Acorn Thesis by cookon

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( 3) Àç¹è±â¼ú °³¹ß

¼±¹ß À°¼ºµÈ µµÅ丮 ³ª¹«ÀÇ ¼öÁ¾º°·Î Åä¾ç ÀûÀÀ·Â¿¡ µû¶ó ÀûÁö¸¦ ¼±Á¤ÇÏ¿© ½ÄÀç ÇÏ°í, ¼öÇüÀ» º¯Ä¢ ÁÖ°£ÇüÀ¸·Î Á¤Áö ÀüÁ¤À» ½Ç½ÃÇÏ¿© ¼ö¼¼¸¦ Á¶ÀýÇϸç, ȯ»ó¹ÚÇÇ·Î °á½ÇÀ» À¯µµÇÏ¸é ¾ÈÁ¤Àû »ý»êÀÌ °¡´ÉÇÒ °ÍÀ̹ǷΠÀü±¹ °¢ Áö¿ªÀÇ À¯ÈÞ °æÀÛÁö ¹× ½ÄÀç °¡´ÉÇÑ »êÁö¿¡ Àç¹è¸éÀûÀ» È®ÃæÇÏ¿©¾ß ÇÒ °ÍÀÌ´Ù.

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S U M M A RY ¥° T itle .
A o f th e s is P os s ib ilit ies of A c or n by D ev elopin g P r oce s s ed

S t u dy on F a r m in g

F ood a nd B r eedin g S u per ior V a r iet y

II. Ob je c t iv e s a n d im po rt a n c e o f re s e a rc h a n d de v e lo pm e n t

1 . Ob je c t iv e s o f th is re s e a rc h a n d de v e lo pm e n t

W hile t he dem a n d for a cor n is inc r ea s in g r a pidly , its dom es tic pr odu ct ion is dec r ea s in g con t in uou s ly . S o m os t of t h e a cor n s u pply depen ds on im por t . T he qu a lity of im por t ed a cor n s is not s o g ood a s dom es tic on es , w hic h r es u lts in qu a lit y de ter ior a tion of a cor n - pr oces s e d foods t u ffs . To en h a n ce th e com pet itiv en e s s of cr op- ra is in g indu s tr y u n der t he

pr es en t t r a de cir cu m s ta n ces r eg u la ted by W T O , it is im por ta n t t ha t w e s hou ld en h a n ce t he pr ice a n d qu a lity com pet itiv e ne s s of pr es e n t cr ops a n d de v e lop n e w s u b s t itu t e c rops of m u ch v a lu e a dde d. T h is s tu dy h a s be en c a r r ied ou t on th e h y poth es is th a t t he econ om iza tion of a cor n cu lt iv a t ion c ou ld be a w a y of en h a n c in g th e c om pe tit iv en es s of cr op ra is in g in du s t ry . T h e pu r pos e of t his s tu dy is t o e x a m ine th e pos s ibility a n d c on dit ion s of a cor n as a n ew and ec onom ic a l cr op for fa r m er s . the T his th es is a n a ly ze s of

s y s te m a t ica lly

com pr eh en s iv e ly

pos s ible

dev elopm en t

a cor n - proc es s ed foods tu ffs , th eir dem a nd for e ca s t, efficien t te ch n iqu es of r a is in g a c orn s , th e b re edin g m et hod of hig h- qu a lit y a cor ns and th e

e con om ic v a lidity of a cor n cu lt iv a t ion.

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2 . Im po rt a n c e o f t h is re s e a rc h an d de v e lo pm e n t

T h is

s t udy and

w ill

con tr ib ut e

to

th e

t ech n ica l

dev elopm en t

of

food

pr oces s in g

a g r icu lt ur a l pr oduc tion . F r om

e con om ic

s ta n dpoin t , t h is

s tu dy w ill g o fa r tow a r d en h a n cin g ou r a g r on om ic com pet itiv e ne s s a n d b a la n cin g our tr a de pa y m e n ts . T h e dev elopm en t of r e la t ed food- pr oces s in g in du s tr y , t he effec t of en v ir onm e n ta l prot ect ion a n d t h e s upply of h ea lth food a r e a ls o w ort h m en tion in g a s s ide effec ts of t h is s tu dy .

