I. Origins of Sociology a. Positivism (applying scientific method by kellena99

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									   I. Origins of Sociology

       a. Positivism (applying scientific method to the social
          world)

            i. Key assumption-world is ‘out there’ to discover and is
               knowable

           ii. Objective

          iii. Emphasis on Fact

          iv. Rationality

           v. Explanation (Causation)

          vi. Process

              1. Describe

              2. Apriori hypothesis

              3. Test

              4. Restart




Sociology 110 Notes: Chapter 1                              3/22/2006
       b. Constructivism (critique of positivism)

            i. Key assumption-world is created in the interactions
               of people, knowable only through examination of
               relationships and interactions

           ii. Subjective

          iii. Emphasis on plurality

          iv. Rationality only one component

           v. Understanding (rather than explaining)

          vi. Process

              1. Describe/ongoing interaction

              2. Interpretation ongoing

              3. Resonance

              4. Non-linear

   II. Levels of Analysis

       a. Macro

       b. Mezzo

       c. Micro




Sociology 110 Notes: Chapter 1                             3/22/2006
   III.   Theoretical Perspectives

       a. Functionalism

            i. Structural functionalism

           ii. Neo-functionalism

              1. Society as Organic Entity (interrelated parts)

              2. “Functionality,” Dysfunctions

                 a. Latent

                 b. Manifest

              3. Homeostasis/Balance/Stability

              4. Progress

              5. Macro Level




Sociology 110 Notes: Chapter 1                                3/22/2006
       b. Conflict Theory

            i. Marxism, Neo-marxism

           ii. Weberian Theory

              1. Society as groups as competitors vying for power

              2. Inequality

              3. Stability through oppression

              4. Class

              5. Prestige

              6. Protestant Ethic

              7. Macro Level




Sociology 110 Notes: Chapter 1                              3/22/2006
       c. Symbolic Interactionism

            i. Dramaturgy

           ii. Phenomenology

          iii. Social Constructionism

              1. Interpersonal communication

              2. Subjective meanings

              3. importance of language, symbols

              4. examination of assumptions (“common-sense”)

              5. Micro Level




Sociology 110 Notes: Chapter 1                           3/22/2006
       d. Critical Race Theory

              1. Similar elements to conflict theory

              2. Influence/impact of race in interactions (Macro,
                 Mezzo, and Micro)

       e. Feminist Theory

              1. Similar elements to conflict theory

              2. Influence/impact of gender/patriarchy in interactions
                 (Macro, Mezzo, and Micro)




Sociology 110 Notes: Chapter 1                               3/22/2006
       f. Strengths and Weaknesses




Sociology 110 Notes: Chapter 1       3/22/2006
   IV.    Purposes/Research

       a. Types

            i. Theoretical

              1. Explanation

              2. Understanding

           ii. Applied

              1. Control

              2. Change

       b. Approaches

            i. Quantitative

           ii. Qualitative

          iii. Mixed

       c. Assumptions

            i. Positivism

           ii. Constructivism




Sociology 110 Notes: Chapter 1   3/22/2006
       d. Process

            i. Cycles

              1. Linear

              2. Non-linear

           ii. Stages/parts

              1. Question formulation

              2. Literature review

              3. Method selection

              4. Data collection

              5. Data analysis

              6. Reporting/Dissemination of results

              7. Meta-evaluation (review of the process)




Sociology 110 Notes: Chapter 1                             3/22/2006
       e. Methods

            i. Interviews

           ii. Surveys

          iii. Participant Observation

          iv. Experiments

           v. Case Studies

          vi. Ethnography

         vii. Document Review

        viii. Fiction

       f. Ethical Considerations

            i. Rights

           ii. Topics

          iii. Legality

          iv. Compensation

           v. Implications/Ramification of work




Sociology 110 Notes: Chapter 1                    3/22/2006
Quick Write #2

What aspects of the three primary sociological perspectives
appeal to you? Between Functionalism and Conflict Theory,
which do you believe is the most on target or accurate in its
characterization of society (explain briefly)? Where does
Symbolic Interactionism fit/what does it contribute?




Sociology 110 Notes: Chapter 1                           3/22/2006

								
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