Religion and Society Revision Guide by kellena99

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									Religious Education



Religion and
Society



Revision Guide
Contents
                                                       Page Number



How to use this revision guide……………………………………………………. 1

How to tackle the exam……………………………………………………………….. 2

Section 1 – Religion and Social Responsibility…………………………..4

Section 2 – Religion and the Environment………………………………..15

Section 3 – Religion: Peace and Conflict…………………………………..24

Section 4 – Religion: Crime and Punishment ………………….………..35

Section 5 – Religion and Medical Issues…………………………..………45

Appendix 1 – Key Words (Full list)…………………………………..…………59

Appendix 2 – Syllabus…………………………………………………………………..62

Appendix 3 – Specimen Question Paper…………………………………...65
             Specimen Paper Mark Scheme……………………………69
How to Use this Revision Guide

The first step to effective revision is to decide where you need to
concentrate your effort.

Have a read through the syllabus for the paper. This is on pages 55 – 57.

Number the sections below 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Number your weakest section
1 and your strongest 5. (If you are doing coursework then you only need
to number the first four sections).

        Section 1 – Religion and Social Responsibility
        Section 2 – Religion and the Environment
        Section 3 – Religion: Peace and Conflict
        Section 4 – Religion: Crime and Punishment

        Section 5 – Religion and Medical Issues

Work your way through the revision guide section by section in the order
above, starting with the section you feel least confident about.

How do I revise?
You will find out how you revise best through trial and error but the
following is general good advice.

   •   Read through a section of the revision guide.
   •   Learn the key words and get someone to test you on them, or test
       yourself.
   •   Copy out the headings from the chapter you have been reading and
       shut the revision guide. Write a spider diagram or series of bullet
       points on each heading. When you have finished open the revision
       guide again and compare your notes with the guide. Add anything
       you forgot to write down on your spider diagram now in a different
       colour.
   •   When you feel you have mastered the section then turn to
       Appendix 3 where you can find a specimen paper and mark scheme.
       Attempt a practice exam question.
   •   Try to mark your practice question using the mark scheme. If
       necessary go back to the chapter in the revision guide to see what
       you could have added.
   •   Move on to a new section and repeat the above process.


                                    -1-
How To Tackle The Exam

If you are entering coursework then you will have 1½ hours to answer four
questions. You must answer one question from each section and try to
make sure that you spend 22½ minutes on each question.

If you are not entering coursework then you will have 2 hours to answer
five questions. You must answer one question from each section. You
should spend 22½ minutes on sections 1 to 4 and 30 minutes on section 5.
This is because there are 23 marks for section 5 and 20 marks for every
other section.

You should tackle section 5 as your first or second question because
there are more marks available for it.

Section (a) Questions
These are short answer knowledge questions. You need to know the
meanings of key words for these questions. These are worth 2 marks.

Section (b) Questions
These are knowledge questions which require an answer of 1 -2
paragraphs. They will usually begin with the words outline or describe.

   •   Outline means answer broadly. You should write one or two
       sentences about a number of issues.
   •   Describe means to write in depth about one particular issue.
   •   If you are asked to outline different attitudes it means you must
       write about at least two attitudes.

These questions are worth 6 marks.

Section (c) Questions
These are understanding questions and usually begin with the word
explain.

   •  “Explain why” means you must use the word because in your answer
      and give reasons.
  • “Explain how” means you must show the connection between two
      ideas.
These questions are worth 8 marks.



                                   -2-
Section (d) Questions
These are evaluation questions.

If your target grade is a C or less

You should try to remember to use the following structure for section
(d):

“Some might argue….because…..” [Start by disagreeing with yourself]

“Christians/Muslims might say…..because….” [Refer to a religious view]

“But overall I think……because…..” [Finish with your personal opinion and
give reasons]

If your target grade is an A or B

Use the structure above but give two reasons for your first point, two to
three for the second and a further reason with your conclusion.

These questions are worth 4 marks.

Answering Section 5
In section 5 questions only have parts a, b and c. Part c is like part d in
another section (evaluation) but this time it is worth double the marks (8)
so you should try to write more.

There are also 3 marks available for the Quality of Written
Communication on section 5 so make sure that you:

   •   Write in sentences.
   •   Use paragraphs.
   •   Do not use slang or abbreviations.
   •   Take care with your spelling.




                                      -3-
   Section 1 – Religion and Social Responsibility

Key Words
These are the important words that you are expected to know for this
section:

Bible        the holy book of Christians with 66 books split into Old and
             New Testament
Church       the community of Christians (with a small c it means a
             Christian place of worship)
conscience an inner feeling of the rightness or wrongness of an action
Situation Ethics the idea that Christians should base moral decisions
                   on what is the most loving thing to do in a situation
electoral system the way in which voting is organised
first-past-the-post       the voting system where whoever gets the most
                          votes in a constituency wins the seat
proportional representation      the voting system where seats are
                                 distributed according to the proportion
                                 of votes
national government       the government headed by the Prime Minister
                          and Parliament which governs the whole country
local government          the local council which looks after local issues
                          such as education and refuse disposal
Decalogue the Ten Commandments
Golden Rule the teaching of Jesus that you should treat others as you
             would like them to treat you

How Christians make moral decisions

Christians base their moral decisions on three things; the Bible, the
Church and conscience. In addition some use another method to decide
what to do in difficult situations; situation ethics.

   1. The authority of the Bible

Christians believe that the Bible has authority. This means that it is so
important that it must be believed and obeyed. They think it has
authority because it has been inspired by God.

The Bible gives Christians lots of guidance on moral decisions and how to
behave. Two of the most important passages are the Decalogue (the Ten


                                    -4-
Commandments from the Old Testament) and the Sermon on the Mount (a
famous sermon given by Jesus).

All Christians would use the Bible to help them make moral decisions. For
example the Ten Commandments state that it is wrong to steal, lie or
have an affair.

Christians have different views about the authority of the Bible:

   •   Some believe that the Bible is the absolute word of God. They
       think that God gave the human authors the actual words to write
       down. Therefore it has total authority and can never be changed.
   •   Some believe that the Bible is the absolute word of God but that it
       needs to be interpreted by the Church.
   •   Some think that the writers of the Bible were inspired by God but
       they also used their own human words and ideas when they wrote it.
       Because of this some of the ideas need to be revised before they
       can be used today (e.g. on slaves and attitudes to women).

Key quote
“God is the author of Sacred Scripture because he has inspired its human
authors.”

From the Catechism of the Catholic Church

   2. The authority of the Church

Many Christians think that the Bible needs to be explained so that
Christians can understand what it teaches about modern day issues. Many
believe that it is the Church’s job to explain what the Bible means and
how Christians should tackle different moral issues.

In the Roman Catholic Church the Pope (and the Council of Bishops) gives
teaching to Roman Catholic Christians on moral issues. He does this
through official letters (called encyclicals) or the Catholic Catechism.

In the Church of England and Methodist Churches people are elected to
an assembly and the assembly decides the Church’s view on moral issues.

Many Christians believe that God speaks today through the official
teaching of the Church.



                                   -5-
Key quote
“The General Synod is the ‘parliament’ of the Church of England….[It]
makes statements upon moral issues…”

From What the Churches Say, second edition

   3. The role of conscience

Everybody has a conscience. This helps us tell the difference between
right and wrong. We feel guilty if we do something that we believe is
wrong and we feel good if we do something that we believe is right.

The early Christian leaders Paul and Thomas Aquinas both said that
Christians should use their conscience as the last part of moral decision
making. They said that Christians should listen carefully to the Bible and
the Church views but they should also listen carefully to their own
consciences.

Conscience could be very important to a Christian when different groups
of Christians interpret the Bible differently and have different views on
an issue e.g. abortion.

Key quote
“There is a principle of reflection in men by which they distinguish
between approval and disapproval of their own actions…this principle in
man…is conscience.”

From a sermon of Bishop Butler’s

   4. Situation ethics

Joseph Fletcher, an American Christian, had a different idea about
making moral decisions.

Fletcher said that the most important Christian idea was Jesus’ command
to “love your neighbour as you love yourself”. So he said that if you were
faced with a dilemma and did not know what to do then you should try to
think about what the most loving thing to do would be in that situation.
He said that the most loving thing to do would depend on the situation.




                                   -6-
For example, imagine that you took your friend’s mobile phone.

The Bible says that stealing is wrong (e.g. in the Ten Commandments).

Situation ethics says that whether your action was wrong or not depends
on the situation………

    •   If you took it because you were jealous and their new phone made
        yours seem out of date and embarrassing then you did the
        WRONG thing. Your action was not the most loving thing you could
        have done.
    •   If you did it because you had just witnessed an accident, you only
        had access to their phone and you wanted to call an ambulance
        then you did the RIGHT thing. Your action was the most loving
        thing you could have done.

Situation ethics can run into problems.

First, it is not always easy to tell what “the most loving thing to do in a
situation” is.

Secondly, the most loving thing may be different for different people e.g.
in a case of abortion the most loving thing for the mother, foetus, father
may all be different.

Conclusion
Different Christians emphasise different ways of making moral decisions
e.g. evangelicals will probably concentrate on the Bible, Roman Catholics
on the official teaching of the Church, Quakers on conscience and more
liberal Christians may well emphasis situation ethics.

The electoral system in the United Kingdom

There are two basic layers of government in the UK: national government
and local government.

   1. National government

National government is led by the Prime Minister (Tony Blair) and his
Cabinet. The Cabinet is made up of the ministers who lead the main
departments of the government e.g. health, education, defence etc.


                                     -7-
When there is a General Election the House of Commons is filled with the
people who have been elected by the voters. The party with the most
Members of Parliament (MPs) forms the government and their leader
becomes the Prime Minister. He or she then chooses their Cabinet. These
are usually MPs from the same party.

The national government raises money in a variety of ways. For example:

          •   Income tax - money taken from what people earn.
          •   Value added tax – money taken when we buy something, often
              17.5%.
          •   Council tax – a tax that depends on the size and type of
              house you live in.

The national government also spends money. It divides all the money
raised between different groups e.g.

   •   Social security – e.g. benefits for unemployed people.
   •   Health – doctors, hospitals etc.
   •   Education.
   •   Defence – e.g. paying wages of the armed forces and buying
       equipment for them.
   •   Law and order – paying Police force and paying for running costs of
       prisons.

   2. Local government

Local government is the local council led by a mayor.

Councils often decide how to divide and spend the money given to them by
the national government. They are responsible for:

   •   Organising the collection of rubbish.
   •   Cleaning the streets.
   •   Administering education, police force and fire brigade on behalf of
       the national government.




                                    -8-
How MPs and councillors are elected

There are two popular ways for electing representatives: first-past-the-
post and proportional representation.

   1. First-past-the-post system

This is the system that is used for MPs and councillors.

This is how it works for MPs. For councillors it follows the same principles
but the areas are much smaller.

          •   The country is divided up into smaller, geographical, areas
              (e.g. East Devon, Exeter, Torbay).
          •   Candidates from different parties stand against each other
              in an election.
          •   Voters vote for their preferred candidate (by putting a “X”
              next to their name on a ballot paper).
          •   The candidate that gets the most votes wins the election
              and then represents that area in the House of Commons.

   2. Proportional representation

Members of the European Parliament (or MEPs) are elected by
proportional representation.

In this system voters vote for a party and then the percentage of votes
gained by that party is turned into the same percentage of seats in an
assembly.

For example in an election Party A gain 52% of the vote, Party B 30% and
Party C 18%. In the assembly there are 100 seats so Party A have 52
representatives, B 30 and C 18.

So which is better?

   •   The first-past-the-post system tends to produce governments with
       a clear majority. It is easy for someone who has been elected to
       have close links with a local area.
   •   Proportional representation is better for smaller parties e.g. if the
       example above was followed and Party B got 30% in all


                                    -9-
       constituencies in a first-past-the-post election then Party B would
       have no representatives in the assembly! However, it is harder for
       people to have links with a local area under proportional
       representation.

Christian belief in the separation of religion and politics

Some Christians believe that religion and politics should be kept entirely
separate.

These Christians often think that:

   •   Religion is concerned with an individual’s spiritual development, not
       with society.
   •   The New Testament teaches that Christians will be judged on how
       they love God and their neighbour, not on their politics.
   •   Christianity is about relationships with individuals and worship of
       God whereas politics is concerned with how society should be
       governed and so should work according to political, not Christian,
       principles.

The reasons for their views are:

   •   When Jesus was asked whether Jews should pay taxes to the
       Romans he said that there was a religious part of life and a political
       part which should be kept separate.
   •   Paul, the early Christian leader, said that Christians should obey
       political leaders.
   •   Lots of Church leaders (e.g. the Pope and Martin Luther) have told
       Christians to obey the leaders of the state.
   •   In a multi-faith society religion and politics must be kept apart
       otherwise there might be religious conflict.

Key quote
“’Is it right to pay taxes to Caesar or not?’…..Then Jesus said to them,
‘Give to Caesar what is Caesar’s and to God what is God’s.”

From Mark’s Gospel, chapter 12, The Bible




                                     - 10 -
Christian belief in involvement in politics

Other Christians believe that Christianity is a whole way of life and you
cannot separate Christianity from politics. Many feel that they can use
Christian principles to decide which political party to vote for.

They think these things because:

   •   Jesus threw the money changers out of the Temple; this showed
       that religion is more important than politics.
   •   Jesus taught that it is impossible to serve God and money. Politics
       is linked to money. If people try to separate religion and politics
       they will be controlled by politics and not God in the end.
   •   In the New Testament the Letter of James says that real religious
       faith will be shown through practical actions to help other people.
       Politics is the means to help large groups of people so Christians
       should be involved.
   •   The Churches have made statements about how Christians should
       be involved in helping the suffering and working for peace. These
       things require Christians to be involved in politics.