III. C o n t e n t a n d s c o pe o f t h is re s e a rc h a n d de v e lo pm e n t

T he

con ten t

of

th is

s t u dy

is

4

a re a s

of

a c or n - pr oces s e d- food

de v e lopm e nt , s u pe rior v a r ie ty b r eeding , cu lt ur a l te ch niqu e dev elopm en t, a n d e con om ica l effic ien cy a n a ly s is . T h e con t en t a n d s c ope of e a ch s tu dy a r ea is a s follow s . T h e a re a of a cor n - proc es s ed food dev elopm en t ha s b een s u b div ided in to a cor n - peeling m et hod, ph y s icoch em ic a l a n a ly s is , kn ea din g and c ha r a ct er is tic s ,

pr oces s e d food de v e lopm e n t, pr es er v a t iv e

fu n ct ion a l pr oper t ies , a nd

e s t a b lis h m en t of ha llm a r k s t a n da r ds . T h e a r e a of s uper ior v a r iet y b r eedin g h a s b een s u bdiv ide d in t o dis t r ibu t ion a n d v e g eta tion in v e s t ig a t ion , e lit e t r ee s ele ction te s t , v eg et a t iv e re pr odu ct ion , s u per ior t r ee cu lt iv a t ion , and

m ic r opr opa g a t ion of s u pe r ior tr ee . T h e a r e a of cu lt ur a l tec hn iq ue de v e lopm e n t is s ub div ided in to r oot - t a k in g im pr ov e m en t te s t of tr a n s pla n te d pla n t s , t re e t r u nk g r ow t h a n d flow er b u d c on t r ol, fr uit s et tin g s ta bility con tr ol, h a r v es t t ech n iqu e de v e lopm e n t, a n d

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s tor in g m et h od dev elopm en t. T he a r ea of econ om ica l efficien c y a n a ly s is is s u bdiv ided in to pr es e n t a cor n dem a nd and s upply a n a ly s is , a c orn

s u pply - dem a n d det er m in a nt a n a ly s is a n d pr os pec t, a nd in cide n ta l e con om ic e ffect s of a c orn c u ltiv a tion .

IV . R e s u lt s o f re s e a rc h a n d pro po s a l f o r applic a t io n

1 . R e s u lt s o f re s e a rc h an d de v e lo pm e n t

( 1) D ev elopm en t of a cor n a s a food

T his s tudy w as carried out to find that the acorn can be a new com m ercia l tree by introducing the developm ent of acorn as a food, cultiv ation m ethods , developm ent of the hig h quality of va rieties and economic feas ibility s tudy, and the res ults a re a s follow s .

1) Peeling m ethod of acorn T he hea t treatm ent above 300¡É s how ed pos itive effect but it needed the m echanical ins trum ent to a djus t the heating tim e and tem pera ture, w hereas the heat treatm ent betw een 100 to 200¡É s how ed nega tive by decreas ing the quality of product. 10% NaOH lye s olution at 80¡É for 30 s econds w as found to be

the m os t s uita ble for peeling the acorns .

2) Phys ical and chem ical properties of acorn Q . ace ts ina, Q .v ariabilis and Q . se rrata s how ed in the order of w eight and

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edible portion of Q .v ariabilis , Q . se rrata and Q . ace tsina s how ed 84% , 78% and 75% res pectively. T he contents of m ois ture, crude lipid and crude fiber in Q . ace tsina w ere 12.7% , 4.2% and 3.5% res pectively. T he content of crude as h in Q. s errata w as 2.3% and the crude protein content in Q .variabilis w as 7.4% .

