Chapter 6 Pretest WHAT YOU MAKE ON THIS TEST WILL NOT AFFECT YOUR GRADE! 1. What are the seven parts of our living organism classification system? 2. What are the five kingdoms? Give an example of each. 3. What is the difference between an invertebrate and a vertebrate organism? 4. What are vascular plants? 5. What are nonvascular plants? 6. What are the functions of xylem and phloem? 5th Grade Science- Multicellular Organisms- Day 1 GPS: S5L1 a Essential Question: How do we group living things? Materials: 24 pieces of candy (at least 12 different types) Safety: Do not eat the candy (until the end of the class). Remove any wrappers before eating. Procedures: 1. Give each student one piece of candy 2. Place the students into groups based on the color of the wrapper of their candy (Do not tell them how you are grouping them!) 3. Have the students figure out how they were grouped 4. Have the students break down their groups into more specific categories based on their candy. This means the group will get smaller. Each group must explain to the other groups how they grouped themselves. 5. Ask the students to make their groups more specific still. Each group must explain to the other groups. Content: 1. Ask the students why they think grouping things is important and ask them to come up with other things that can be grouped. Explain that living organisms can be grouped in many different ways. We classify objects to make them easy to find, identify, talk about, and study 2. Have the students copy the attached chart onto a piece of paper and fill it in, writing the candy that corresponds to the category in the blank space. When they are done ask them what they notice about the categories as they go down the page. Which is more specific, the bottom or the top? 3. Write on the board from top to bottom: Kingdom (broadest), Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species (most specific).Organisms within each of these categories share specific characteristics, much like the candy at each level shared specific characteristics to show how the grouping works, give the students the example using lions. Kingdom Animalia (includes all animals) Phylum Chordata (includes all vertebrate animals, as well as some other more primitive ones) Class Mammalia (includes all mammals) Order Carnivora (includes carnivorous mammals, from bears to raccoons to harbor seals) Family Felidae (includes all cats) Genus Panthera (includes the great roaring cats: lions, tigers, jaguars, and leopards) Species leo (lions!) 4. Teach the students the pneumonic device “King Philip Came Over for Grape Soda” Assessment: The students will classify candy based on specific characteristics. Classifying Candy Level 1 Which are edible? Level 2 Which are candies? Level 3 Which are sweet? Level 4 Which items are round? Level 5 Which are chocolate (may have a filling)? Level 6 Which have a nut in the middle? Level 7 Which has a peanut in the middle? Chart retrieved from: http://www.ccboe.net/Teachers/koffman_caro/graphicorganizers.html 5th Grade Science- Multicellular Organisms- Day 2 GPS: S5L1 a Essential Question: What are the five kingdoms and what kind of organisms are found in each? Materials: A white sheet of paper for every pair Crayons or color pencils Safety: none Content: 1. Remind the students that yesterday we went over the classification system. Ask the students if they can remember the seven levels starting at the broadest group. List what they come up with on the board. 2. Tell the students that kingdoms can be broken down into five groups. The five kingdoms are Monera, Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals. Write each of these names on the board. Ask if the students can give examples of organisms that would go in each kingdom Monera 1. Bacteria Protists 1. Algae 2. Paramecium 3. Amoeba Fungi 1. Mushrooms 2. Molds 3. Yeasts Plants 1. Ferns 2. Shrubs 3. Grasses 4. Flowers 5. Garden crops 6. Mosses Animals 1. Mammals 2. Amphibians 3. Reptiles 4. Birds 5. Fish 3. Review the following information with the students. -Monera are single-celled organisms that don’t have a nucleus. Bacteria make up the entire kingdom. There are more forms of bacteria than any other organism on Earth. Some bacteria are beneficial to us, such as the ones found in yogurt. Others can cause us to get sick. -Protists are mostly single-celled organisms that have a nucleus. They usually live in water. Some protists move around, while others stay in one place. Examples of protists include some algae, paramecium, and amoeba. -Fungi are usually motionless organisms that absorb nutrients for survival. They include mushrooms, molds, and yeasts. -Plants contain chlorophyll, a green pigment necessary for photosynthesis, a