community must work harder to build a consensus behind the ICC’s efforts.

The International Context
• •

Panel Discussion Local Politics, Global Problems
‘We are dealing With global problems using a structural system that is designed for international relationships, and all of it based on local politics. there is a groWing gap and disconnection betWeen the local politics of many World democracies and the global issues being Wrestled With. this is creating a real problem in designing foreign policies. that is one reason that We are not just speaking about the language of foreign policy but about the increasingly disparate vieWs of What foreign policy is.’

Michael Oreskes Lally Weymouth said it is increasingly difficult to separate domestic from foreign policy For instance, America’s consumption of a third of the world’s oil is entirely unsustainable and its domestic energy policy has to address this. Conversely, Richard Silberstein said, local views have a powerful effect on foreign policy. As influences multiply, the process becomes more complex and difficult to manage. Lord Malloch-Brown added that another complicating factor is the need for politics to address local needs.
‘the issue has alWays been that problems are global but politics remain persistently local.’

Lord Mark Malloch-Brown

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION I
Padma Desai pointed to the complex interactions among local politics, foreign policy and the language of foreign policy in a constantly evolving world, citing the way language, posturing and domestic and global issues define U.S.Russia relations. Riz Khan said that the dissemination of information on the Internet, and the ability of people from all backgrounds to debate and discuss issues online, also complicate foreign policy. He added that increasingly pluralistic and dynamic national and global debate has made it more difficult for authoritarian governments to manage their populations. Paradoxically, Khan, pointed out while the global dialogue strengthens, the world polity is becoming more fragmented and divided along regional lines, which may make global interaction and decision making more difficult.

Advancing Global Norms
Several panelists said that the vacuum of leadership left by the discredited and overstretched America, is hampering efforts to promote human rights and democracy, with several states stepping in to promote their own agendas. Kenneth Roth pointed out that although China’s foreign policy is flexible and often positive, the country is still defining its international identity, making it an unreliable partner. Russia, for its part, seems to acting primarily with prestige in mind. Roth argued that to reclaim its leadership role, the U.S. should broaden the coalition of states involved in advancing human rights and reject military interventions in favor of a more patient and multifaceted approach to promoting democracy. He also argued for the importance of supporting civil society. Jennifer Windsor added that it is vital to create solidarity with activists on the ground, pointing out that such solidarity combined with global civic power, threatens the ability of governments to silence their citizens. In addition to stronger and more inclusive U.S. leaderships, Lane Greene argued, regional leaders needed to step up in order to provide regional solutions for cases like Darfur. The panelists also agreed that advancing human rights and democracy and tackling global problems requires more effective and responsive global institutions, such as the ICC, and that support for these institutions must be increased through an honest and open debate on their value, strengths and limitations.
‘What is completely missing is the connector belt of national political debate that can make these institutions legitimate in the eyes of the people.’

Lord Mark Malloch-Brown
‘it is impossible to create a global government, but a netWork of states committed to values, an independent monitoring system and an independent court controlling them could Work, not just in genocide issues but in other areas as Well.’

Louis Moreno-Ocampo

Summary of Key Conclusions and Actions Local Politics, Global Problems
• • It is no longer possible to separate domestic from global policy. Consequently, political leaders need to build a consensus behind global actions on issues such as human rights and climate change. Because of the Internet’s ability to disseminate information quickly and to facilitate discussions and debates among people from all backgrounds, leaders must take public opinion into account in addressing foreign policy issues such as human rights and climate change.

Advancing Global Norms
• • • America needs to regain its moral authority and lead a broader coalition of countries committed to promoting human rights and democracy. It should take a more nuanced, contextually sensitive and longer-term approach to promoting democracy. An important tool in pressuring states that violate their citizen’s rights is promoting solidarity with activists working on the ground to protect those rights. Public support for institutions such as the ICC needs to be increased through educational efforts— a connector belt between the national and the global should be created so that people feel like these institutions form the core of a responsible and forward looking policy-platform.
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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION J
J1 - Closing Keynote Speech President José Ramos-Horta, president, democratic republic of timor-leste
In his closing keynotes speech to the summit, President Ramos-Horta outlined some of the challenges that a new U.S. administration faces and called for the U.S. to take a more effective and concerted approach to Asia, He said the administration has the opportunity to change course, re-establish its soft power and leadership and move forward on such issues as the embargo of Cuba. The latter, he said, may have made sense during the Cold War, but is now outmoded, outdated and simply immoral, since it condemns the Cuban population to poverty. Despite the country’s continuing human rights abuses, the next U.S. administration should start working toward normalization of relations with it. The president stated that to regain its moral authority and leadership standing, the U.S. should take a new, subtler approach to problems such as those posed by Myanmar and Darfur. He said that the U.S. should not intervene directly in Darfur or put overt pressure on Myanmar or champion the ICC, but rather engage in discreet diplomacy and provide regional leaders and regional organizations with financial and logistical support. It is for regional leaders to solve these long-standing conflicts, as they did in East Timor in the 990s. He concluded by saying that a U.S. presence is of vital importance in Asia, providing predictability and balance in a region that has made tremendous strides and has a great future but that also suffers from instability and is experiencing a potentially disastrous arms race. With this in mind, and with Afghanistan and Pakistan as its most immediate concerns, the U.S. should pay much closer attention to Asia and begin again, discreetly and with tact, to promote human rights and democracy.

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THE GLOBAL CREATIVE LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: SESSION J
J2- Closing Remarks and Pledges Louise Blouin, chairman, louise blouin media Bob Wayman, google
‘What do We need to lead? We need to lead With humility. We need to connect With our senses and listen. We need to be able to see and touch others. it is all about values, about respecting the other, having humility, making sure that We don’t speak at people but With people, and that We Work together as allies. america can no longer Walk alone.’

Louise Blouin In her closing remarks, Louise Blouin stressed the importance of humility, creativity, understanding and learning in a global process of problem solving and change. She said that changing the world is difficult, and many attempts are mired in old thinking, political wrangling and inertia. But she warned that if we don’t act, we could be faced with financial crises and security threats similar to 9/, as well as a whole spectrum of new threats. The world needs a new politics, a new direction on climate change, trade and foreign policy and a more informed and engaged public. She argued that we should use the media and the Internet to inform the public and make them part of an organic, bottom-up process of change.
‘We are all global citizens of the World, and When We say that, it means We have to invest in it.’

Louise Blouin Blouin said that it is vital, for example, to raise awareness about the Doha round of talks and the positive impact it would have on African countries, many which are struggling to build independent and sustainable economies. It is also crucial to empower global institutions while demanding that their operations be made more efficient. She concluded by describing several projects initiated and supported by the Louise Blouin Foundation. The LINK project attempts to recreate the commercial sector’s dense and immensely effective information infrastructure by creating an online platform for sharing best practices, communicating and collaborating among nonprofits. Bob Wayman pointed out that this will help nonprofits to reduce the duplication that afflicts the sector, providing them with a shared database and enabling direct communications for planning projects all over the world in real time. A second project is the China-Tibet cultural fund, which seeks to build bridges and understanding between China and Tibet and between the West and China, a particularly important goal given the protests and unrest before and during the Beijing Olympics in 008. This fund will work to preserve the region’s culture and foster education and cross-cultural understanding. Finally, the foundation supports neuroscientifc research into the cognitive processes underlying innovation, conflict management and coexistence.

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