T he 14 out of 46 v olatile com pounds of acorn w ere identified. A m ong them , palm itic a cid content s how ed the hig hes t as 54% , and s how ed dioctyl adipa te, m ethyl- 9, 12- octa decadienoate, m ethyl- 9- octadecenoate, phenyl ethyl alcohol in the order of the am ount of content.

3) K neading characteris tics and a corn food T he m ois ture content of the acorn pas te a dded condition w as higher tha n that of non added condition a nd the m ore the condition added the more the m ois ture contented. T he s ens ory evaluation of a corn CA S T ELLA (s pong e cake m ixed w ith acorn flour) for tas te and flavor tes t s how ed the highes t in 20% addition of

conditioner, for color tes t 15% , for texture 10% res pectively. T he s ens ory evaluation of a corn noodle for tas te s how ed the hig hes t in 20% - 30% treatm ent of acorn flour and thos e for flav or, color and tex ture s how ed the highes t value in 20% of each treatm ent. In the tas te ev aluation of acorn drink, 5% of acorn s how ed hig hes t, but it gave bitter tas te due to the tannin content w hich rem ained in the extract. In the acorn cookies tas te, 10% of acorn flour s how ed the highes t. M ore than 10% of a corn g ave les s tas te than that of nut cookies w hich are com monly us ed. In the s ens ory tes t for tas te of w oodong, 20% of acorn flour s how ed the hig hes t tas te. T he tas te a nd color of the product evaluated a s good, w hereas the tex ture of

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the product gav e no s ig nificant effect. T he cohes ivenes s and overa ll quality of acorn bread s how ed the hig hes t in 30% addition of acorn flour. T endency of the bread had no difference a mong the treatm ents and neither had betw een and in its favorite deg ree.

T he hardnes s , brittlenes s and s pring ines s of acorn pas te(m ook) m ade from m ore tha n that of. T he fav orite degree of m ook m ade from va rieties . had the m os t v alue am ong the

4) Pres ervation a nd function of a corn foods T em perature(room tem perature and cold treatm ent) and tim e(0, 1,3,5,7days ) effects on the proces s ed foods of acorn w ere ca rried out to find the proper condition of pres ervation. w ea ther the acorn flours w ere added or not, there

w as no s ig nificant difference on treatm ents of temperature a nd tim e for noodle foods . A fter 30 days pres ervation, the noodle pres erved at room tem perature s how ed deteriora tion effect. A corn cas tella pres erv ed under cold condition has s how n its effect, w hereas

the food pres erv ed at room tem pera ture and w ithout addition of acorn flour appeared m old grow th a fter 3 da ys s torag e, but the treatm ent of acorn flour s how ed moldy a fter 5 days . In the Dduk foods , the acorn application delayed m old appearances as 2 da ys com pared to thos e of cas tella food its elf. On the other hand, to find the functiona l properties of acorn food the various s olvents w ere introduced. A m ong the s olvents , w ater extracted the m os t as 27.5% com pa re to thos e of m ethanols and etha nol. By applying v acuum

concentration, the ex tra ction w as v aried as 4.7% by w ater, 3.9% by m ethanols

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and 3.4% by ethanol. T o find the antiox idative effect lard oil w as trea ted. T he effect of antiox idation up to 3 days s torage s how ed s ig nificant differences betw een the food w ith and w ithout acorn flour. w hereas there w as no s ig nificant effect on after 6 days ' s torage. A ntibiotics effect w a s not s how n to 4 va rieties of m icroorg anis m s , E .coli, B . s ubtilis , B .ty pim urium and S .aure us . T he candy added acorn ex tra cts for

m aking the functional food proved no s ignifica nt effects due to higher cos t to produce than that of other com m ercial candy. T herefore it is required to

ex tract a nd add the s ubs tances w hich repres ented the acorn' s characteris tics like flavor, tas te etc..

( 2) S u per ior v a r ie ty br ee din g

1) A s t u dy of dis t r ibu t ion a n d v eg e ta tion s tr u ct ur e T h is s ec tion s w e r e s u m m a rized to a n a ly s is pla n t com m u n ity in M t.