process in which plants convert energy from sunlight into food. Their cell walls are made sturdy by a material called cellulose, and they are fixed in one place. Plants are divided into two groups: flower- and fruit-producing plants and those that don’t produce flowers or fruits. They include garden flowers, agricultural crops, grasses, shrubs, ferns, mosses, and conifers. -Animals are the most complex organisms on Earth. Animals are multi-celled organisms, eat food for survival, and have nervous systems. They are divided into vertebrates and invertebrates and include mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds and fish. (From http://www.factmonster.com/science/biology/five-kingdoms.html) Procedures: 1. Have students choose partners. 2. Give each pair a sheet of paper. 3. Show the students how to fold the paper into thirds. 4. Tell the students to pretend they are opening a zoo or an exhibit that features organisms from all five kingdoms. With their partner they will create a brochure, devoting one panel of the brochure to each kingdom. The purpose of this brochure is to entice people to come to their zoo or exhibit. This means it must be neat, visually appealing, and contain pictures. The brochure should list features of each kingdom and what kinds of organisms will be in their zoo. Also think about how the organisms will be displayed. All information should be factual, coming from the book or what was learned during the lesson. 5. If time permits allow the students to present their brochures to the class. Assessment: Students will create a brochure describing all five kingdoms. 5th Grade Science- Multicellular Organisms- Day 3 GPS: S5L1 a Essential Question: What is the difference between an invertebrate and a vertebrate organism? Materials: animal clue sheet Safety: none Content: 1. Tell the students that the animal kingdom is divided into two groups: vertebrates and invertebrates. Almost all animals fall into one of these two groups. Adult vertebrates have a spinal column, or backbone, running the length of the body; invertebrates do not. Vertebrates are often larger and have more complex bodies than invertebrates. However, there are many more invertebrates than vertebrates. Many invertebrates can grow new limbs if they lose an arm or a leg because their bodies are not very complicated. Of the million or more animal species in the world, more than 98% are invertebrates 2. Review the following information with the students. Vertebrates * Fish breathe through gills, and live in water; most are cold-blooded and lay eggs (although sharks give birth to live young). * Amphibians are cold-blooded and live both on land (breathing with lungs) and in water (breathing through gills) at different times. Three types of amphibians are frogs and toads, salamanders, and caecilians. Caecilians are primitive amphibians that resemble earthworms. They are found in the tropics. * Reptiles are cold-blooded and breathe with lungs. They have scales, and most lay eggs. Reptiles include snakes, turtles and tortoises, crocodiles and alligators, and lizards. Dinosaurs were reptiles, although some scientists believe that some were warm blooded. * Birds are warm-blooded animals with feathers and wings. They lay eggs, and most can fly (although many, including penguins and ostriches, cannot). * Mammals are warm-blooded, and are nourished by their mothers' milk; most are born live (however, the platypus lays eggs). Most mammals also have body hair. Invertebrates * Sponges are the most primitive of animal groups. They live in water (usually saltwater), are sessile (do not move from place to place), and filter tiny organisms out of the water for food. * Coelenterates are also very primitive. Their mouths, which take in food and get rid of waste, are surrounded by stinging tentacles. Some coelenterates are jellyfish, corals, and sea anemones. * Echinoderms include starfish, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers. They live in seawater and have external skeletons. * Worms come in many varieties and live in all sorts of habitats — from the bottom of the ocean to the inside of other animals. They include flatworms (flukes), roundworms (hookworms), segmented worms (earthworms), and rotifers (philodina). * Mollusks are soft-bodied animals, which often live in hard shells. They include snails, slugs, octopus, squid, mussels, oysters, clams, scallops, chitons, and cuttlefish. Mollusks are the second-largest group of invertebrates, with 50,000 living species. * Arthropods are the largest and most diverse of all animal groups. They have segmented bodies supported by a hard external skeleton (or exoskeleton). Arthropods include insects, arachnids (spiders and their relatives), centipedes, millipedes, and crustaceans like crabs, lobsters, and shrimp. (From http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0768513.html) Procedures: 1. Play the game Who Am I? Start by reviewing vertebrates and invertebrates and how to classify animals. 