Key quotes
“We are Christian not only in church on Sunday. Our Christianity is not
something we put on, like our Sunday best, only for Sunday. It is for
every day. We are Christians from Monday to Monday.”

From Desmond Tutu, Hope and Suffering

“….faith by itself, if not accompanied by action, is dead.”

From the Letter of James, chapter 2, The Bible




                                    - 11 -
The Welfare State

The Welfare State is the name given to the “safety net” of services and
support given to all people in a country to protect them from poverty.

   1. The origins of the Welfare State

The Welfare State began during the Second World War. In 1942 a
government committee produced the Beveridge Report which said that
there were five evil giants facing Britain which had to be destroyed:

          •   Want; many people were living in poverty through no fault of
              their own.
          •   Disease; there was no free medical treatment so many
              people could not afford to see a doctor when they were ill.
          •   Ignorance; secondary education was only available to those
              who could pay.
          •   Squalor; many people lived in slums.
          •   Idleness; in 1939 over 10% of the workforce was
              unemployed.

The Welfare State began with the 1944 Education Act which raised the
school leaving age to 15. It was completed by 1951. Each of the “giants”
was attacked e.g. a National Health Service (NHS) to attack disease, a
council house building programme to attack squalor.

   2. The Welfare State today

The Welfare State today is funded by taxes and National Insurance
contributions. It provides:

   •   Free education to the age of 18.
   •   Free doctors and hospitals.
   •   Payments for unemployed.
   •   Top-up payments (social security) for the poorest so everyone has
       a minimum income.
   •   Pensions for the old.
   •   Child benefit.
   •   Housing benefit.
   •   Job centres.




                                   - 12 -
   3. The Christian basis of the Welfare State

Most of those who worked to establish the Welfare State were
Christians and inspired by Christian principles.

The Decalogue (or Ten Commandments from Exodus 20) are as follows:

Relations with God                     Relations with other people
Worship one God only                   Honour your parents
Do not worship idols                   Do not murder
Do not swear using God’s name          Do not steal
Keep the Sabbath day holy              Do not commit adultery
                                       Do not give false evidence
                                       Do not covet other people’s
                                       belongings

Some of these link to the jobs of the Welfare State e.g. honouring
parents is similar to providing pensions for the elderly, keeping the poor
in poverty and not helping them to reach a minimum standard of living
could be seen as stealing from them.

Key quote

“So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you…”

The Golden Rule from Jesus, Gospel of Matthew 7:12, The Bible

Christians feel that following Jesus’ Golden Rule (see above) means
treating people how you would like them to treat you. This means that
those who are rich or in work should pay taxes so that the Welfare State
can care for those less well off.

The Parable of the Sheep and Goats

Jesus told a short story about the end of time when he would come back
to judge everyone.

   •   People divided into two groups (“sheep” and “goats”).
   •   “Sheep” to heaven, “goats” to hell.
   •   Jesus says that the “sheep” helped him when he was in need: “I was
       hungry and you gave me something to eat.”


                                   - 13 -
   •   The “sheep” reply that they don’t remember!
   •   Jesus says “Whatever you did for the least of these brothers of
       mine, you did for me.”
   •   Jesus says that the “goats” did not help him when he was in need:
       “I was hungry and you gave me nothing to eat.”
   •   The “goats” reply that they don’t remember!
   •   Jesus says “Whatever you did not do for the least of these
       brothers of mine, you did not do for me.”

Christians would learn from this that:

   •   It is their duty to help those in need.
   •   They should do this because of their love for God and Jesus.
   •   They should therefore support the Welfare State and other
       charities that add to the things it does.




                                   - 14 -
Section 2 – Religion and the Environment

Key Words
These are the important words that you are expected to know for this
section:

pollution         the contamination/degradation of the environment
greenhouse effect the trapping of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
                  which is thought to increase the temperature of the
                  earth
acid rain         such pollutants as coal smoke which make rain more
                  acidic
natural resources naturally occurring materials such as oil and fertile
                  land which can be used by humans
creation          the act of creating the universe or the universe which
                  has been created
stewardship        looking after something so it can be passed on to the
                  next generation
environment       the surroundings in which plants and animals live and
                  which they depend on to live
conservation      protecting and preserving natural resources and the
                  environment
animal rights     the belief that animal have rights not to be exploited
                  by humans

The dangers of pollution

The world is often described as an ecosystem. This means that all the
parts of the world (e.g. humans, animals, plant life) work together so that
life can continue (e.g. we breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon
dioxide, plants take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen).

Pollution can damage parts of the world e.g. plants, but because all the
parts are related it can have a knock-on effect on the rest of the
environment.

The main types of pollution are:

   1. The Greenhouse Effect – burning fossil fuels produces carbon
      dioxide. This produces a barrier in the atmosphere that causes the
      world to heat up – “global warming”.


                                   - 15 -
   2. Acid rain – the burning of fossil fuels can make rain turn acidic. At
      its worst it can burn buildings and forests.
   3. Eutrophication – river pollution is causing a lack of oxygen in water.
      This can kill river life and cause human health problems.
   4. Deforestation – trees are essential for the health of the
      environment (e.g. they stop land becoming a desert). Almost half
      the Amazonian Jungle has now been destroyed.
   5. Radioactive Pollution – nuclear power stations produce radioactive
      waste that could take thousands of years to become safe.

The problems of natural resources

Natural resources are naturally occurring materials which can be used by
humans e.g. oil.

There are two types: renewable and non-renewable resources.

   1. Renewable resources
These are resources which can be used over and over again because they
renew themselves e.g. wind power, solar power, water power.

    2. Non-renewable resources
These are resources that disappear once they have been used e.g. oil, coal
or iron.

The problem is that these non-renewable resources are being used up at
an alarming rate and one day they could run out completely. If oil ran out
then we would not have petrol for cars, plastics, road surfaces and
chemical foodstuffs.

Non-religious arguments about the environment

There are three main ideas about how to tackle environmental problems.

    1. Government action
Many people feel that governments must take action to reduce pollution
as it is now a national and international problem.

It is sometimes difficult to encourage the USA, which is the world’s
biggest greenhouse gas polluter, to make a commitment to reduce its own
pollution.


                                   - 16 -
    2. Science and technology?
Some believe that science will provide answers to environmental problems
e.g. there are now ways of producing electricity that do not produce
greenhouse gasses. Cars may run off the hydrogen from water in the
future and recycling can extend the use of many materials.

   3. Alternative lifestyle?
Some think that changing the way we live will solve environmental
problems e.g. using bikes instead of cars, eating organic food, wearing
clothes made from natural products (e.g. cotton or wool).

Christianity and the environment

Christians believe that:
   • God created the universe (Gensis 1-2).
   • He made the world and saw that it was good (Genesis 1).
   • The world is a gift from God to be used in a way that would please
      him.
   • Humans are stewards of what God has made. This means that they
      believe that they are entrusted by God to look after the world and
      pass it on in a good condition to the generations that follow.
   • Jesus’ parable of the talents (in the Gospel of Luke, chapter 19)
      means that Christians are responsible to God for the way that they
      have used everything he has given them. This includes the way they
      have treated the environment.
   • Christian stewardship includes working to reduce pollution and
      preserve natural resources.
   • Christian stewardship also includes working to share the resources
      of the world more fairly and improving the standard of living in
      less-developed countries (LDCs).
   • Christians try to put these ideas into practice in their own lives
      (e.g. by recycling their own rubbish) and on a worldwide basis by
      supporting charities that work for these aims worldwide.
   • Christians can use the resources and the environment but not in a
      way that would harm others, harm the environment or displease
      God.




                                   - 17 -
Key quotes

“God blessed them and said to them, ‘Be fruitful and increase in number.
Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and over every living
creature that moves on the ground.’”

From Genesis 1:28, The Bible

“The universe as a whole is a product of God’s creative and imaginative
will…Men and women are to be stewards and creators, not exploiters…”

From a Methodist Church statement, Christian Faith Concerning the
Environment

Islam and the environment

Muslims believe that:
  • The universe and everything in it was created by Allah.
  • Allah is above and separate from his creation – this belief is called
      TAWHID.
  • Because the universe has been made by one God it has a unity in
      itself and this can be seen, for example, in the way that scientific
      laws work together and there is one Muslim community (UMMAH).
  • There is a balance in the whole of the universe.
  • Adam was created as a KHALIFAH, which means steward. All
      Muslims now see themselves as khalifahs.
  • They will be judged after death on how they have lived their lives.
      Part of this judgement will focus on the way that they have
      treated the environment.
  • People have been placed in charge of the earth’s resources.

Key quote

“The planet that we live on has been created by Allah and entrusted to
mankind until the Day of Judgement. As His ‘agents’ on earth we have the
responsibility of looking after….everything else which surrounds us.”

From Ibrahim Hewitt, What does Islam say?




                                   - 18 -
A Rocha – a Christian group working to care for the
environment

Introduction
A Rocha is “an international conservation organisation working to care for
God’s world.” The name comes from Portuguese for “the Rock” as the
first project was a field study centre in Portugal.

What does A Rocha do?
A Rocha runs projects in a number of countries (e.g. UK, France, Canada,
Lebanon, Portugal among others).

The projects focus on education, science, conservation or research.

Projects
Here are two examples of A Rocha projects:

    1. Living Waterways project in the UK
The Living Waterways project is based in west London. The aim of the
project was to “open up the wonders of God’s creation to people who have
little chance to enjoy the beauty at first hand.”

Working with the local council the other community groups A Rocha has
helped to turn 90 acres of wasteland into the Minet Country Park. The
park has recreation space and nature conservation areas. Instead of
burnt-out cars and dumped waste the land now has nature trails, green
open space and a children’s playground.

  2. Les Tourades study centre in France
The A Rocha study centre in France focuses on three main areas:
        • Welcoming visitors and encouraging discussions of
           environmental issues.
        • Conducting scientific research on local flora, fauna and
           ecosystems.
        • Managing and protecting vulnerable or threatened sites.

Why do A Rocha work to protect the environment?

The A Rocha website mentions for reasons for Christians to get involved
in conservation:




                                   - 19 -
   •   Love
   •   Obedience
   •   Justice
   •   Hope

   1. Love
God cares about the world because he made it. The members of A Rocha
think that studying and caring for God’s world is a way of showing love for
him.

    2. Obedience
Christians are called to obey God. In Genesis Christians are told to rule
over “the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over
all the earth” in a way that reflects his own image. This means being good
and responsible stewards.

   3. Justice
The environment is an issue of justice. Often it is the poor who suffer
first when the environment is damaged.

   4. Hope
The Bible says that one day God will rescue and restore the whole of his
creation. A Rocha wants to be a part of God’s plan to maintain and restore
the environment.

You can find out more information about A Rocha on the internet:

http://en.arocha.org

Animal rights issues

Can animals have rights?

Animal rights means the belief that animals have rights not to be
exploited by humans.

Some argue that animals cannot have rights because they are not self-
conscious or able to choose how to live their lives.

Others point out that young children are not self-conscious or able to
choose how to live their lives at first but we still believe they have rights.


                                    - 20 -
Also, some experiments with apes have suggested that they might be
self-conscious.

Others think that you can only have rights if you are capable of
protecting those rights and animals cannot do that.

Should animals be used in experiments?

                 Yes                                      No
   •   Animals do not have the same         •   Animals have the same rights
       rights as humans.                        not to be abused as humans.
   •   Human health is more                 •   Ignoring animal welfare
       important than animal                    degrades humans and makes
       welfare.                                 the people who experiment
                                                on animals sub-human.
   •   Most advances in human               •   Better hygiene and nutrition
       health have come from                    have had more effect in
       research on animals.                     improving human health than
                                                experiments on animals.
   •   The public expects high              •   There are alternatives to the
       standards of drug safety and             use of animals.
       these can only be achieved
       through experiments on
       animals.

Should animals be used for food?

For                                    Against
   •   Humans have meat-eating           • Humans do not need to eat
       teeth; eating animals is              meat to live.
       natural!
   •   Other animals eat meat.              •   Some animals eat plants.
   •   Killing animals for food is          •   Killing always causes
       different from killing them              suffering
       for fun and is done humanely.
   •   If animals were not eaten            •   Ending meat eating would not
       what would happen to all the             happen suddenly.
       animals kept by farmers?




                                   - 21 -
Christianity and animal rights

Christians believe that animals are part of God’s creation and humans
have duties towards animals. They think that:

   •   Farmers should care for livestock.
   •   Animals should be slaughtered without pain.
   •   Animals should be used for experiments when absolutely necessary.

They also think humans have a right to use animals for food/experiments
if human health is improved.

They believe these things because:

   •   God is the creator of animals as well as humans.
   •   God gave humans the right to control animals.
   •   Animals do not have rights because they are not made in the image
       of God.
   •   Humans have a duty to care for animals because they are stewards
       of God’s creation.

Key quote

“Then God said, ‘Let us make man in our image….and let them rule over….all
the creatures that move along the ground.’”

From Genesis 1:26, The Bible

Some Christians are vegetarian and disagree with animals being used for
food or experiments.

They think this because:

   •   God created both humans and animals.
   •   Humans have a duty to care for animals as stewards.
   •   Animals have the same rights as humans.

Key quote

“Are not two sparrows sold for a penny? Yet not one of them will fall to
the ground apart from the will of your Father.”