B a kw oon a n d M t. Ch ir i a r ea . T h e s t r uc tu r e of pla n t com m u n ity of M t . B a kw oon a n d M t. Ch ir i w er e s et u p s a m plin g m et h od, r es pe ctiv e ly . B y 95 plot s a n d 89 plot s by c lu m pe d or din a t ion, M t . B a k w oon

th e D C A

a r e com pos e d of

P inus d e ns iflor a, Q u e r cu s v ar iabilis , a n d Q . s e r r ata

c om m u n it y , it is s im ila rity in de x b et w ee n Q u e rcu s v ar iabilis a n d m ix ed s ta n ds of b roa d le a v ed t r ees w e r e m or e th a n 55% . M t.C hiri w a s P inus d e ns iflor a, m ong olica s im ila r ity Q u e r cu s a nd in dex v ar iabilis Q. s e r r ata, C ar p inus lax iflor a, it Q. is

C or nu s b et w een

cont rov e rs a c on ifer ou s

Q . m ong olica

c om m u n it y ,

a n d m ix ed s ta n ds

of b r oa d le a v ed

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t r ees w er e les s t h a n 20% .

2) A s t u dy of g en et ic r e s ou r ces a n d indiv idu a l s elec tion G en e tic r es ou r ce s im pr ov em en t is a ccom plis he d by h a v in g a popu la tion of t re es w it h g en e tic diffe re n ce a n d s it es t o w h er e s elect in g m ot he r t he g e ne tic a lly t r ees w er e des ira ble in

t r ees . T he

s u rv ey

t he

g r ow in g

n a tu r a l for es ts a n d t he w h er e t h eir g en e tic ch a r a cte r is t ics w er e dev eloped t hr ou g h n a tu r a l s elec tion . A ccor din g to th e s t a n da r d lis t of e lite t r ee

c ollect ion w e r e s ele ct ed 6 s pe cies 48 in div idu a l of F a g a ce a e w h ich is 21 in div idu a l 1s t y e a r a n d 27 in div idu a l 2n d y e a r . T he H - 6, H - 7 a n d H - 14 w e r e e x te n s ion of s hoot le ng t h . T h e w eig h t of a c orn w e r e h ea v ier S - 2,

S - 9 a n d a c or n ty pe w e re ov a t e a n d ob lon g . T h e a v er a g e w eig h t of m os t in div idu a l w e re 3.1g a n d a v e r a g e dia m e te r of a cor n w a s 20.4 m m . T he per iod of fr u it m a tu r it y w a s H - 4, J S - 1 a n d G - 1 w er e pr ecociou s s pecie s , H - 10, S - 7 a n d W H - 1 w e re in t er m edia te r ipen in g s pecies , H - 7, S - 3 a n d S S - 0 w er e la te r ipen in g s pec ies .

3) A study of vegetative reproduction and analysis of superior tree S uper ior tr e e of Q u e r cu s s ta r ch g r a ft in g w as a nd fr om w h ich produ cing it s a hig h qu a n t ity of a c orn

n a tu r a l for es t w as

and

m as s

pr opa g a t ion r a t io in

m e th od. B y of Q.

cu t tin g

s tu die d.

S ur v iv a l

g r a ftin g

acut is s im a, Q . alie na a n d Q . d e nt ata a r e 75% , 58% , 51% R oot in g r a t io in c u tt in g of s pr ou t Q. acu tis s im a, Q.

r es pe ct iv e ly . and Q.

alie na

d e ntata a r e 61% , 58% , a nd 48% r e s pect iv ely . R ooting r a t io in cu tt in g of r eju v en a tion of Q . acu tis s im a, Q . alie na a n d Q . d e ntata a r e 74% , 65% ,

