ADJECTIVES – an adjective modifies describes a noun by variablepitch336

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									ADJECTIVES – an adjective modifies (describes) a noun

AN ADJECTIVE MUST HAVE THE SAME ⇒ GENDER, NUMBER AND CASE ⇐ AS THE WORD IT IS MODIFYING OR DESCRIBING.

The citation form varies, and determines which declension the adjective is: If the citation form: then the adjective is: has three endings, ending in -us/-er, -a, -um a 1st & 2nd declension adjective has anything else a 3rd declension adjective

1ST & 2ND DECLENSION: The three endings of the citation form are the masculine, feminine and neuter nominative singular. ❖ -us or -er = masc.nom.sing. ❖ -a = fem.nom.sing. ❖ -um = neut.nom.sing. The endings are the same as the endings for the 1st and 2nd declensions nouns. If the masc.nom.sg. ends in -er, it may or may not drop the ‘e’ in the other forms. This is determined by knowing the entire citation form. Not every adjective whose masc.nom.sing. ends in -er is 1st & 2nd declension.

(Just like 2nd decl. masc. nouns)

(Just like 1st decl. nouns)

(Just like 2nd decl. neut. nouns)

Masc Sing. Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl Plural Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl -us/-er -ī -ō -um -ō

Fem -a -ae -ae -am -ā

Neut -um -ī -ō -um -ō

-ī -ōrum -īs -ōs -īs

-ae -ārum -īs -ās -īs

-a -ōrum -īs -a -īs

3RD DECLENSION: 3rd declension adjectives come in three types: (termination means ‘ending’, and refers to how many different nominative singular forms an adjective has) a. three terminations (i.e. different masculine & feminine & neuter nom. sg. forms) b. two terminations (i.e. masculine/feminine & neuter nom. sg. forms) c. one termination (i.e. the same form for masc/fem/neut nom. sg. forms)

3rd declension adjectives have the same endings as 3rd declension nouns, except in the ablative singular, the genitive plural, the neuter nominative and accuative plural, and the masculine and feminine accusative plural.

♦ For 3-termination adjectives, the citation form appears as -er, -is, -e. ✓ -er = masc.nom.sg. ✓ -is = fem.nom.sg. ✓ -e = neut.nom.sg. ♦ For 2-termination adjectives, the citation form appears as -is, -e. ✓ -is = masc./fem.nom.sg. ✓ -e = neut.nom.sg. ♦ For 1-termination adjectives, the citation form appears as **, -is. There is no standard nom.sg. ending. ✓ ** = masc/fem/neut.nom.sg. ✓ -is = masc/fem/neut.gen.sg. ♦ To find the stem of a 3rd declension adjective, remove the -is from that part of the citation form.

Just like 3rd declension nouns, except where bold italicized

Masc Sing. Nom – 3term Nom – 2term Nom – 1term Gen Dat Acc Abl Plural Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl -ēs -ium -ibus -īs -ibus -er -is

Fem -is

Neut -e -e -is -ī
(see nom.s)

(no standard ending**)

-is -ī -em -ī

-is -ī -em -ī

-ī

-ēs -ium -ibus -īs -ibus

-ia -ium -ibus -ia -ibus


								
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