                                   - 22 -
Jesus speaking in the Gospel of Matthew 10:29, The Bible

“Let the law of kindness know no limits. Show a loving consideration to all
God’s creatures.”

From General Advice to Quakers, 1928

Islam and animal rights

Muslims have similar beliefs about animals to Christians but they would
also add:

   •   Hunting can only be done for food, not sport.
   •   Muslims have special rules for killing animals in a HALAL (or
       permitted) way. These are:

   1. Any animal to be slaughtered must be cared for by being given food
      and water.
   2. The animal must not know that it is about to die.
   3. It must be killed from behind by having its throat cut with a sharp
      knife.
   4. Allah’s name must be said over the animal. This is to show that all
      life is special and must only be taken with his permission.

Muslims beliefs about animals are based on:

   •   The Qur’an says that animals are part of Allah’s creation.
   •   The Qur’an contains instructions on how to kill animals in a halal
       way.
   •   There are many hadith (these are the sayings of Muhammad) about
       treating animals kindly.

Key quote

“There is not an animal that lives on the earth…but forms part of
communities like you…..they all shall be gathered to their Lord in the end.”

From Surah 6:38, The Qur’an




                                   - 23 -
Section 3 – Religion: Peace and Conflict

Key Words
These are the important words that you are expected to know for this
section:

Nuclear weapons weapons based on atomic fission or fusion
other weapons of mass destruction     non-nuclear weapons which can
                                      destroy large areas/numbers of
                                      people eg chemical weapons
pacifism          refusing to fight in wars
just war          a war which is fought for the right reasons and in a
                  right way
world peace       the basic aim of the United Nations to remove the
                  causes of war
bullying          intimidating/frightening people weaker than yourself
forgiveness       the act of stopping blaming someone and/or pardoning
                  them for what they have done wrong
reconciliation    bringing together people who were opposed to each
                  other

Introduction

Most people want to see peace in the world instead of war. In 1945 the
United Nations was set up with the aim of keeping world peace and
avoiding another world war.

Since 1945, however, there have been many major wars e.g. the Korean
War (1950 - 1953) and the Vietnam War (1961 – 1975).

Two areas of conflict in the world

There are many areas of conflict in the world today. You are expected to
know about one in detail and one briefly.

   1. Israel and Palestine
In the Middle East there is constant conflict between the State of
Israel and the Palestinian people who want the restoration of a Palestinian
State.




                                   - 24 -
The main reasons for the conflict are:

          •   The Jews lived in Israel from about 1000 BC to 132 AD when
              they were expelled by the Romans.
          •   When Arabs captured the area from the Romans in 636 AD
              it became an Arab state.
          •   During WW1 Britain captured the area and promised a state
              for the Palestinians and a homeland for the Jews.
          •   After WW2 Jews revolted against British rule and set up
              the State of Israel.
          •   The State of Israel was recognised by the UN in 1948, and
              parts of Palestine not in the new State of Israel became the
              State of Jordan.
          •   In 1967 when Israel was fighting against her Arab
              neighbours she occupied many parts of the State of Jordan
              to protect her borders.
          •   Israel has been ordered to give up the occupied territories
              by the UN but has refused to do so until the Palestinians and
              surrounding Arab nations recognise Israel’s borders.
          •   Violence continues today with violence and retaliation on
              both sides. Suicide bombers attack civilians and children in
              Israel. Israel’s latest measure is to put an 8 metre high
              concrete wall through the West Bank to protect herself
              from these attacks.

   2. Iraq
In 2003 there was a war between Iraq and a coalition from Britain and
America. This war was fought because the UK and USA believed that
Saddam Hussein had “weapons of mass destruction” (WMD). The main
events in the war were as follows:

   •   In November 2002 the United Nations Security Council passed a
       resolution which said that Iraq should give up all WMD and that
       “serious consequences” would occur if they refused.
   •   Weapons inspections took place.
   •   In early February 2003 Colin Powell (a member of the USA
       government) said that the inspections were not successful.
   •   USA and UK pressed for a second resolution authorising military
       action against Iraq. France and Russia opposed the resolution.
   •   There were massive public demonstrations against a possible war.
   •   Baghdad (the capital) was attacked from the air in March 2003.



                                   - 25 -
   •   Ground forces invaded from Kuwait in the south. The UK troops
       secured towns in the south and USA troops pressed on to Baghdad.
   •   In early April 2003 US forces took Baghdad. American troops
       helped Iraqis to pull down a statue of Saddam Hussein.
   •   President Bush declared that the war was over on 1st May 2003.
   •   On 13th December 2003 Saddam Hussein was found in a hole in the
       ground near Tikrit.
   •   Iraq is currently ruled by US led armed forces. There are plans to
       hand back control of the country to the Iraqi people by June 2004.
   •   There is continuing violence; soldiers are attacked most days and
       suicide bombers target those who would work with the UK and USA
       forces.

Christianity and War

The Bible is full of references to peace and Christians aim to bring peace
and reconciliation to the world. The Christian Churches have all made
statements against war. Many often recognise that it is not always
possible to avoid war.

There are two main Christian attitudes to war.

   1. Christian pacifism

Pacifism means refusing to fight in wars and for the first 300 years all
Christians were opposed to war. This changed when Christianity became
the religion of the Roman Empire.

In the twentieth century many Christians have become pacifists because
modern warfare techniques often harm more civilians than soldiers.

The Quakers, Plymouth Brethren and Christadelphians are completely
pacifist Churches. There are many other Christian organisations which
work for peace.

The reasons why some Christians are pacifists are:

          •   Jesus taught his disciples to love their enemies and turn
              their cheeks when they were hit.
          •   Peace will only come if people refuse to fight.




                                    - 26 -
          •   The horrible things that have happened to civilians in
              wartime e.g. the bomb on Hiroshima.
          •   One of the Ten Commandments bans killing.
          •   Jesus said “…all who draw the sword will die by the sword.”

Key quotes

“Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called sons of God.”

Gospel of Matthew 5:9, The Bible

“Love your enemies.”

Gospel of Matthew 5:44, The Bible

“We utterly deny all outward wars and strife and fighting with outward
weapons…”

Quaker statement

   2. Christianity and just war

Thomas Aquinas came up with a set of ideas for when a war might be
considered justified (or a just war).

                          Conditions for a Just War
1. The cause of the war is just (e.g. resisting an attack).
2. The war is fought by the authority of a government.
3. It is fought with the intention to restore peace.
4. It is a last resort (other ways have been tried of settling the dispute).
5. There is a reasonable chance of success.
6. Methods used avoid killing civilians.
7. An appropriate amount of force is used.

Many Christians would argue that war is justified if it meets the criteria
for a just war above. They believe this because:

   •   Paul told Christians to obey the orders of the government (e.g. in
       Romans 13).
   •   Jesus never condemned soldiers he met.




                                    - 27 -
   •   Jesus said “Give to Caesar what is Caesar’s”. He was talking about
       taxes but it could include being obedient to a government that
       instructs a Christian to go and fight in a war.
   •   An army could be seen as a police force that protects innocent
       countries from criminal ones.

Key quotes

“Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities…”

From Romans 13:1, The Bible

“As long as the danger of war persists and there is no international
authority with the necessary competence and power, governments cannot
be denied the right of lawful self-defence, once all peace efforts have
failed.”

From Catechism of the Catholic Church

Islam and War

One meaning of the word Islam is “peace” so Islam is, in general, a peace
loving religion.

Within Islam there is an idea called JIHAD which means “to struggle in
the way of Islam”. Greater jihad is where Muslims struggle to be Muslim
and make their society fully Islamic; this does not involve fighting.

Lesser jihad, however, is the struggle for Islam with forces outside of
yourself using violence and weapons. In this setting it means “holy war”.

In order for a war to be jihad it must meet certain criteria.




                                   - 28 -
                           Conditions for Jihad
1. It must be fought for a just cause (or a good reason). Examples of just
causes are Islam is being attacked or people are suffering an injustice.
2. It must be a last resort.
3. It must be authorised and led by a Muslim authority.
4. It must be fought so that it causes the least possible amount of
suffering.
5. Innocent civilians must not be attacked and the environment must be
protected.
6. It must be ended as soon as the enemy lays down his arms.

If a war fulfils these conditions then Muslims believe that they must all
fight in it.

Muslims hold these beliefs about war because:

   •   The Qur’an says that Muslims must fight if they are attacked.
   •   Muhammad fought in wars and he is the most important prophet.
   •   Muhammad made many statements (hadith) about how Muslims
       should fight in just wars.
   •   The Qur’an says that anyone who dies fighting in a just war will go
       straight to heaven.

Key quotes

“Fight in the cause of God those who fight you…”

From Surah 2:190, The Qur’an

“Islam is not in favour of wars. One meaning of the word Islam is
peace….No true Muslim can possibly regard war as a good thing.”

From Ruqaiyyah Maqsood, Teach Yourself Islam




                                   - 29 -
Pax Christi: A religious group working for peace

You are expected to know about a religious group that works for peace.
One such group is the Roman Catholic group Pax Christi.

Pax Christi is Latin and the words mean “the peace of Christ”. It was
founded in France in 1945 to promote reconciliation between French and
German Catholics after the violence of WW2.

The group now has members in 22 countries on 4 continents. It is
sometimes asked for advice at the United Nations. The organisation is
dedicated to peace and non-violence.

Pax Christi USA is the American branch of the organisation and it is
particularly active.

The group works by providing information to its members, campaigning,
lobbying governments, praying and making public statements.

The main activities of the group are:

   •   Making public statements about war.
   •   Criticising the American government over issues related to violence
       e.g. the amount the country spends on arms (defence budget) and
       the use of the death penalty.
   •   Organising public debates e.g. on the morality of nuclear weapons.
   •   Working for economic and racial justice. This means that all people
       get a fair deal in society regardless of their wealth or race.
   •   Working for recognition of human rights.
   •   Educating American Catholics about war and peace issues.
   •   Trying to establish international intervention teams to prevent
       wars.

They do this work because:

   •   They take seriously Jesus’ teachings about loving your enemy,
       turning the other cheek, and forgiveness.
   •   They follow Jesus’ example of not using violence even when
       attacked.
   •   They believe the Gospel encourages Christians to be peacemakers
       and to be concerned for justice for those who are oppressed.


                                   - 30 -
Key quotes

“Pax Christi USA strives to create a world that reflects the peace of
Christ….Pax Christi USA rejects war…and every form of violence.”

From the Pax Christi statement of purpose. All members have to agree to
this.

Bullying

Bullying is intimidating or frightening people who are weaker than
yourself. Bullying can often happen in schools where children can be
picked on by groups of older or stronger children.

Such bullying can result in injury, mental illness, suicide or murder.

Bullying not only takes place amongst children but can happen between
adults as well. Forms of bullying can happen at work. This takes place
when people abuse their position of power or authority to frighten,
intimidate or humiliate people who are under their authority. This kind of
bullying is not usually physical (managers don’t normally beat up their
employees!) but uses words. It can cause stress, depression, nervous
breakdown or suicide.

Non-religious attitudes to bullying

The law tries to protect victims of bullying. Schools have anti-bullying
policies and trade unions have procedures for protecting people at work.

Society disapproves of bullying because:

   •   It is a human right to be able to live free from fear.
   •   Bullying has harmful effects on society e.g. the victims of bullying
       are unlikely to realise their potential.
   •   A civilised society is based on law and mutual respect. Both of
       these are threatened by bullying.




                                    - 31 -
Religious attitudes to bullying

All religions see bullying as wrong because:

   •   All religions see using violence without just cause as sinful. Bullying
       involves physical or non-physical (verbal) violence.
   •   Christians see all people as being made in the image of God. They
       are precious and shouldn’t be harmed through bullying.
   •   Religious people are often commanded by their faith to protect
       those who can’t stand up for themselves. This includes the victims
       of bullying.

Key quote

“We should love one another.”

From 1 John 3:11, The Bible

Causes of conflict between family and friends

Conflict does not just happen in wars and bullying. It can occur between
families and friends causing guilt, violence, loss of relationship.

Possible causes of conflict between family and friends are:

   •   Jealousy over jobs or financial success.
   •   Disagreements about friendships with other people.
   •   Arguments over boyfriends or girlfriends.
   •   Spreading rumours.
   •   Disagreements over moral issues.
   •   Arguments about trust e.g. not keeping to agreements about what
       time to be in!

Christianity and forgiveness

Christianity is based on forgiveness. Parables like the Parable of the Lost
Son show that God is always willing to forgive people if they ask for
forgiveness.




                                     - 32 -
Christians also believe that humans had become cut off from God because
of human sin. They believe that God sent Jesus to die so that people
could be forgiven.

Christians consider that if God went to such lengths to secure
forgiveness then they should be forgiving too.

Although forgiving people all the time can be very difficult in practice
there are Christians who have managed to follow Jesus’ teaching in the
hardest of circumstances e.g. Peter and Linda Biehl managed to forgive
and meet the murderers of their daughter Amy in South Africa because
they were committed to following Jesus’ teaching.

They believe these things because:

   •   Jesus died on the cross to bring forgiveness and reconciliation.
   •   Jesus told Peter that he should forgive people up to ”seventy times
       seven times”. He didn’t mean forgive them 490 times but rather go
       on forgiving again and again and again.
   •   Jesus prayed for the forgiveness of his executioners when he was
       on the cross.
   •   Paul said that Christians should try and live in peace with everyone.

Christians do not think that forgiveness and reconciliation is possible if
the argument is over a religious or moral issue and others are going
against Christian beliefs.