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a n d 52% r es pe ctiv e ly . B y cu t tin g of r eju v en ized g r e en w ood th e root in g e fficie nc y w a s in cr ea s e d. T h e ob s e rv a tion r es u lts of Q ue r cus pollen s w it h lig h t m ic r os copy w er e a s follow s ; Observation results of Quercus(7 speeies) pollens with light microscopy were as follow : E) and pollen was monad and its size 22.75¡-31.25¡¿27.75¡-39.75§-(Min.¡-Max., P¡¿ Equatorial shape in Q. aliena, Q. serrata, Q. dentata, and Q. myrsinaefolia

were prolate, Q acutissima and Q. variabilis were prolate- spheroidal, Q. mongolica was subprolate and polar shape was semitriangular. Aperture was tricolporate or tricolporoidata. T he width of colpus was small and its surface was smooth or somewhat reticulate and margo was developed in Q. acutissima and Q. variabilis. In th e P oly m er a s e Ch a in R ea ct ion w as w ild (P CR ) R a n dom on s pp. DN A in A m plified s a m ples

P oly m e r a s e ob ta in ed

DNA (RA P D) lea f

a n a ly s is fr om

pe r for m ed Q ue rcu s

fr om

collec te d

K y eon g n a m

P r ov in c e. P C R -

D N A m a r k er s m a t b e u s ed a s a pr edic tor of s u pe rior

t r ee in fu tu r e Q u e rc u s br ee din g de v e lopm e n t. E ig ht pr im er s w er e u s ed for P C R a n d g en e ra te d a t ota l of 122 R A P D m a r ke r s . A cc ording t o th e PCR products bands of 11- 17), Q. v ariabilis Q ue rcus acutis s im a (lane 1- 10), Q . s e rrata (lane 18- 22), Q. alie na (lane 23- 27), Q ue rcus x

(lane

urticae folia (lane28) w ere detected in all s am ples .

4) M icropropagation technique in vitro

¨ç Aseptic Seedling Culture in Nut of Quercus acutissima Carr ; Experiments were conducted to establish a plantlet regeneration system for epicotyl of Quercus acutissima

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Carr.

Effects of combination and concentration of growth regulator on the regeneration Seeds, sterilized with 70%(v/v) ethyl alcohol and 20%

of epicotyl were investigated.

(v/v)NaOCl and rinsed five times with sterilized distilled water, were germinated aseptically in 400§¢ glass jar containing MS, WP agar medium at 26¡¾2¡É under 16hr,s day condition(5000lux), provided by florescent lamps, and 8hr,s dark condition.

T hroughout the study, ten explants were also cultured under these conditions on 40§¢ of MS medium was the most effective for the regeneration of shoots. WP medium containing 10¥ìM BA was best for stimulating shoot induction. T he elimination effect for contamination was 8 time that more add charcoal than absent charcoal in medium.

¨è A Study on Clonal Micropropagation in Q.. acutissima Carr. and Q. serrata T. ; T he study was performed to establish a plantlet regeneration system for branch of Quercus acutissima C. and Quercus serrata T . T he Effects of combination and concentration of growth regulators on the regeneration of shoots and roots were investigated. T he explants were cultured under conditions on 40§¢ of WP medium which was the most effective for the regeneration of shoots. Sterilization of explants had best effects under the condition of 20% sodium hypochlorite and 70% ethanol to 4 minute treatment. T he effect of explants were best in stem having leaf and petiole than stem imbeding petiole in WP medium containing 10¥ìM BA. Percentage of survival plantlet was very high under the WP medium containing charcoal than absent charcoal and represented survival 60% in Q. acutissima, 90% in Q. serrata., respectively.

¨é A Study on Growth of Plantlet Cultured By Different Species, T issue and

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Medium in clonal micropropagation of Q. acutissim a and Q. serrata ; Experiments were conducted to establish a plantlet regeneration system for Quercus acutissima C. and Q ue rcus s e rrata T . Effects of cultivar, ex plant org an, and combination and

concentration of growth regulator upon the regeneration of shoots were investigated. T hroughout the study, the explants which were also cultured under conditions of 40ml of WP medium was the most effective for the regeneration of shoots of three cultivars tested. Among the various combinations of different concentrations of the culture medium added in BA and zeatin, the regenerated shoots were transferred to WP medium containg zeatin, and resulting in multiple shoot formation. WP medium containg 10¥ì

M zeatin was best for stimulating multiple shoot formation in Q. acutissima and Q. serrata.

