Ethics Ethics I. Guiding Principles

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					Ethics
Subordinating the goals of research to the higher values in our society.
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Ethics
I. Guiding Principles II. Ethical Standards III. Controversial Research IV. Responsibilities of the Research Participants

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I. Guiding Principles
A. Protection from Harm 1) physical and emotional harm 2) confidentiality 3) anonymity 4) removal of harmful consequences

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I. Guiding Principles
B. Voluntary Participation 1) recruitment extra-credit prisoners medical treatment 2) freedom to withdraw

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I. Guiding Principles
C. Informed Consent 1) notify of potential harm 2) minimizing deception 3) informed versus educated consent 4) withholding treatment?

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C. Informed Consent
5. Components of Informed Consent a) understandable language b) describe the nature of the research c) free to participate or withdraw (at any time) d) explain foreseeable consequences of declining or withdrawing

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e) significant factors that may influence their willingness to participate: -risks -discomfort -adverse effects f) other aspects about which they inquire (answer questions)

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II. Ethical Standards
A. Who should set the standards? Community Institutional Review Board (IRB) Professional Organizations B. APA Ethical Principles

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III. Controversial Research
A. Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment (1930-70)

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A. Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment
U.S. Public Health Service Macon County, Alabama Participants: 399 black men 200 controls Incentives: free physical examinations free meals free treatment of other ailments $50 burial stipend

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A. Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment (cont)
Methods: Followed the progression of the disease.

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- participants were not told the purpose of the study or that they were not being treated syphilis - local physicians were told which individuals were in the study, and were told not to treat them - participants were told they would be dropped from the study if they received treatment - during the course of the study, penicillin was found to be an effective cure, but was not administered to participants

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B. The psychological effects of LSD

Participants: Soldiers in the U.S. Army in the 1950s Problems: Some subjects suffered hallucinations and memory loss but were not told what had been done to them until some 20 years later. A lawsuit was rejected by the Supreme Court on the grounds that soldiers can1t sue for injuries that "arise out of or are in the course of activity incident to service." -source Time, 4/02

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C. CANCER, 1950s & 60s
Immune responses to an injection of live cancer cells Participants: Inmates at the Ohio State Prison and terminally ill patients in the 1950s and 1960s. Problems: Neither patients nor prisoners were informed of the nature or purpose of the experiments.

D. AIDS research in developing countries
Uganda & Tanzania research (1990’s) Double-blind study comparing a short course AZT and 3TC to a placebo Participants: Women and their young babies. Result: short course significantly cuts down on the transmission of the disease to the offspring.

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Uganda & Tanzania (cont)
Controversies -withheld known treatment - two infants died - cure the infant without curing the mother

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III. Controversial Research
E. Animal Research - protection from harm? - voluntary participation? - informed consent? - standards: http://www.apa.org/science/anguide.html

IV. Responsibilities of the Research Participants
A. Honest Participation B. Timely Attendance C. ?

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Ethics Summary
Guiding Principles: protection from harm voluntary participation informed consent

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