Key quote

“’Forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors.’”

(In this passage Jesus teaches his disciples the Lord’s Prayer)

From the Gospel of Matthew 6:12, The Bible




                                    - 33 -
Islam and forgiveness

Islam teaches that God is merciful and all who truly repent of their sins
will be forgiven. Muslims believe that they too should forgive when people
cause them offence.

They believe these things because:

   •   Allah is believed to be compassionate and merciful so Muslims
       should be too.
   •   Muslims believe that Allah will judge them on the Day of
       Judgement. If Muslims want Allah’s forgiveness then they need to
       show it to other people.
   •   The Qur’an says that Muslims should forgive.
   •   There are many hadith (sayings from the Prophet Muhammad)
       about forgiveness.

Muslims will not forgive those who are working against Islam or who are
denying Muslim principles.

Key quote

“Be forgiving and control yourself in the face of provocation.”

Hadith of Muhammad




                                   - 34 -
Section 4 – Religion: Crime and Punishment

Key Words
These are the key words that you need to know for this section:

Sin          an act against the will of God
crime        an act against the law
law          rules made by Parliament and enforceable by the courts
justice      due allocation of reward and punishment, the maintenance of
             what is right
deterrence the idea that punishments should be of such a nature that
             they will put people off (deter) committing crimes
retribution the idea that punishments should make criminals pay for
             what they have done wrong
reform       the idea that punishments should try to change criminals so
             that they will not commit crimes again
judgement the act of judging people and their actions
punishment a penalty given for any crime or offence
capital punishment         the death penalty for a crime or offence

Law and Justice

Laws are rules about how to behave. Justice is about fairness; this
includes rewarding the good and punishing the bad. In the UK laws are
made by Parliament and justice is given by the courts.

Law and justice are not always the same and you can see this in the
differences between sins and crimes.

Sins are acts that go against God’s will. These are not necessarily crimes
but they will often be unjust. For instance it would be a sin for a
millionaire not to give any of their money to charity.

A crime is an act that breaks the law of the land and which will be
punished by the state. Crimes are often sins as well but they don’t have
to be e.g. if a state has immoral laws (like segregation laws in America
keeping white and black apart) then to disobey them would be a crime but
not a sin.




                                   - 35 -
We need laws because humans live in groups and in groups you need rules
to organise people’s behaviour and to protect the weak from the strong.

Society needs laws so that people know what sort of behaviour to expect
from each other and so that they can be protected from violence.

There needs to be a connection between law and justice because if laws
are unjust then people will feel it is right to break the law and they may
start to think that all laws are unjust.

Thomas Aquinas said that an unjust law is not a proper law.

Christianity and Justice

Christians believe that God is just and will reward good and punish evil in
this life or the world to come. Christians believe that they should work
for justice and fairness. This means working for human rights, a fair
sharing of the world’s resources and other issues.

Christian Churches were the group that started off the Jubilee 2000
campaign. This campaign was to persuade governments to cancel the debts
of countries that were being kept in poverty because they had to pay so
much interest on their loans to rich countries.

Christians believe in justice because:

   •   The Bible says that God is a God of justice.
   •   The Bible says that people should be treated fairly and not
       cheated.
   •   Jesus encouraged the rich to share with the poor.
   •   The Churches have made many statements about issues of justice.

Key quotes

“And there is no God apart from me, a just God and a saviour.”

From Isaiah 45:21, The Bible

“Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness.”

From the Gospel of Matthew 5:6, The Bible


                                   - 36 -
“Christians should campaign for policies that reflect Justice, Peace and
the wholeness of Creation…”

From Exeter Diocese pamphlet, Church of England

Islam and Justice

Muslims believe that Allah is just and that he will reward and punish
people with fairness on the Last Day. Muslims believe that as Allah’s
representatives on earth they should behave justly. They think that the
best way to make a fair society is to follow the SHARI’AH; the Islamic
law based on the Qur’an and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad
(HADITH).

Muslims believe that charging people interest is wrong. They think that
this involves taking money from the poor and giving it to the rich (which is
unjust).

Muslims set up their own banks in non-Muslim countries so that they can
buy houses without taking a traditional loan. Islamic banks do not charge
interest.

The third of the five pillars of Islam is ZAKAT. This involves paying 2.5%
of a Muslim’s wealth to those who are poor or are in need. This helps to
create a fairer society; richer Muslims pay more and poorer Muslims pay
less.

There are also Islamic charities that devote themselves to caring for
those who are vulnerable or suffering. Two of these charities are Muslim
Aid and Islamic Relief.

Muslims believe in justice because:

   •   The Qur’an says that Allah is just.
   •   There are many hadith (sayings of Muhammad) in which the
       Prophet tells people to treat others justly.
   •   The Shari’ah is based on justice for everyone.
   •   One of the five duties (or pillars) of Islam is based on the idea of
       justice (Zakat).




                                    - 37 -
Key quotes

“Say, ‘My Lord has commanded justice.’”

From Surah 7:29, The Qur’an

“Zakat creates love and brotherhood between the rich and the poor…”

From Islamic Relief Zakat Guide

The Nature of Punishment

If a society has laws then sometimes some people will break those laws.
In this situation there must be punishments so that others will be
encouraged to keep them. Punishment should also aim to achieve other
things aswell:

Aim of Punishment       Explanation
Retribution             Criminals should pay for their crime in proportion
                        to the severity of the crime they have committed.
Deterrence              Many people think that very severe punishments
                        put people off (deter) them from committing
                        crimes e.g. if a person knows they will lose their
                        own life if they murder someone.
Reform                  Punishment should aim to help criminals to change
                        so that they do not commit crimes again.
Protection              Society itself needs to be protected from people
                        who commit crimes. Putting people in prison
                        protects the rest of society from their behaviour.

Christianity and Punishment

Jesus often talked about God judging people (rather than humans). As a
result of this many Christians emphasise the importance of punishment to
reform criminals. They think that no-one is beyond hope and anyone could
change with God’s help.

They think this because:

   •   Jesus said that Christians should not judge other people.




                                   - 38 -
   •   When a woman caught in adultery was brought to Jesus he showed
       her mercy and told her not to do it anymore (reform) rather than
       demanding the punishment that was laid down under Jewish law –
       stoning.
   •   Jesus said that Christians should try to settle their problems
       without going to court.

However some Christians believe that the protection of society and the
deterrence of criminals are also important aims of punishment. They
think this because:

   •   Paul said that the state has the right to enforce the law.
   •   Society would fall apart if there was no police force or punishment
       for criminals.
   •   Jesus threw the money changers out of the Temple; this showed
       that he was prepared to judge and punish people on occasions.



Key quotes

“Do not judge or you too will be judged.”

From Gospel of Matthew 7:1, The Bible

“The aim of punishment is not primarily retribution, still less revenge, but
the reform and rehabilitation of the offender.”

From Methodist Church statement

Islam and Punishment

Muslims believe that crimes should not be committed because any crime
is also a sin against Allah and they believe that all sins will be punished on
the Last Day.

The Qur’an lays down clear punishments for certain crimes e.g. a thief
should have a hand amputated and adultery should be punished with one
hundred lashes.

Muslims believe that such punishments will deter others and reform the
lives of those who suffer them. For example, knowing that stealing will be


                                     - 39 -
punished by hand amputation would put many people off (deter). Also for
someone who has been punished in this way it will help them to reform
because they would not want to risk it happening again - and losing the
other hand!

Sometimes Islamic courts use imprisonment and at times victims are
allowed to pay compensation to the victim or their family (as a form of
retribution).

Muslims hold these beliefs because:

   •   The Qur’an lays down lashes or amputation for certain crimes. The
       Qur’an must be followed because it is believed to be the words of
       Allah.
   •   Whipping and amputation allow Muslims to remain in society with
       their family. Some think they are less likely to re-offend than if
       they were sent to prison.
   •   Only really severe punishments are deterrents. Amputation is much
       more likely to put someone off doing a crime than six months in
       prison.
   •   Strict punishments are only used as a last resort.

Key quotes

“As to the thief, male or female, cut off his or her hands: a punishment
by way of example, from God, for their crime.”

From Surah 5:41, The Qur’an

James Mawdsley: a Prisoner of Conscience

You need to know about a prisoner of conscience who has been imprisoned
for their religious belief.

James Mawdsley went to Bristol University to study Physics and
Philosophy. However, James left Bristol after one year, claiming his
course wasn’t challenging enough. He first learnt about the situation in
Burma after meeting a group of refugees in New Zealand. In 1996 he
went to Burma and took a job teaching English to refugees from the
displaced Karen tribe.




                                   - 40 -
It was when government forces burnt down his school and forced him to
flee, that James became truly committed to the cause of democracy,
justice and human rights in Burma.

In September 1997 he was deported from Burma after he had chained
himself to the railings of a school in Rangoon, chanting anti-government
slogans and writing the words 'peace' and 'kindness' on a wall. James
illegally returned to the country and travelled to the provincial capital
Moulmein, where he put up anti-government posters. He was arrested and
sentenced to five years imprisonment. However, after 98 days at
Rangoon's notorious Insein Prison, he was released and deported from
Burma for a second time.

By this time James, a committed Christian, had an emotional attachment
to Burma and an unwavering dedication to his cause. Consequently, he
illegally returned to Burma in 1999. Inevitably he was once again arrested,
this time for handing out pro-democracy leaflets in North East city of
Tachilek, and he was sentenced to 17 years imprisonment in Kengtung jail.

James was kept in solitary confinement in a rat-infested cell, measuring
just 27ft by 23ft. He was allowed out once a day for an hour if he was
lucky, but often for just ten minutes. He spent his days living off
fishpaste and rice, and reading the few books his guards would allow,
including Nelson Mandela's autobiography. However, the constant glare
from the striplight damaged his eyes to the point where it was difficult
to read. Visits from his parents were infrequent and the letters he wrote
each month were never sent.

James's continual protests over his conditions soon wore down the
patience of his guards. Groups of men would beat him with wooden clubs,
leaving him battered, bruised and internally bleeding.

James was finally released in October 2000, after 418 days in prison.

Despite his ordeal, James Mawdsley made a low-key charity visit to
Burma in May 2001. He currently works for Christian Solidarity
Worldwide (CSW).

James was prepared to make these protests because:

   •   He believed that he had to follow Jesus’ teachings to “love your
       neighbour”.



                                   - 41 -
   •   In the Bible God is concerned for justice and tells his people to
       stand up for those who are being oppressed.

Capital Punishment

Capital punishment is punishment that takes away the life of the criminal.
It is normally called execution or the death penalty.

In the past there were many offences that people could be executed for.
These have been reduced over the years until only one, murder, remained.
The death penalty was abolished in the UK in 1970.

There are many non-religious arguments for and against the death
penalty.

Non-religious arguments in favour       Non-religious arguments against
of capital punishment                   capital punishment
   • Capital punishment is the             • Sometimes courts make
      best deterrent and would                 mistakes. You cannot reverse
      lead to fewer murders.                   capital punishment if you
                                               have made a mistake!
   •   Society can only be                 • Statistics suggest that
       protected from murderers                capital punishment is no more
       and terrorists by taking                of a deterrent than life
       their lives away.                       imprisonment.
   •   Human life is precious.             • Executing terrorists or
       Taking someone else’s should            murderers sometimes can
       carry the ultimate                      make them heroes or
       punishment.                             martyrs.
   •   Capital punishment is the           • Executing murderers makes
       best kind of retribution and            society as bad as the
       compensation for a victim of            murderer.
       murder and their family.




                                    - 42 -
Christianity and Capital Punishment

Many Christians are totally opposed to capital punishment and feel that it
is un-Christian. They think Christians should campaign for it to be
abolished. They think these things because:

   •   Jesus came to save (or reform) sinners. You cannot reform a
       criminal after they have been executed!
   •   The Old Testament Law allowed retribution but in the New
       Testament Jesus said that “an eye for an eye” is wrong.
   •   Christians believe in the sanctity of life. This means that life is
       special because God made it.
   •   Most Christian Churches have condemned capital punishment.

Some Christians give their support to the use of capital punishment. They
think that its use is the best way of keeping order and preventing murder
in society. They believe this because:

   •   The Bible states (in the Old Testament) that the death penalty
       should be used for a number of crimes so God allows it.
   •   The Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England have not
       withdrawn their statements allowing the state to use capital
       punishment.
   •   Christians have in the past used capital punishment for heresy.
       Heresy means having beliefs that others believe to be wrong.
   •   Thomas Aquinas said that punishment should aim to achieve reform
       of the sinner and the peace of society. Of these two aims the
       peace of society is the most important. Christians can therefore
       use capital punishment to achieve the peace of society.

Key quotes

“Do not repay anyone evil for evil.”

From Romans 12:17, The Bible

“We do not have the right, even in the case of those who have committed
dreadful crimes including the murder of others, to take their lives as a
punishment. The United Reformed Church believes that even the most
depraved person is capable of reform…”




                                       - 43 -
From a statement from the United Reformed Church, quoted in What the
Churches Say

Islam and Capital Punishment

Islam allows capital punishment for three reasons: murder, adultery (a
married person having a sexual relationship with someone who they are
not married to) and apostasy (a Muslim denying Islam and working against
the religion). The crimes must be proven and the processes followed that
are laid down in the Shari’ah (Islamic law).

Muslims agree with capital punishment because:

   •   It is a punishment set down in the Qur’an.
   •   Muhammad made statements (hadith) agreeing with capital
       punishment for the three offences of murder, adultery and
       apostasy.
   •   Muhammad sentenced people to death for murder when he was
       ruler of Madinah.
   •   The Shari’ah Law states that capital punishment is the punishment
       for these three offences.