¨ê A Study on Auxin upon Rooting system of Plantlet by Clonal Micropropagation of Q. acutissima and Q. serrata ; A Experiments were conducted to establish a plantlet rooting system for tissue culture of Quercus acutissima C. and Quercus serrata T . Effects of cultivar and concentration of auxin hormone as IAA and NAA on the regeneration of roots were investigated. T hroughout the study, the explants, Quercus acutissim a C., were better effective for the regeneration of roots in two species tested. Among the two concentrations of auxin as IAA and NAA added in the culture medium, the generated roots were transferred to WP medium containg NAA resulting in most root induction. WP medium containg NAA 5 ¥ìM was best for root induction in Q. acutissima and Q. serrata

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A Study on CO2 Concentrations and Light Density for micropropagation of Q. acutissima and Q. serrata ; Experiments were conducted to establish a plantlet regeneration system for Quercus acutissima C. and Quercus serrata T . cultivar, CO2 concenteration and air exchange rate on the development Effects of of plantlets

were investigated. Seeds, sterilized with 70% (v/v) ethyl alcohol and 2% (v/v) NaOCl and rinsed

five times with sterilized distilled water, were germinated aseptically in 400ml glass bottles containing MS, WP agar medium at 26¡¾2¡É under a 16 hr day (5000 lux), provided by florescent lamps, and 8 hr dark regime. T hroughout the study, five explants were also cultured under these conditions on 40ml of MS medium was the most effective for the growth of shoots of three cultivars tested. Among the various combinations of 2 different concentrations of CO2(340, 1,000ppm), and air exchange rate (0.01, 1-h) in the culture condition. T he regenerated shoots were transferred to WP medium containg zeatin, resulting in multiple shoot formation. WP medium containg 10¥ìM zeatin was best for

stimulating multiple shoot formation in Q. acutissim a and Q. serrata. 1,000ppm CO2 with 1-hair exchange rate were best for development of plantlet in Q. acutissim a were more effects for fresh

and Q. serrata. 1,000ppm CO2 with 1-hair exchange rate

weight and height of plantlet in Q. acutissima and Q. serrata. ' France' of Q. serrata was rapid growth more than ' Korea' , ' German' .

( 3) Cu lt u ra l t ech n iqu e dev elopm en t

T h is pa r t of s t u dy a im s a t dev elopin g a low - cos t hig h - y ield cu lt iv a t ion t ech n iqu e to es ta blis h a m a s s - produ ct ion s y s te m of n ew ly - b r ed dom in a n t

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s pe cie s of a c or n . T h e re s u lt s of ex per im e n t a r e a s follow s .

1) W he n th e r oot a r ea a n d t h e s hoot tip a re a of to- be- tr a ns pla n t ed n u r s e ry pla n t w er e cu t pr oper ly , a nd w he n its r oot a r ea w a s dippe d in IB A 500ppm s olu tion b efore pla n t in g , its r oot- t a k in g a n d in cipie nt g r ow t h w a s g ood.

2) P r u n in g t he t r u nk len g th a n d th e m a in r oot len g t h to 20- 30cm a n d dippin g th e r oot and in IB A 500ppm s olu tion s eem s im pr ov ed the r oot s y s t em of

dis tr ib u tion

r oot- t a k in g , w h ic h

to a c cele r a t e th e g r ow th

a bov e- g r ou n d pa r t of pla n t a n d t o in cr ea s e th e nu m b er of s h oot s , r es u ltin g in a b ett er a n d m ore ec on om ic a l t r ee for m .