2. Divide students into two groups. 3. Read aloud clues about various animals and each team will take turns guessing the identity of the animals and whether the animal is a vertebrate or invertebrate. 4. Use these websites to make the clues for the game. http://www.kidport.com/reflib/science/animals/animalindexv.htm http://www.kidport.com/reflib/science/animals/AnimalIndexInv.htm (Activity from http://alex.state.al.us/lesson_view.php?id=15370) Assessment: Students will play Who Am I to identify animals as vertebrates or invertebrates. Animal Clues for “Who Am I” 1. Most of these animals breathe through gills. (Fish- vertebrates) 2. These animals have 8 legs and 8 eyes. (Spiders- invertebrates) 3. These creatures produce pearls. (Oysters- invertebrates) 4. These animals do not have limbs and many are poisonous. (Snake- vertebrate) 5. The legs of this animal are a popular food at seafood restaurants. (Crab- invertebrate) 6. Although this animal is a bird, it cannot fly and instead uses its wings as flippers. (Penguinvertebrate) 7. This irritating flying animal is often found in classrooms and restaurants (Fly- invertebrate) 8. There are many different kinds of this animal, one kind can be found outside in the dirt (Worm- invertebrate) 9. These creatures have 5 arms and live in the ocean. (Sea Star- invertebrate) 10. These animals have long hind legs for jumping and no tail. (Frog- vertebrate) 11. These animals can be found on land or in the sea and have a hard shell. (Turtle- vertebrate) 12. These tiny animals can be found in oceans and lakes and are popular at seafood restaurants. (Shrimp- invertebrate) 13. This animal lives in the ocean and has 8 arms or tentacles. (Octopus- invertebrate) 14. These animals can have one or two humps on their back. (Camel- vertebrate) 15. This animal has a stinger and makes honey. (Bee- invertebrate) 16. These tiny parasites attach themselves to animals and carry diseases. (Tick- invertebrate) 17. These large animals live in the ocean but they are mammals, not fish. (Whale- vertebrate) 18. These animals are found on the ocean floor and are shaped like a coin. (Sand Dollarinvertebrate) 20. These flying animals are colorful and help spread pollen to plants. (Butterfly- invertebrate) 21. These nocturnal animals can fly but are actually mammals. (Bats- vertebrate) 22. These animals live in the ocean and have painful stinging tentacles. (Jelly Fish- invertebrate) 23. These animals have a pouch on their stomachs to carry their babies. (Kangaroo- vertebrate) 24. These arachnids are best known for their long, segmented tail with its venom-injecting barb. (Scorpion- invertebrate) 25. These ocean animals have 8 arms like an octopus, but these animals are often cooked and called calamari. (Squid- invertebrate) 26. These animals have an external shell and can live in the sea or on land and are characterized as being very slow movers. (Snail- invertebrate) 27. This oversized bird cannot fly and has a very long neck. (Ostrich- vertebrate) 28. These miniature shrimp are often food for fish, especially whales. (Krill- invertebrate) 29. This animal has 8 legs and is large and hairy. (Tarantula- invertebrate) 30. This fish can inflate like a balloon to protect against predators. (Pufferfish/Blowfishvertebrate) 31. These furry animals have strong hind legs they can hop very fast and are often kept as pets. (Rabbit- vertebrate) 32. This animal looks like a black horse with white stripes. (Zebra- vertebrate) 33. These 8 legged animals have very long legs compared to the size of its body. (Daddy long legs- invertebrate) 34. These animals are often pink and found on a farm. (Pig-vertebrate) 5th Grade Science- Multicellular Organisms- Day 4 GPS: S5L1 b Essential Question: How do vascular and nonvascular plants differ? Materials: A variety of leaves (both vascular and nonvascular) One small potted plant A variety of pictures of different plants (both vascular and nonvascular) Safety: Be gentle when working with the potted plant and leaves. Content: 1. Explain to students that there are two different types of plants, vascular and nonvascular. Vascular plants have tubelike cells for transporting liquids, where nonvascular plants do not have these cells. 