Some Muslims do not agree with capital punishment for the non-religious
reasons. They think that although the Qur’an recommends the use of the
punishment it is not compulsory.




                                  - 44 -
Section 5 – Religion and Medical Issues

Overview
This is the extended writing section of the paper. You are expected to
know about the following:

1. Organ Transplants
You will need to understand:
• the nature of transplant surgery
• Christian attitudes to transplant surgery
• the attitudes to transplant surgery in one non-Christian religion
• non-religious attitudes to organ transplants.

2. Religion and Infertility
You will need to understand:
• medical treatments for infertility
• Christian attitudes to infertility treatments
• the attitudes to infertility treatments of one non-Christian religion
• non-religious attitudes to infertility treatments.

3. Genetic Engineering
You will need to understand:
• genetic engineering in humans
• Christianity and genetic engineering
• one non-Christian religion and genetic engineering
• non-religious attitudes to genetic engineering.

Religion and Infertility

1. Medical treatments for infertility

Infertility has become much more of a problem in the Western world in
recent years with as many as 12.5 per cent of couples (about 1 in 7
couples) in the UK estimated to have fertility problems.

Fertility drugs can help some women, but the most successful fertility
treatments involve medical technology:




                                   - 45 -
In-vitro fertilisation (IVF) - when an egg from the woman is fertilised
outside the womb using either the husband's or a donor's sperm and then
replaced in the womb.
Artificial insemination by husband (AIM) - when the husband's sperm
is inserted into his wife by mechanical means.
Artificial insemination by donor (AID) - when an anonymous man donates
sperm which is inserted mechanically into the mother.
Egg donation - when an egg is donated by another woman, fertilised by
IVF using the husband's sperm and then placed in the wife's womb by
mechanical means.
Embryo donation - when both egg and sperm come from donors and are
fertilised using IVF and then inserted into the wife's womb mechanically.
Surrogacy - either when the egg and sperm of a wife and husband are
fertilised by IVF and then placed into another woman's womb; or when
another woman is artificially inseminated by the husband's sperm. In both
cases, after the birth the woman hands the baby to the husband and
wife.

All the medical treatments now being used by couples in Britain are
supervised by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, though
there have been many arguments about their morality.

From 1 April 2005 children born from donated sperm, eggs or embryos
(donor insemination - Dl) have the right to discover their genetic parents
when they are eighteen. It is estimated that about 50,000 children have
been born from donations, but only about ten per cent of those have been
told that they have other genetic parents.

2. Non-religious arguments about fertility treatments

There are very few non-religious arguments against fertility treatments
as most people accept all the treatments.

However:

   •   Some people are worried about surrogacy because of the legal
       situation about who is considered to be the mother.
   •   Often the same people would also be worried about AID because
       of worries about who is the father, although these worries have
       been dealt with by a new law that allows 18-year-olds to be given
       the donor's identity.



                                   - 46 -
3. Christian attitudes to infertility treatments

There are two very different Christian views on infertility.

   (a) The Roman Catholic view

   •   The Roman Catholic Church view is that life is given by God and
       that no one has a right to children.
   •   Although the Catholic Church feels great sympathy for the
       childless who want children, it only allows methods which do not
       threaten the sacredness of life and in which sex acts are natural.
   •   This means that all fertility treatments involving medical
       technology are banned for Catholics.

The reasons for this attitude are as follows:

• IVF involves fertilising several eggs, some of which are thrown away or
used for experimentation, which is the same as abortion.
• All forms of artificial insemination or surrogacy involve masturbation by
the male which is a sin for Catholics.
• Catholics believe children have the right to know who their parents are
and this is prevented in AID and surrogacy.
• All forms of embryo technology involve fertilisation taking place apart
from the sex act. Catholics believe that God intended procreation to be a
part of the sex act.

   (b) The other Christian Churches

Other churches allow IVF and AIM because:

• it is good to use technology to provide couples with the joy of children.
• the egg and sperm are from the husband and wife.
• the discarded embryos are not foetuses and their destruction can be
justified by the doctrine of double effect (the intention is to produce
children for childless couples not to kill embryos).

They have major concerns about all other embryo technology, though none
has actually been banned by the Churches. They feel that all the other
methods involve problems of who the parent is and could lead to problems
for the children in terms of their identity, and also legal problems about
exactly who the parents are.



                                   - 47 -
All Christians would encourage childless couples to adopt.

Key Quotes
“Techniques that entail the disassociation of husband and wife, by the
intrusion of a person other than the couple... are gravely immoral.”

Catechism of the Catholic Church

“The Methodist Church…has accepted for the time being the scientific
judgement that remedies for human infertility would be greatly assisted
if research on embryos not required for artificial insemination continues
to be carried out.”

Statement of the Methodist Church

4. Islam and infertility treatments

Most Muslims accept IVF and AIH when couples are having fertility
problems because:

• these are simply using medicine to bring about the family life which all
Muslims are expected to have
• the egg and sperm are from the husband and wife
• the discarded embryos are not foetuses and their destruction can be
justified by the doctrine of double effect (the intention is to produce
children for childless couples, not to kill embryos).

However, Islamic lawyers have banned all the other types of embryo
technology because they deny a child's right to know its natural parents
and they are very similar to adoption which is banned in Islam.

Summary
Islam allows IVF and AIH because they only involve the husband and wife.
Islam does not allow any other forms of fertility treatment because they
cause problems concerning the identity of the parents.

Key Quotes

“No Muslim man is allowed to donate sperm to a woman who is not his legal
wife and no woman is allowed to donate an egg to another woman... If a



                                   - 48 -
married woman conceives using sperm from a third party because her
husband is infertile, this is adultery.”

Statement from the Islamic Shari'ah Council of Britain

Genetic Engineering

   1. Introduction

Genetic engineering is 'the deliberate modification of the characters of
an organism by the manipulation of the genetic material'. In connection
with medical issues (which is all you have to study) genetic engineering is
using techniques of gene development and manipulation to find cures or
prevention for disease and disabilities in humans.

Genetic diseases affect large numbers of people. Defective inherited
genes can cause a wide variety of mental and physical problems.

Scientists are involved in genetic research into: cystic fibrosis, muscular
dystrophy, sickle-cell anaemia, Tay-Sachs disease and Huntington's
chorea. They are helped by the Human Genome Project which is mapping
all the genes in the human body.

Most genetic research has been based on:
   • germline gene therapy, which enables genetic changes to be made
      to those cells that transmit information from one generation to
      the next, enabling permanent changes to be made.
   • pre-implanation genetic diagnosis (PGD) which allows a healthy
      embryo to be selected from a number that have been produced so
      that women at risk of producing babies with diseases such as
      cystic fibrosis produce healthy babies.

More recently, cloning processes have been used to grow healthy cells to
replace the malfunctioning ones and so cure disease. This process involves
creating stem cells either from embryos produced for IVF but not used,
or from adult bone marrow or blood. These stem cells are then cultivated
so that they can multiply and be transplanted into diseased cells to
produce a cure.




                                   - 49 -
Legislation permitting stem cell research in the United Kingdom was
passed by Parliament in February 2001. However, it is still illegal in the
USA where it was a major issue in the 2004 presidential election.

   2. Non-religious arguments about genetic engineering

Arguments for

• It offers the prospect of cures for currently incurable diseases.
• It is being done in other countries and so is available to those rich
enough to travel and pay for treatments.
• Research into stem cell cloning would only use embryos until it was
easier to use adult cells.
• Genetic research is an integral part of medical research and is bound to
include some genetic engineering.
• Genetic research is closely monitored by the law, but has vast potential
benefits.

Arguments against

• It has too little information about the long-term consequences.
• It has effects which would be irreversible, so if anything went wrong it
would be permanent.
• It places too much power in the hands of scientists who could use
genetic engineering to act like Dr Frankenstein to produce scientifically
created human beings.
• It treats the human body as a commodity no different from plants.
• It offers the possibility of people having to be genetically screened
before getting life insurance, senior jobs, etc., with anyone likely to
develop illness or die young losing out.

   3. Christian attitudes to genetic engineering

There are several attitudes to genetic engineering amongst Christians.

Liberal Protestant view

Some Christians, mainly liberal Protestants, believe that:




                                    - 50 -
    •   genetic engineering is a good thing which should be supported by
        the Church as long as it is done for the cure of disease
        (therapeutic cloning) and not to produce 'perfect humans'.
    •   Such Christians support the work of the Human Fertilisation and
        Embryology Authority which supervises genetic engineering using
        human embryos.

These Christians support genetic engineering because:

   •    Jesus was a healer who showed that Christians should do all they
        can to cure disease.
   •    Discovering the genetic make-up of humans and using those
        discoveries to improve human life is part of what God wants
        humans to do as stewards of his creation. It is no different from
        research into drugs that can be used to improve human life.
   •    There is a difference between creating cells and creating people.
        Creating people by science rather than by sex would be wrong
        because it would be taking over God's role in the creation of life,
        but creating cells is working with God.
   •    As far as using embryos for genetic research is concerned,
        embryos cannot be regarded as potential human life until they are
        fourteen days old (the time limit set by the Human Fertilisation
        and Embryology Authority for genetic research).
   •    They accept most of the non-religious arguments in favour of
        genetic engineering.

Roman Catholic view

Some Christians, mainly Roman Catholics, believe that genetic engineering
is permissible as long as it is only for curing diseases and does not use
human embryos.

They agree with genetic research for the same first three reasons as
liberal Protestants, but disagree with the use of embryos because:

   •    life begins at the moment of conception whether in a womb or a
        glass dish.
   •    Killing an embryo is killing human life which is banned by the Bible
        and the Church.
   •    Embryos for research have been produced by methods with which
        the Catholic Church disagrees (i.e. IVF).



                                    - 51 -
Conservative Evangelical view

Some Christians are opposed to any form of genetic research at all. They
have this attitude because:

   •   they believe that God has created the genetic make-up of each
       human being at the moment of conception and people have no right
       to interfere with God's will.
   •   They believe that genetic engineering is 'playing God', and that is a
       great sin.
   •   They believe that it is wrong to try to make the Earth perfect, as
       only heaven is perfect. This life is a preparation for heaven and
       should not be used to try to make heaven on Earth.
   •   They accept the non-religious arguments against genetic
       engineering.

Key Quotes

“Jesus of Nazareth was a healer. He cured diseases, and showed that
God's purposes include overcoming 'those things in His creation that spoil
it and that diminish the life of his children'. Clearly, where genetic
manipulation is the means of healing diseases - in animals or humans - it is
to be welcomed.”

Statement from the Methodist Church

“When you enter a town and are welcomed, eat what is set before you.
Heal the sick who are there and tell them, 'The kingdom of God is near
you'.”

Gospel of Luke 10:8-9, The Bible

Summary

Some Christians allow all genetic research, as long as it is to find cures
for diseases, because Jesus was a healer.
Some Christians allow genetic research which does not involve the
destruction of embryos which they believe to be human life.
Some Christians ban all genetic research because they believe it is
'playing God'.



                                    - 52 -
   4. Islamic attitudes to genetic engineering

Some Muslims are opposed to genetic research in any form at all. They
have this attitude because:

   •   they believe that the genetic make-up of each individual person
       has been established by God and only God can alter that make-up.
   •   They believe that embryo research is the same as abortion and, as
       they believe life begins at fertilisation and do not agree with
       abortion, they will not allow genetic research.
   •   They believe that scientists who are trying to create life from
       stem cells, etc., are acting as God (shirk) and this is the most
       unforgivable sin for a Muslim.
   •   They accept many of the non-religious arguments against genetic
       engineering.

Some Muslims believe that genetic engineering is a good thing as long as
it is done for the cure of disease (therapeutic cloning) and not to produce
'perfect humans'. Such Muslims support the work of the Human
Fertilisation and Embryology Authority which supervises genetic
engineering using human embryos. These Muslims support genetic
engineering because:

   •   the Qur'an and hadith teach that Muslims should do all they can to
       cure disease.
   •   Discovering the genetic make-up of humans and using those
       discoveries to improve human life is part of what God wants
       humans to do as vice-gerents of his creation. It is no different
       from research into drugs that can be used to improve human life.
   •   There is a difference between creating cells and creating people.
       Creating people by science rather than by sex would be wrong
       because it would be taking over God's role in the creation of life,
       but creating cells is working with God.
   •   As far as using embryos for genetic research is concerned,
       embryos cannot be regarded as potential human life until they are
       fourteen days old (the time limit set by the Human Fertilisation
       and Embryology Authority for genetic research) which fits in with
       the teachings of the Shari'ah on abortion.




                                   - 53 -
Key Quotes

“The Messenger of Allah said, 'Whenever any of you turns his eyes to one
who has been given more of wealth and progress than he, let him look
towards one who is inferior to himself.”

(In other words have compassion on those who are suffering.)

Hadith

Summary

Some Muslims do not allow any form of genetic engineering because they
believe it is 'playing God'.

Some Muslims allow it, as long as it is to find cures for diseases, because
the Qur'an teaches Muslims to cure diseases.

Transplant Surgery

Introduction

Transplant surgery is the use of organs taken from one person and put
into another person to replace an organ that is malfunctioning or
diseased.

A wide range of organs can now be transplanted successfully (from hearts
to eye corneas), but there are problems in that the organs have to be
compatible, and drugs usually have to be used to prevent the donated
organ being rejected by the host.

However, transplant surgery is very effective and gives life and hope to
people for whom there is otherwise no hope.