3) T h e t re e for m a n d g row t h ca n b e r eg u la te d by a ppr opr ia t e pr un in g a ccor din g to t he a g e of e a ch tr e e du ring t he dor m a n t per iod, a nd g ir dling fr om la t e J u n e t o ea r ly J u ly ca n in cr ea s e th e flow e r bu d n u m be r.

4) W h en t he tr e e form a n d for ce of 10- y e a r - old Q u e r cu s acu tis s im a C . a r e con tr olled b y 10k g pr u ning t og e th er w it h g ir dlin g in e a r ly J u ly , t he t r ee v ig or is c ont r olled a n d th e flow er bu ds in cr e a s e, in du cin g s t a b le fru it s et tin g .

5) A low - cos t a n d s im u lta n eou s ha r v e s t in g of a cor n s of Q ue r cus s e rr at a T H U N B E R G is pos s ib le w h en et he ph on 1000- 2000¡¿ s olut ion is s pr a y ed u pon t he w hole s u r fa ce of t r ee c a n opy a n d th e v ib ra ting h a r v es t m et h od is

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u s ed 10- 15 da y s a fte r s pr a y in g .

6) A c or n s cou ld b e s t or e d for 5 m on th s un t il e a r ly M a r ch b y s tor a g e in g r ou n d; s t or a g e h ou s e len g th en e d t he per iod t o 7 m on th s u nt il ea rly M a y , b u t th e qu a lity of a cor n s det er ior a t ed ow in g t o b u ddin g ; dr y s tor a g e a n d pee lin g dr y s tor a g e w e re m os t effe ctiv e a s a long pe riod s t or a g e m e th od.

( 4) E con om ic v a lidity of a cor n cu liv a tion T he objective of this chapter is to verify the econom ic validity of the a corn cultivation as a new crop in the agricultural and national as pect. T his s tudy is focus s ed on the analys is of the pres ent dem and & s upply s ituation,

m odeling a nd es tim ation of the dem and & s upply function, pros pect for the dem and and s upply quantities for acorn until 2010, as w ell as the economic effect of cultivating acorn. T he m ajor res ults of this s tudy are as follow ers . Domes tic production qua ntities for acorn have been decreas ed continuous ly s ince 1983. On g radually. T he the other increas ing hand, the trend of dom es tic dem and the dem and quantities m uch increas e s teeper

becam e

es pecially a fter the revealing take- off s tage of the dem and in 1991. T his has res ulted in the degree of s elf- s ufficiency for a corn from 100% in 1987 to 4.1% in 1997. T he price of the dom es tic acorn ha s been ris en until 1995, and rev ealed a declining trend on and after 1996. Im port price of acorn is far low er than the dom es tic price. T he prices of are the only im ported 9.0 and a corn 7.3% from of the China and the price,

Republic of S outh res pectiv ely.

A frica

dom es tic

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T he incom e ela s ticity of dem and for acorn is very hig h, but the elas ticities w ith res pect to its ow n price and im port price are low . T he price elas ticity of s upply for dom es tic acorn is low , but the s ubs titute price elas ticity and w ag e elas ticity a re hig her than the price elas ticity. In 2010, the dema nd qua ntities for acorn w ill increas e by 2.3 - 8.6 tim es of dem and in 1997, w hile dom es tic production quantities w ill decreas e

continuous ly. Cons equently, the s elf- s ufficiency rate w ill decreas e to 0.06% in 2010. W ithout appropriate policy to increas e dom es tic productions , nearly all of the dem and quantities for acorn w ill be entirely dependant upon the im port in the near future. T he farm product incom e of acorn per 10a, if it is cultivated as a new crop, w ill be as m uch as rice, and higher than m is cella neous grains , puls es , and s pecial crops . A lthough it w ill be les s than fruits , it w ill be 2 - 3 times hig her than ches tnut. Domes tic m arket s hare of acorn in 2010 w ill be a s much as peach and ches tnut, etc. In order to produce a ll of the domes tic dem and for acorn, 6.0- 21.9 thous and farm ers w ith 2.5ha farm land s hould grow acorn by utilizing 38.8- 142.1 % of the unus ed land. T his m ea ns that acorn cultiva tion w ould