2. Nonvascular plants cannot grow very tall because they do not have the tubelike cells to move water and food around. Therefore, each cell must be close to a water source and able to make its own food. Nonvascular plants do not have true stems, leaves, or roots because they do not contain vascular tissue. They are basically just clumps of green cells. Examples of nonvascular plants include green mosses, liverworts, and green, red, and brown algae. Nonvascular plants do not have seeds and reproduce through spores, which burst out of capsules on the tips of the plants. 3. Vascular plants have tube cells to carry water to different parts of the plant. This allows vascular plants to grow very tall. These plants also have true stems, leaves, and roots. Examples of vascular plants include trees, grass, bushes, ferns, conifers, flowering plants, and vines. (Information from http://www.pass.leon.k12.fl.us/All%20Books/7a%20Bio%20SB%20Unit%207%20169-189.pdf) Procedures: 1. Set up 7 stations each with a different leaf, small plant, or picture. 2. Divide students into groups of 3 (7 groups). Give each group a chart. 3. Have each group sit around one station. 4. Give each group 3 or 4 minutes to determine if the plant, leaf, or picture is from a vascular plant or nonvascular plant and fill in their chart. 5. Have one member of each group pass their station to the next group, moving clockwise around the room. Students will stay in the same area throughout the entire activity. 6. After each group has seen each station, have students return to their seats and go over each station. Assessment: Students will observe leaves, plants, and pictures of plants and identify them as vascular or nonvascular. Vascular or Nonvascular What led you to this conclusion? Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 Station 4 Station 5 Station 6 Station 7 5th Grade Science- Multicellular Organisms- Day 5 GPS: S5L1 b Essential Question: What are the functions of xylem and phloem? Materials: Celery stalks or carnation Clear cup Food coloring Scissors Safety: Pour food coloring carefully. Use caution when cutting with scissors. Content: 1. Xylem and phloem make up the big transportation system of vascular plants. As you get bigger, it is more difficult to transport nutrients, water, and sugars around your body. You have a circulatory system if you want to keep growing. As plants evolved to be larger, they also developed their own kind of circulatory systems. Trees and other vascular plants have a top and a bottom. The top has a trunk, branches, leaves, or needles. The bottom is a system of roots. Each needs the other to survive. The roots hold the plant steady and grab moisture and nutrients from the soil. The top is in the light, conducting photosynthesis and helping the plant reproduce. You have to connect the two parts. That's where xylem and phloem come in. 2. The xylem of a plant is the system of tubes and transport cells that circulates water and dissolved minerals. As a plant, you have roots to help you absorb water. If your leaves need water and they are 100 feet above the ground, it is time to put the xylem into action! Xylem is made of vessels that are connected end to end for the maximum speed to move water around. They also have a secondary function of support. When someone cuts an old tree down, they reveal a set of rings. Those rings are the remains of old xylem tissue, one ring for every year the tree was alive. Xylem tissue dies after one year and then develops anew 3. Most plants have green leaves, where the photosynthesis happens. When those sugars are made, they need to be given to every cell in the plant for energy. The phloem cells are laid out end-to-end throughout the entire plant, transporting the sugars and other molecules created by the plant. Phloem is always alive. 4. Water and nutrients move up the plant through the xylem. Sugars move down the plant through the phloem. (Information from http://www.biology4kids.com/files/plants_xylemphloem.html) Procedures: 1. Divide the students into groups of 4. Give each group a piece of celery. 2. Have them place a drop of food coloring on the top. The celery should show color only in small dots. 3. Explain to the students that these are part of the xylem tissue that is responsible for water transport. 4. You can dramatically demonstrate the "power" of xylem tissue by using a celery stalk and/or carnation. For the celery stalk cut the bottom of the stalk (as in the diagram) and place one end in one food color and the other in a different color. Within a day or so, the water with the color will migrate upward and the celery will be two colors. For the carnation, trim the stem and place it in colored water. The water will migrate upward through the xylem tissue and color the petals of the carnation. (Activity found at http://msnucleus.org/membership/html/k-6/lc/plants/3/lcp3_4a.html) Assessment: Students will be able to identify the xylem of a celery stalk.