There are two types of transplant surgery:

   •   One uses organs from a person who has just died.
   •   The other uses organs from a living person which they can live
       without (for example, bone marrow, single kidneys).




                                   - 54 -
   1. Non-religious arguments

Arguments for

   •    It is an effective and proven method of curing life-threatening
       diseases (for example, heart or kidney malfunction) and improving
       people's lives (for example, cornea grafting giving sight to the
       blind).
   •   It uses organs that would otherwise be buried or burned.
   •   It gives people a chance to help others after their death.
   •   It brings life out of death.

Arguments against

   •    It is very expensive and requires highly skilled people, of which
       there are few.
   •   It raises the problem of when you consider someone to be dead, as
       such things as heart transplants require the heart to be removed
       before it has stopped beating.
   •   It raises the moral/emotional problem of whether surgeons who
       have a patient desperate for a transplant will work to the best of
       their ability to save the life of a potential donor.
   •   It diverts resources from prevention or less expensive cures which
       could improve the lives of far more people than a transplant.
   •   It causes a trade in organs from people in LEDCs to rich people in
       the developed world.

   2. Christian attitudes to transplant surgery

Most Christians are in favour

Most Christians agree with transplant surgery, and many Christians carry
donor cards so that their organs can be used for others after their
death. However, they would object to rich people or surgeons in the
developed world paying for organs from the poor.

The reasons for these attitudes are:

   •   Christians who believe in the immortality of the soul, believe that
       the body is not needed after death and therefore its organs can
       be used to help the living.



                                   - 55 -
   •   Christians who believe in resurrection believe St Paul's words that
       the body will be transformed and that the resurrection body will
       not need the physical organs.
   •   Jesus told Christians that they should love their neighbours and
       treat others as they would wish to be treated by them - both of
       which justify transplants.
   •   The Bible is full of statements about not exploiting the poor.

Some Christians are in favour some of the time

Some Christians are opposed to transplant surgery using organs from
dead people, but accept transplants using organs donated by living
relatives. They would not allow such organs to be paid for. This attitude is
based on:

   •   the Christian belief that organs such as the heart are an intrinsic
       part of the individual who has been created by God.
   •   Transplanting organs from the dead into the living is usurping the
       role of God, and humans do not have the right to act as God.
   •   Organs which can be used from the living are not vital and so can
       be used to obey Jesus' command to love your neighbour.
   •   Organs cannot be paid for because that is exploiting the poor,
       which is banned in the Bible.

Some Christians are against

Some Christians do not agree with transplants at all and will not carry a
donor card. They have this attitude because:

   •   they believe that transplants can ignore the sanctity of life.
   •   They believe that transplanting organs is usurping God's role and it
       is wrong to 'play God'.
   •   They agree with all the non-religious arguments against
       transplants.

Summary

Some Christians agree with both types of transplant surgery, because
they believe the body is not needed after death but they do not agree
with buying organs from poor people.




                                   - 56 -
Some Christians only agree with living transplants because using dead
people is 'playing God'.
Some Christians believe that all forms of transplant surgery are wrong
because they are 'playing God'.

3. Islamic attitudes to Transplant Surgery

Most Muslims are opposed to transplant surgery and will not carry donor
cards. They believe that transplanting organs from one person to another
is against God's will.

They have this attitude because:

   •   the Shari'ah teaches that nothing should be removed from the
       body after death and opposes post-mortems. Therefore organs
       should not be removed from dead Muslims.
   •   The Qur'an says that God has created the body of a person and so
       to take parts from one body and put them into another is to act as
       God (shirk) which is the greatest sin of Islam.
   •   The Muslim belief in the sanctity of life means that all life belongs
       to God and only God has the right to give and take life.
   •   Such Muslims would also agree with the non-religious arguments
       against transplants.

Some Muslims allow transplant surgery using organs from a living donor as
long as the donor is a close relative.

They have this attitude because:

   •   some Muslim lawyers have said that it is permissible.
   •   A ruling, fatwa, was issued by the Muslim Law Council of the
       United Kingdom in 1995 saying that Muslims could carry donor
       cards and have transplants.
   •   Islam aims to do good and is not intended to put burdens on people
       which they cannot bear. If a close relative is dying and a transplant
       would save them, then it should be given, just as pork can be eaten
       if a Muslim would otherwise starve to death.
   •   Such Muslims would also agree with the non-religious arguments in
       favour of transplants.




                                   - 57 -
Summary
Most Muslims do not agree with transplant surgery because they believe
they need all their organs for the Last Day.

Some Muslims allow transplants from close relatives because this is
allowed by Muslim lawyers.




                                  - 58 -
Appendix 1 – Religion and Society Key Words: Full
List
Unit H Religion and society based on a study of Christianity and one
other religion
Section H1 Religion and Social responsibility
Bible        the holy book of Christians with 66 books split into Old and
             New Testament
Church       the community of Christians (with a small c it means a
             Christian place of worship)
conscience an inner feeling of the rightness or wrongness of an action
Situation Ethics the idea that Christians should base moral decisions
                   on what is the most loving thing to do in a situation
electoral system the way in which voting is organised
first-past-the-post       the voting system where whoever gets the most
                          votes in a constituency wins the seat
proportional representation      the voting system where seats are
                                 distributed according to the proportion
                                 of votes
national government       the government headed by the Prime Minister
                          and Parliament which governs the whole country
local government          the local council which looks after local issues
                          such as education and refuse disposal
Decalogue the Ten Commandments
Golden Rule the teaching of Jesus that you should treat others as you
             would like them to treat you

Section H2 Religion and the Environment
pollution         the contamination/degradation of the environment
greenhouse effect the trapping of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
                  which is thought to increase the temperature of the
                  earth
acid rain         such pollutants as coal smoke which make rain more
                  acidic
natural resources naturally occurring materials such as oil and fertile
                  land which can be used by humans
creation          the act of creating the universe or the universe which
                  has been created
stewardship       looking after something so it can be passed on to the
                  next generation



                                  - 59 -
environment       the surroundings in which plants and animals live and
                  which they depend on to live
conservation      protecting and preserving natural resources and the
                  environment
animal rights     the belief that animal have rights not to be exploited
                  by humans

Section H3 Religion: Peace and Conflict
Nuclear weapons weapons based on atomic fission or fusion
other weapons of mass destruction       non-nuclear weapons which can
                                        destroy large areas/numbers of
                                        people eg chemical weapons
pacifism      refusing to fight in wars
just war      a war which is fought for the right reasons and in a right
              way
world peace the basic aim of the United Nations to remove the causes of
              war
bullying      intimidating/frightening people weaker than yourself
forgiveness the act of stopping blaming someone and/or pardoning them
              for what they have done wrong
reconciliation       bringing together people who were opposed to each
                     other

Section H4 Religion: Crime and Punishment
Sin          an act against the will of God
crime        an act against the law
law          rules made by Parliament and enforceable by the courts
justice      due allocation of reward and punishment, the maintenance of
             what is right
deterrence the idea that punishments should be of such a nature that
             they will put people off (deter) committing crimes
retribution the idea that punishments should make criminals pay for
             what they have done wrong
reform       the idea that punishments should try to change criminals so
             that they will not commit crimes again
judgement the act of judging people and their actions
punishment a penalty given for any crime or offence
capital punishment         the death penalty for a crime or offence




                                  - 60 -
Section H5 Religion and Medical Issues
In-vitro fertilisation (IVF)     when an egg from the woman is fertilised
outside the womb using either the husband's or a donor's sperm and then
replaced in the womb.
Artificial insemination by husband (AIM)     when the husband's sperm is
inserted into his wife by mechanical means.
Artificial insemination by donor (AID)       when an anonymous man
donates sperm which is inserted mechanically into the mother.
Egg donation                     when an egg is donated by another
woman, fertilised by IVF using the husband's sperm and then placed in
the wife's womb by mechanical means.
Embryo donation                  when both egg and sperm come from
donors and are fertilised using IVF and then inserted into the wife's
womb mechanically.
Surrogacy                        either when the egg and sperm of a wife
and husband are fertilised by IVF and then placed into another woman's
womb; or when another woman is artificially inseminated by the husband's
sperm. In both cases, after the birth the woman hands the baby to the
husband and wife.




                                  - 61 -
Appendix 2 – Religion and Society Specification


Unit H:         Religion and society based on a study of Christianity
                and at least one other religion
This unit is divided into four sections, examined by external assessment only, and a fifth
section examined by internal or external assessment.
This unit requires students to study Christianity and at least ONE, but no more than TWO, of
the following religions: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Sikhism. However, Section 1
is based on a study of Christianity only.
The words in bold are key words for this unit. Students should be aware of the meanings, and
be able to use them in their answers. A glossary of the key words is available from Edexcel.
In order to meet assessment objective 3, students need to be aware of non-religious, as well as
religious, responses to religious and moral issues.
Students will be required to demonstrate knowledge and understanding, and the ability to
evaluate alternative points of view, in respect of the sections below.

Section H1                               Responsibility
                     Religion and Social Responsibility
This section is based on a study of Christianity only.
How Christians make moral decisions: the authority of the Bible, the authority of the
Church, the role of conscience, Situation Ethics.
The electoral system in the United Kingdom (first-past-the-post, proportional
representation, local government, national government). Differences among Christians in
their attitudes to politics, including the separation of religion and politics (Mark 12:13-17,
Romans 13:1, Titus 3:1 and statements by the Churches), and involvement in politics (Mark
11:15-20, Matthew 6:24, James 2:14-26 and statements by the Churches).
The structure of the Welfare State in the United Kingdom and non-religious arguments about
it. The Christian basis of the Welfare State: the Decalogue (Exodus 20:1-20), the Golden
Rule (Matthew 7:12), the Parable of the Sheep and the Goats (Matthew 25:31-46) and Faith
without Works (James 2:14-17).

Section H2           Religion and the Environment
This section MUST be based on a study of Christianity and ONE other religion.
The different types of pollution and how they pose a threat to the future of the planet
(including the greenhouse effect and acid rain). The scarcity of natural resources and how
they pose a threat to the future of the planet. Non-religious arguments about environmental
issues.
Christian teachings on creation and stewardship which could have an effect on attitudes to
the environment. The teachings of ONE other religion on creation and stewardship which
could have an effect on attitudes to the environment.
The work of ONE religious person, community or organisation in support of the
conservation of the planet and its resources.
The issue of animal rights and non-religious arguments concerning animal rights. The
teachings of Christianity and ONE other religion on animal rights.




                                            - 62 -
Section H3           Religion: Peace and Conflict
This section MUST be based on a study of Christianity and ONE other religion.
TWO areas of conflict in the world today, including the reasons for the conflict. Nuclear
weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.
Differences among Christians in their attitudes to war, including pacifism and the just war,
and the reasons for them. The attitudes to war of ONE other religion and the reasons for them.
The work of ONE religious person, community or organisation for world peace.
Religious and non-religious attitudes to bullying. Causes of conflict between friends and
families. The teachings of Christianity and ONE other religion on forgiveness and
reconciliation.

Section H4                     Crime
                     Religion: Crime and Punishment
This section MUST be based on a study of Christianity and ONE other religion.
The difference between a sin and a crime. The need for law and justice. Christian attitudes,
and the attitudes of ONE other religion, to justice.
Theories of punishment (deterrence, retribution, reform). Christian teaching on
judgement, forgiveness and punishment. The teaching of ONE other religion on judgement,
forgiveness and punishment. A study of a prisoner of conscience imprisoned for her/his
religious beliefs, including the reasons for arrest and the effects of the punishment.
The nature of capital punishment and the non-religious arguments about it. The attitudes of
Christianity, and ONE other religion, to capital punishment.

Section H5           Options
Students are required to study one of these options which will be assessed EITHER by written
examination OR by internal assessment.

Option 1      Religion and Medical Issues

Medical treatments for infertility. The attitudes of Christianity, and ONE other religion, to
infertility treatments. Non-religious attitudes to infertility treatments.
The nature of genetic engineering. The attitudes of Christianity, and ONE other religion, to
genetic engineering. Non-religious attitudes to genetic engineering.
The types of transplant surgery and non-religious arguments about transplants. The attitudes
of Christianity, and ONE other religion, to transplant surgery.

Option 2      Religion and Science

The Biblical cosmology (Genesis 1 and 2), and different Christian attitudes to it. The
cosmology of ONE religion other than Christianity, and the attitudes of its followers to it.
The scientific cosmology (Big Bang and evolution) and religious attitudes to it.
How science and religion are connected (principles, purposes, methods, belief and
experience). The ways in which some scientists see science as leading to or supporting belief
in God.