increa s e not only the farm products income but als o the utilizing rate of the farm land. In the na tional econom ic as pect, the acorn cultivation w ill s ave the foreig n currency by reducing 0.3- 1.2 % of the total im port of ag ricultura l im port. A corn farm ing in the unus ed land w ill a ls o im prove our environm ent. In conclus ion, it is a pparent that the effect of cultivating acorn w ill be very hig h in the agricultural and national economic as pect. T herefore, it is

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im portant to im prov e production s ys tem for dom es tic acorn from g athering s ys tem to m as s production s ys tem .

2. P ropos als for applic ation of re s e arc h re s ults

(1) Dev elopm ent of acorn as a food

1) P eeling m ethod of acorn If it could be developed layer is to a thin layer than for controlling layer in ultra high

tem perature, thin pres ently.

more effectively

thin

us ed farm

2) P hys ical a nd chem ical properties of acorn If acorn flav or could be ex tra cted, it is able to developed acorn foods contained acorn flavor.

3) K neading characteris tics and developm ent of proces s ed food If it can be w inned H ealth- S ocial A ffair recognition, it could be dev eloped ca s tella and noodle get m ore fancy and functiona l quality than other foods . If it could be developed U DONG and drink, acorn is able to the econom ic plants and follow ing effectivity and econom ic incom e is m ore exa cellant than ches tnut.

4) P res ervation and function Com pa red w ith non added products , added products w as better during

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s torage.

A ntiox idativ e activ ity and health- function w ere better than others , it

is enough to developed the funtional foods and natural antiox idative reag ents .

(2) S uperior variety breeding

1) Dis tribution, veg etation, and collection and analys is of g enetic res ources

F or the acorn cultivation a s an econom ical crop, the s urvey data m us t be collected and accum ulated on each colony of the natural oak fores ts of s outhern K orea the v egetation of w hich is being changed to oak fores ts . S ince varia tion by cros s fertilization occurs , s election s hould be carried out continuous ly to pres erve s uperior s pecies .

2) M a s s - propag ation technique of s uperior s pecies

T o clarify the picking point, tim e and m ethod of external gonophore for the tis s ue culture of oak tree, and to s ys tem atize the m ethods of ex ternal

g onophore treatm ent, pas teuris m , culture ground preparation and acclim atization of tis s ue- cultured plantlet are neces s ary collection and clone m ultiplication. for efficiency of s uperior s pecies

(3) Cultural technique development

T he s table production of acorns w ill be pos s ible by planting each s elected elite s pecies in w ell- s elected ground, by controlling the tree force throug h

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pruning , a nd by s table fruit s etting through g irdling . S o the land for acorn cultivation s hould be ex panded all ov er the country.

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Conte nts
Chapte r 1. Introduc tion
S ect ion 1. Objectives and Importance of Reserch and Development S ect ion 2. Content and Scope of this Reserch and Development 37 37 39

Chapte r 2. De v e lopm ent of A c orn as a Food
S ect ion 1. Introduction S ect ion 2. Peeling Method of Acorn S ect ion 3. Phys ical and Chemical Properties of A corn S ect ion 4. F lour Products S ect ion 5. Kneading Characteris tics and Acorn F ood S ect ion 6. Pres erv ation and F unction of Acorn F oods S ect ion 7. Conclus ions

42 42 43 44 46 54 64 72

Chapte r 3. S uperior V arie ty B ree ding
S ect ion 1. Introduction S ect ion 2. Dis tribution and Veg etation S tructure S ect ion 3. Genetic Res ources and Indiv idual S election S ect ion 4. Vegetative Propagation and Analys is of Superior T ree S ect ion 5. Micropropag at ion T echnique in vitro S ect ion 6. Conclus ions

82 82 83 101 107 129 172

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