Three groups of 3rd declension adjectives •
• Paradigm • Examples of use • Textbook
• Latin adjectives are divided into two groups. • Adjectives from the first group use exclusively
endings from the 1st and the 2nd declension. This group is already known to you - see lesson 6 (adjectives). from the 3rd declension parisyllabics.
• The second group of adjectives use solely endings • There are no adjectives which would use endings
from remaining declensions (4th and 5th).
• Let us review: if we connect a noun and an adjective
belonging to a different declension, the adjective will not reproduce the ending of given noun.
• Instead the adjective will adopt (1) gender, (2)
grammatical case, and (3) grammatical number of the noun. (chronic) belonging to the 1st and 2nd decl. group and noun (pain) from the 3rd decl. will be inflexed:
• Therefore: chronic pain which utilise an adjective
pain dolor doloris dolorem dolore dolores dolorum dolores doloribus
chronic chronicus chronici chronicum chronico chronici chronicorum chronicos chronicis
For the adjective we have three possible sets of endings following paradigms musculus (M), vena (F), intestinum (N). Dolor is a masculine and therefore we have to choose from those three the proper paradigm for masculine gender: musculus.
• 3rd declension adjectives are divided internally to 3
• one-termination adjectives • two-termination adjectives • three-termination adjectives • the number refers to amount of separate endings for
gender in Nom. Sg. case thus one-termination adj. have only one ending common for all three genders; two-termination have one ending for M/F and the other for N, etc.
• Does it mean that we have three separate paradigms
for all the sub-groups of adjectives according the 3rd declension? Thankfully no ... position: Nom. Sg.
• The three subgroups differ virtually only in one • In all other grammatical cases a single paradigm
brevis, e will be sufficient.
Paradigm brevis, e
M/F Nom. brev -is Gen. N brev -e brev -is brev -e brev -i M/F brev -es N brev -ia
brev -ium brev -es brev -ia
Acc. brev -em Abl.
Neutral endings in Nom. and Acc. cases are similar (marked red in singular). Yellow marked endings differ form standard imparisyllabic paradigm dolor and caput.
masculine and adjective musculus musculi musculum musculo musculi musculorum musculos musculis brevis brevis brevem brevi breves brevium breves brevibus feminine and adjective operatio operationis operationem operatione operationes operationum operationes operationibus brevis brevis brevem brevi breves brevium breves brevibus neutrum and adjective coma comatis coma comate comata comatum comata comatibus breve brevis breve brevi brevia brevium brevia brevibus
Endings are similar because the adjective has only one set for both genders.
Paradigm acer, acris, acre
Nom. Gen. Acc. Abl.
F acr -is acr -is
N acr -e
M acr -es
N acr -ia
acr -ium acr -e acr -es acr -ibus acr -ia
acr -em acr -i
Three-termination adjectives have the three separate endings only in Nom. Sg. the rest corresponds with the paradigm brevis.
M/F Nom. Gen. Acc. felic -em Abl.
N felix felic -is felix felic -i
M/F felic -es
N felic -ia
felic -ium felic -es felic -ia
One-termination adjectives have the only one ending in Nom. Sg. for all the genders the rest corresponds with the paradigm brevis. Accusative of neutrals must follow Nom.
• For related grammar and vocabulary see p. 166 - 169.