                                            - 63 -
Coursework tasks
Option 1      Religion and Medical Issues

Write about 1500 words on the following:
(a) (i)      Describe the treatments available to help infertile couples to have children.
      (ii) Explain Christian attitudes, and the attitudes of ONE other religion, to these
             treatments.
      (iii) Explain why religious people may have problems with transplant surgery.
                                                                                     (12 marks)
(b) ‘Only God has the right to interfere with our genes’.
      Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion, showing you have considered another
      point of view. In your own answer you should refer to religious teaching.
                                                                                      (8 marks)
                                                                              (Total 20 marks)

Option 2      Science and Religion

Write about 1500 words on the following:
(a) (i)      Describe the Christian cosmology, and the cosmology of ONE other religion.
      (ii) Explain why the scientific cosmology could be seen as contradicting religious
             cosmologies.
      (iii) Explain how the scientific cosmology can be seen as supporting religious belief.
                                                                                 (12 marks)
(b) ‘You can’t be a scientist and be religious’.
      Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion, showing you have considered another
      point of view.
                                                                                  (8 marks)
                                                                          (Total 20 marks)




                                            - 64 -
Appendix 3 – Specimen Question Paper and Mark
Scheme

SECTION ONE RELIGION AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
You must answer ONE question from this section
EITHER QUESTION 1
1. (a) State ONE of the Ten Commandments. (2)
(b) Give an outline of the Christian attitude that religion and politics
should be kept separate. (6)
(c) Explain why the Bible is important to Christians in making
moral decisions. (8)
(d) “Your conscience is the best guide for deciding what is right and
what is wrong”.
Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion, showing that
you have considered another point of view. In your answer, you
should refer to Christianity. (4)
(Total 20 marks)

OR QUESTION 2

2. (a) What does the word conscience mean? (2)
(b) Give an outline of ONE way a Christian would make a
moral decision. (6)
(c) Explain the relationship between teachings of the Parable of the
Sheep and Goats and the provisions of the Welfare State (8)
(d) “All Christians should be involved in politics”.
Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion, showing that
you have considered another point of view. In your answer, you
should refer to Christianity. (4)
(Total 20 marks)



SECTION TWO RELIGION AND ENVIRONMENT
You must answer ONE question from this section
EITHER QUESTION 3
3. (a) Name TWO types of pollution. (2)
(b) Outline the work of ONE religious person, community or
organisation in support of the conservation of the planet. (6)
(c) Explain how the teachings of ONE religion other than Christianity
could help people reduce pollution. (8)


                                    - 65 -
(d) “Religion does not help animal rights”.
Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion, showing that
you have considered another point of view. In your answer,
you should refer to at least one religion. (4)
(Total 20 marks)

OR QUESTION 4

4. (a) What does the word conservation mean? (2)
(b) Outline the teaching of ONE religion other than Christianity
on creation. (6)
(c) Explain why some Christians are opposed to medical research being
carried out on animals. (8)
(d) “If religious people really cared about the environment, they would
stop using cars and washing machines”.
Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion, showing that
you have considered another point of view. In your answer, you
should refer to at least one religion. (4)
(Total 20 Marks)



SECTION THREE RELIGION: PEACE AND CONFLICT
You must answer ONE question from this section
EITHER QUESTION 5
5. (a) Name ONE weapon of mass destruction. (2)
(b) Outline the work of ONE religious person, community or
organisation for world peace. (6)
(c) Explain why some Christians think it can be right to fight
in a war. (8)
(d) “Religious people should have nothing to do with nuclear weapons”.
Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion, showing that
you have considered another point of view. In your answer, you
should refer to at least one religion. (4)
(Total 20 marks)

OR QUESTION 6

6. (a) What does the word pacifism mean? (2)
(b) Outline the attitude to war in ONE religion other than Christianity.
(6)
(c) Choose ONE area of conflict in the world and explain why the



                                   - 66 -
conflict is happening. (8)
(d) “Religious people should never argue with their families”.
Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion, showing that
you have considered another point of view. In your answer, you
should refer to at least one religion. (4)
(Total 20 Marks)



SECTION FOUR RELIGION: CRIME AND PUNISHMENT
You must answer ONE question from this section
EITHER QUESTION 7
7. (a) What does the word justice mean? (2)
(b) Outline Christian teaching on forgiveness. (6)
(c) Explain why there are different attitudes to capital punishment among
the followers of ONE religion other than Christianity. (8)
(d) “Committing a sin is as bad as committing a crime”.
Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion, showing that
you have considered another point of view. In your answer, you
should refer to at least one religion. (4)
(Total 20 marks)

OR QUESTION 8

8. (a) Give the names of TWO theories of punishment. (2)
(b) Name a prisoner of conscience and outline the reasons why
he or she was imprisoned. (6)
(c) Explain, with appropriate examples, the differences between a sin
and a crime. (8)
(d) “No religious person can agree with capital punishment”.
Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion, showing that
you have considered another point of view. In your answer,
you should refer to at least one religion. (4)
(Total 20 Marks)




                                  - 67 -
SECTION FIVE OPTIONS
You must answer ONE question from this section
You are advised to spend approximately 30 minutes on this section
You will be assessed on the Quality of Written Communication in this
Section.
EITHER QUESTION 9
9. Religion and Medical Issues
(a) (i) Outline the medical treatments available for infertility. (4)
(ii) Explain why there are different attitudes among Christians
to these treatments. (8)
(b) “Only God should interfere with our genes”.
Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion, showing that
you have considered another point of view. In your answer,
you should refer to at least one religion. (8)
(Total 20 marks)

OR QUESTION 10

10. Religion and Science
(a) Describe the Biblical cosmology in Genesis. (4)
(b) Explain why there are different attitudes among Christian to this
cosmology. (8)
(c) “Science has disproved religion”.
Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion, showing that
you have considered another point of view. In your answer,
you should refer to at least one religion. (8)
(Total 20 Marks)




                                    - 68 -
Mark Scheme for the Specimen Paper

UNIT H RELIGION AND SOCIETY BASED ON A STUDY OF
CHRISTIANITY AND
AT LEAST ONE OTHER RELIGION
MARK SCHEME (using Islam as the other religion)
Section 1 Religion and Social Responsibility
1. (a) Any one of: worship God only, do not make graven images, do not
take God’s name in vain, do not work on the Sabbath, honour your parents,
do not kill, do not steal, do not commit adultery, do not covet, do not bear
false witness.
For a partially correct answer (1 mark)
For a correct answer (2 marks)
AO1 2 marks
(b) Good answers will refer to the statement of Jesus to give Caesar
what is Caesar’s and God what is God’s as the basis of the view that
Christians should keep out of politics and concentrate on
worshipping God.
Level 1 for an isolated example of relevant knowledge (2 marks)
Level 2 for basic relevant knowledge presented within a limited structure
(4 marks)
Level 3 for an organised outline / description, deploying relevant
knowledge, with some specialist vocabulary (6 marks)
AO1 6 marks
(c) Good candidates will explain that Christians regard the Bible as a book
inspired by God which contains guidance on how Christians should live
their lives. In particular it is the record of the teachings and guidance
given by Jesus who Christians regard as God’s Son. For all these reasons,
Christians find the Bible invaluable in making moral decisions.
Level 1 for a simple, appropriate and relevant idea (2 marks)
Level 2 for a basic explanation showing understanding of a relevant idea
(4 marks)
Level 3 for a developed explanation showing an understanding of
the main idea(s) using some specialist vocabulary (6 marks)
Level 4 for a comprehensive explanation showing a coherent
understanding of the main idea(s) and using specialist vocabulary
appropriately (8 marks)
AO2 8 marks
(d) Good answers will look at conscience as guidance from God and
contrast it with the Bible and teachings of the Church as guidance for
what is right and wrong to come to a personal conclusion.


                                   - 69 -
Level 1 for an opinion supported by one relevant reason (1 mark)
Level 2 for a basic ‘for and against’ or a reasoned opinion supported
by religious/moral evidence or examples (2 marks)
Level 3 for a reasoned evaluation, using religious/moral argument,
evidence or examples, referring to another point of view 3 marks)
Level 4 for a coherent and reasoned evaluation, based on religious/moral
argument, evidence or examples, giving a account of an alternative
point of view to reach a personal conclusion (4 marks)
AO3 4 marks
(Total 20 marks)

2. (a) An inner feeling of the rightness or wrongness of your behaviour,
or similar phrase.
For a partially correct answer (1 mark)
For a correct answer (2 marks)
AO1 2 marks
(b) Candidates can use the Bible, or the teaching of the Church, or
conscience, or Situation Ethics for the way in which a Christian would
make a moral decision. Good answers will clearly identify the source and
show exactly how it would be used to reach a moral decision.
Level 1 for an isolated example of relevant knowledge (2 marks)
Level 2 for basic relevant knowledge presented within a limited structure
(4 marks)
Level 3 for an organised outline / description, deploying relevant
knowledge, with some specialist vocabulary (6 marks)
AO1 6 marks
(c) Good answers will explain that the parable teaches that Christians
should feed the hungry, clothe the naked, help the sick, visit those in
prison. They will then relate these to the Social Security, NHS,
rehabilitation of offenders and similar provisions of the Welfare State.
Level 1 for a simple, appropriate and relevant idea (2 marks)
Level 2 for a basic explanation showing understanding of a relevant idea
(4 marks)
Level 3 for a developed explanation showing an understanding of
the main idea(s) using some specialist vocabulary (6 marks)
Level 4 for a comprehensive explanation showing a coherent
understanding of the main idea(s) and using specialist vocabulary
appropriately (8 marks)
AO2 8 marks




                                  - 70 -
(d) Good candidates will look at some of the religious arguments for and
against Christians being involved in politics and evaluate them to come to
a personal conclusion.
Level 1 for an opinion supported by one relevant reason (1 mark)
Level 2 for a basic ‘for and against’ or a reasoned opinion supported
by religious/moral evidence or examples (2 marks)
Level 3 for a reasoned evaluation, using religious/moral argument,
evidence or examples, referring to another point of view (3 marks)
Level 4 for a coherent and reasoned evaluation, based on religious/moral
argument, evidence or examples, giving a account of an
alternative point of view to reach a personal conclusion (4 marks)
AO3 4 marks

Section 2 Religion and Environment
3. (a) Any TWO of: acid rain, greenhouse effect, exhaust gases, CFC
emissions, eutrophication, nitrate seepage etc
For a partially correct answer (1 mark)
For a correct answer (2 marks)
AO1 2 marks
(b) The key word is religious so answers on organisations such as
Greenpeace will receive no
marks. A wide range is possible but it must be clear that the work is for
conservation and is being done for religious reasons.
Level 1 for an isolated example of relevant knowledge (2 marks)
Level 2 for basic relevant knowledge presented within a limited structure
(4 marks)
Level 3 for an organised outline / description, deploying relevant
knowledge, with some specialist vocabulary (6 marks)
AO1 6 marks
(c) The teaching of Islam related to reduction of pollution is likely to be:
the teaching that humans are khalifah Allah to keep the balance of
creation and follow the way of life set out by God. Also the teaching on
tawhid means there is a unity in creation which could be
spoilt by pollution. The belief that this life is a test which results in
heaven or hell would also lead Muslims to reduce pollution.
Level 1 for a simple, appropriate and relevant idea (2 marks)
Level 2 for a basic explanation showing understanding of a relevant idea
(4 marks)
Level 3 for a developed explanation showing an understanding of
the main idea(s) using some specialist vocabulary (6 marks)




                                   - 71 -
Level 4 for a comprehensive explanation showing a coherent
understanding of the main idea(s) and using specialist vocabulary
appropriately (8 marks)
AO2 8 marks
(d) Good answers are likely to look at the attitude to animal rights of one
religious group contrast it with a different attitude from another religion
or another group in the same religion. They will evaluate the evidence to
reach a personal conclusion.
Level 1 for an opinion supported by one relevant reason (1 mark)
Level 2 for a basic ‘for and against’ or a reasoned opinion supported
by religious/moral evidence or examples (2 marks)
Level 3 for a reasoned evaluation, using religious/moral argument,
evidence or examples, referring to another point of view (3 marks)
Level 4 for a coherent and reasoned evaluation, based on
religious/moral argument, evidence or examples, giving a
account of an alternative point of view to reach a personal
conclusion (4 marks)
AO3 4 marks

4. (a) Preserve, keep safe or similar phrase.
For a partially correct answer (1 mark)
For a correct answer (2 marks)
AO1 2 marks
(b) Islam teaches that God created the universe, the earth and people
out of nothing. He created everything as a unity. God created Adam as
the first human who was different from the angels because he was given
free will. Adam misused his free will and sinned and was thrown out of the
garden. He repented of his sin at Arafat and was made the first prophet
of God.
Level 1 for an isolated example of relevant knowledge (2 marks)
Level 2 for basic relevant knowledge presented within a limited structure
(4 marks)
Level 3 for an organised outline / description, deploying relevant
knowledge, with some specialist vocabulary (6 marks)
AO1 6 marks
(c) Good answers will explain how some Christians see the Biblical
teaching on animals being a part of God’s creation and the teaching of
Jesus on non-violence to be connected. Jesus said that even the death of
a sparrow does not go unnoticed by God. They may also be influenced by
the Quaker statement, ‘Let the law of kindness know no limits. Show a
loving consideration for all God’s creatures.’.



                                   - 72 -
Level 1 for a simple, appropriate and relevant idea (2 marks)
Level 2 for a basic explanation showing understanding of a relevant idea
(4 marks)
Level 3 for a developed explanation showing an understanding of
the main idea(s) using some specialist vocabulary (6 marks)
Level 4 for a comprehensive explanation showing a coherent
understanding of the main idea(s) and using specialist vocabulary
appropriately (8 marks)
AO2 8 marks
(d) Good answers will look at the teaching of at least one religion on the
environment to show why followers of that religion should not use cars
and washing machines and contrast that with the social and economic
effects if everyone stopped using them. They will evaluate the
evidence to come to a personal conclusion.
Level 1 for an opinion supported by one relevant reason (1 mark)
Level 2 for a basic ‘for and against’ or a reasoned opinion supported
by religious/moral evidence or examples
(2 marks)
Level 3 for a reasoned evaluation, using religious/moral argument,
evidence or examples, referring to another point of view (3 marks)
Level 4 for a coherent and reasoned evaluation, based on
religious/moral argument, evidence or examples, giving a
account of an alternative point of view to reach a personal
conclusion (4 marks)
AO3 4 marks

Section 3 Religion: Peace and Conflict
5. (a) The emphasis is ‘mass destruction’ therefore any ONE of A-bomb,
H-bomb, Cruise missile, ICBM or similar weapon.
For a partially correct answer (1 mark)
For a correct answer (2 marks)
AO1 2 marks
(b) A wide range of answers is possible, but the key word is religious,
consequently no marks can be given for organisations such as the United
Nations. The person, community or organisation must be clearly identified
as religious.
Level 1 for an isolated example of relevant knowledge (2 marks)
Level 2 for basic relevant knowledge presented within a limited structure
(4 marks)
Level 3 for an organised outline / description, deploying relevant
knowledge, with some specialist vocabulary (6 marks)



                                   - 73 -
AO1 6 marks
(c) Good answers are likely to refer to the Christian just war theory and
to ideas such as: Jesus did not condemn soldiers he met; Paul said that
Christians must obey the orders of the government which could include
fighting in a war; Jesus’ statement about giving Caesar’s what is Caesar’s
can justify war; a soldier in a just war is no different from a policeman
protecting the innocent.
Level 1 for a simple, appropriate and relevant idea (2 marks)
Level 2 for a basic explanation showing understanding of a relevant idea
(4 marks)
Level 3 for a developed explanation showing an understanding of
the main idea(s) using some specialist vocabulary (6 marks)
Level 4 for a comprehensive explanation showing a coherent
understanding of the main idea(s) and using specialist vocabulary
appropriately (8 marks)
AO2 8 marks
(d) Good answers are likely to balance the just war theory of one religion
showing that nuclear weapons cannot be used with the arguments for
mutually assured destruction promoting peace. They will evaluate the
evidence to come to a personal conclusion.
Level 1 for an opinion supported by one relevant reason (1 mark)
Level 2 for a basic ‘for and against’ or a reasoned opinion supported
by religious/moral evidence or examples (2 marks)
Level 3 for a reasoned evaluation, using religious/moral argument,
evidence or examples, referring to another point of view (3 marks)
Level 4 for a coherent and reasoned evaluation, based on
religious/moral argument, evidence or examples, giving a
account of an alternative point of view to reach a personal
conclusion (4 marks)
AO3 4 marks

6. (a) Refusing to fight in wars, or similar phrase.
For a partially correct answer (1 mark)
For a correct answer (2 marks)
AO1 2 marks
(b) The attitude of Islam to war is that Muslims can fight in wars, but
only if: the wars has a just cause; it is a last resort; the methods are just
and are not aimed at civilians; it is authorised and led by a Muslim
authority.
Level 1 for an isolated example of relevant knowledge (2 marks)
Level 2 for basic relevant knowledge presented within a limited



                                    - 74 -
structure
(4 marks)
Level 3 for an organised outline / description, deploying relevant
knowledge, with some specialist vocabulary (6 marks)
AO1 6 marks
(c) A wide range of answers is possible. Answers on historical conflicts
such as the Vietnam War or the Second World War should receive no
marks. However, areas of conflict in the last five years which have now
been resolved must be accepted. The emphasis of the question is on
explaining why the conflict is happening. Descriptions of an area of
conflict will not go beyond level 1.
Level 1 for a simple, appropriate and relevant idea (2 marks)
Level 2 for a basic explanation showing understanding of a relevant idea
(4 marks)
Level 3 for a developed explanation showing an understanding of
the main idea(s) using some specialist vocabulary (6 marks)
Level 4 for a comprehensive explanation showing a coherent
understanding of the main idea(s) and using specialist vocabulary
appropriately (8 marks)
AO2 8 marks
(d) Good answers are likely to look at the teaching of a religion on the
family and obeying parents and contrast this with the teaching that
religion should come before the family to come to a personal conclusion.
Level 1 for an opinion supported by one relevant reason (1 mark)
Level 2 for a basic ‘for and against’ or a reasoned opinion supported
by religious/moral evidence or examples (2 marks)
Level 3 for a reasoned evaluation, using religious/moral argument,
evidence or examples, referring to another point of view (3 marks)
Level 4 for a coherent and reasoned evaluation, based on
religious/moral argument, evidence or examples, giving a
account of an alternative point of view to reach a personal
conclusion (4 marks)
AO3 4 marks

Section 4 Religion: Crime and Punishment
7. (a) Due allocation of reward and punishment, fairness, the
maintenance of what is right, or similar phrase.
For a partially correct answer (1 mark)
For a correct answer (2 marks)
AO1 2 marks




                                  - 75 -
(b) Christian teaching is that forgiveness is offered by God to anyone
who repents of their sins.
In the Roman Catholic tradition, God’s forgiveness comes via the priest
through acts of contrition and penance. Christians are expected to
forgive people who wrong them. They promise this in the Lord’s Prayer
and St Peter was told by Jesus to forgive his brother up to
seventy times seven times.
Level 1 for an isolated example of relevant knowledge (2 marks)
Level 2 for basic relevant knowledge presented within a limited structure
(4 marks)
Level 3 for an organised outline / description, deploying relevant
knowledge, with some specialist vocabulary (6 marks)
AO1 6 marks
(c) Good answers on Islam will explain that Islam permits capital
punishment because it is the punishment stated for certain crimes in the
Qur’an, and, as Muslims believe the Qur’an is the word of God, whatever
the Qur’an says must be followed. However, forgiveness is a
great virtue praised in the Qur’an, and the Muslim theory of justice
involves the victims of crime, so it is possible for the relatives of a
murdered person to substitute a money payment for the death penalty.
Level 1 for a simple, appropriate and relevant idea (2 marks)
Level 2 for a basic explanation showing understanding of a relevant idea
(4 marks)
Level 3 for a developed explanation showing an understanding of
the main idea(s) using some specialist vocabulary (6 marks)
Level 4 for a comprehensive explanation showing a coherent
understanding
of the main idea(s) and using specialist vocabulary appropriately (8
marks)
AO2 8 marks
(d) Good answers are likely to look at the reasons for believing sins and
crimes are the same as both are against God’s will, and contrast this with
the view that crimes are worse because they have an effect on the whole
of society whereas sins only affect the individual’s relationship with God
to come to a personal conclusion.
Level 1 for an opinion supported by one relevant reason (1 mark)
Level 2 for a basic ‘for and against’ or a reasoned opinion supported
by religious/moral evidence or examples (2 marks)
Level 3 for a reasoned evaluation, using religious/moral argument,
evidence or examples, referring to another point of view (3 marks)
Level 4 for a coherent and reasoned evaluation, based on



                                   - 76 -
religious/moral argument, evidence or examples, giving a
account of an alternative point of view to reach a personal
conclusion (4 marks)
AO3 4 marks

8. (a) Any TWO of: retribution, deterrence, reform, protection,
reparation.
For a partially correct answer (1 mark)
For a correct answer (2 marks)
AO1 2 marks
(b) Candidates who simply name a prisoner of conscience should receive
no marks. A wide range of answers is possible and examiners must reward
answers accordingly. If there is only one main reason and a candidate
goes into this in depth, it will reach level 3.
Level 1 for an isolated example of relevant knowledge (2 marks)
Level 2 for basic relevant knowledge presented within a limited
structure
(4 marks)
Level 3 for an organised outline / description, deploying relevant
knowledge, with some specialist vocabulary (6 marks)
AO1 6 marks
(c) A crime is an act against the law, a sin is an act against the will of
God. Though they will often be the same, candidates are required to
explain the difference with examples. Good answers will use specific
examples, e.g. breaking the speed limit to get an injured person to
hospital is a crime but not a sin, whereas refusing food to a starving
person is a sin but not a crime,to show the difference.
Level 1 for a simple, appropriate and relevant idea (2 marks)
Level 2 for a basic explanation showing understanding of a relevant idea
(4 marks)
Level 3 for a developed explanation showing an understanding of
the main idea(s) using some specialist vocabulary (6 marks)
Level 4 for a comprehensive explanation showing a coherent
understanding of the main idea(s) and using specialist vocabulary
appropriately (8 marks)
AO2 8 marks
(d) Good answers are likely to contrast the teaching of at least one
religion on life being sacred with the attitudes of one religion which
supports capital punishment to come to a personal
conclusion.
Level 1 for an opinion supported by one relevant reason (1 mark)



                                   - 77 -
Level 2 for a basic ‘for and against’ or a reasoned opinion supported
by religious/moral evidence or examples (2 marks)
Level 3 for a reasoned evaluation, using religious/moral argument,
evidence or examples, referring to another point of view (3 marks)
Level 4 for a coherent and reasoned evaluation, based on
religious/moral argument, evidence or examples, giving a
account of an alternative point of view to reach a personal
conclusion (4 marks)
AO3 4 marks

Section 5 Options
9.
(a) (i) As there is such a wide range of treatments, candidates can reach
level 4 with either a very brief outline of each of the following, or a more
detailed outline of four of the following: in-vitro fertilisation, artificial
insemination by husband, artificial insemination by donor, egg donation,
embryo donation, surrogacy.
Level 1 for an isolated example of relevant knowledge. (1 mark)
Level 2 for basic relevant knowledge presented in sentences. (2 marks)
Level 3 for a clear and structured outline/description, deploying
a limited range of specialist vocabulary. (3 marks)
Level 4 for a coherent and comprehensive description, using specialist
terms appropriately and with precision. (4 marks)
AO1 4 marks
(ii) Good answers will explain why Roman Catholics do not allow any of the
medical treatments (sanctity of life, life given by God, unnatural sex) and
why other Christians allow IVF and AIH
(God intended everyone to have the joy of children), but have
reservations about the other techniques (God intended only one mother
and father, problems of identity).
Level 1 for a simple, appropriate and relevant idea. (2 marks)
Level 2 for a basic explanation showing understanding of a relevant idea
presented in sentences. (4 marks)
Level 3 for a clear and structured explanation showing an understanding
of the main idea(s), and deploying a limited range of specialist
vocabulary. (6 marks)
Level 4 for a coherent and comprehensive explanation showing a full
understanding of the main idea(s) using specialist terms appropriately
and with precision. (8 marks)
AO2 8 marks




                                    - 78 -
(c) Good answers will look at the viewpoint of at least one religion which
allows genetic experiments and the reason for it. They will contrast this
with religious reasons against genetic experiments to
reach a personal conclusion
.
Level 1 for an opinion supported by one relevant reason. (2 marks)
Level 2 for a basic ‘for and against’ or a reasoned opinion supported
by religious/moral evidence or examples, presented in sentences. (4
marks)
Level 3 for a structured and reasoned evaluation, using religious/moral
argument, evidence or examples, referring to another point of view
and deploying limited range of specialist vocabulary. (6 marks)
Level 4 for a coherent and reasoned evaluation, based on religious/moral
argument, evidence or examples, giving a account of an alternative
point of view to reach a personal conclusion using specialist terms
appropriately and with precision. (8 marks)
AO3 8 marks
Quality of Written Communication (3 marks)
Relevant information presented in a form that suits its purpose 1 mark
Text is legible, spelling, punctuation and grammar are accurate, so that
meaning is clear. 1 mark
A suitable structure and style of writing has been used. 1 mark

10. (a) The Biblical cosmology based on Genesis 1 is that God created the
universe and everything in it in six days: Day 1 – heaven and earth, light
and dark; Day 2 – the separation of the earth from the sky; Day 3 – dry
land, plants and trees; Day 4 – sun, moon, and stars; Day 5 – fish and
birds; Day 6 – animals and humans.
Level 1 for an isolated example of relevant knowledge. (1 mark)
Level 2 for basic relevant knowledge presented in sentences. (2 marks)
Level 3 for a clear and structured outline/description, deploying
a limited range of specialist vocabulary. (3 marks)
Level 4 for a coherent and comprehensive description, using specialist
terms
appropriately and with precision. (4 marks)
AO1 4 marks
(b) Good answers will look at the three different attitudes to the Biblical
cosmology of – creationism, conservatism and liberalism and explain why
Christians hold these views and therefore why Christians have different
views.
Level 1 for a simple, appropriate and relevant idea. (2 marks)



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Level 2 for a basic explanation showing understanding of a relevant idea
presented in sentences. (4 marks)
Level 3 for a clear and structured explanation showing an understanding
of the main idea(s), and deploying a limited range of specialist
vocabulary. (6 marks)
Level 4 for a coherent and comprehensive explanation showing a full
understanding of the main idea(s) using specialist terms appropriately
and with precision. (8 marks)
AO2 8 marks
(c) Good answers will look at the scientific cosmology (and perhaps other
ways in which science appears to have disproved religion such as miracles)
and compare this with the evidence that science and religion are
connected, and the science can lead to religious belief. They will evaluate
the evidence to reach a personal conclusion.
Level 1 for an opinion supported by one relevant reason. (2 marks)
Level 2 for a basic ‘for and against’ or a reasoned opinion supported
by religious/moral evidence or examples, presented in sentences. (4
marks)
Level 3 for a structured and reasoned evaluation, using religious/moral
argument, evidence or examples, referring to another point of view
and deploying limited range of specialist vocabulary. (6 marks)
Level 4 for a coherent and reasoned evaluation, based on religious/moral
argument, evidence or examples, giving a account of an alternative
point of view to reach a personal conclusion using specialist terms
appropriately and with precision. (8 marks)
AO3 8 marks
Quality of Written Communication (3 marks)
Relevant information presented in a form that suits its purpose 1 mark
Text is legible, spelling, punctuation and grammar are accurate, so that
meaning is clear. 1 mark
A suitable structure and style of writing has been used. 1 mark




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